Chapter 7 Intellectual and Cognitive Functioning: Intelligence Testing and Neuropsychological Assessment
Introduction <ul><li>We will examine how our cognitive processes function </li></ul><ul><li>Two aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul...
Brief History of Intelligence Testing <ul><ul><li>First test: pioneered by Alfred Binet and Theophile Simon </li></ul></ul...
Definition of Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Intelligence testing: A subset of intellectual and cognitive functioning that a...
Models of Intelligence <ul><li>Edward Spearman’s (1863-1945)  two-factor approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General factor (g...
Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>Thurstone’s Multifactor Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven primary mental abilit...
Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>Vernon’s Hierarchal Model of Intelligence  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vernon’s top leve...
Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>Guilford’s Multifactor/Multi-dimensional Model  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three-dimens...
Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>Cattell’s Fluid and Crystal Intelligence  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid g f  intelli...
Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental model. ...
Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on resear...
Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>SEE TABLE 7.1 TO COMPARE ALL THE MODELS (p. 147) </li></ul>
Intelligence Testing <ul><li>To some degree, theories of intelligence are the basis for intelligence tests.   </li></ul><u...
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test <ul><li>Dates back to original work of Binet in 1904. </li></ul><ul><li>Takes 45 to 60 mi...
Stanford-Binet (Cont’d) <ul><li>Discrepancies between verbal and nonverbal scores can be an indication of a learning disab...
Weschler Scales of Intelligence <ul><li>WAIS-IV (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) 16–90. </li></ul><ul><li>WISC-IV (Wech...
The WISC-IV  (as an example of all Wechsler Tests) <ul><li>C ontains 15 subtests  (see Table 7.3), p. 152 </li></ul><ul><l...
WISC-IV (Cont’d) <ul><li>Uses Mean of 100, SD of 15 for FSIQ </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Mean of 10, SD of 3 for subscales </li...
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children  <ul><li>Individually administered test of cognitive ability for ages 3 to 18. </l...
Nonverbal Intelligence Tests <ul><li>Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6.0 throug...
Nonverbal Intelligence Tests <ul><li>The Universal Intelligence Test (UNIT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ages 5-17 </li></ul></ul...
A Brief History of  Neuropsychological Assessment <ul><li>Observations of behavioral changes following head injuries found...
Defining Neuropsychological Assessment <ul><li>As a diagnostic tool used to identify the root of a condition and the exten...
Methods of Neuropsychological Assessment <ul><li>Fixed Battery Approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves the rigid and stan...
Methods of Neuropsychological Assessment <ul><li>Halsted-Reitan Battery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in 1950s by Halste...
Methods of Neuropsychological Assessment <ul><li>Flexible Battery Approach and the Boston Process Approach (BPA) </li></ul...
The Role of Helpers in the Assessment  of Intelligence and Cognitive Functioning <ul><li>The assessment of intelligence an...
  Final Thoughts on The Assessment of Intellectual and Cognitive Functioning <ul><li>Abuse of intelligence testing and cog...
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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

  1. 1. Chapter 7 Intellectual and Cognitive Functioning: Intelligence Testing and Neuropsychological Assessment
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>We will examine how our cognitive processes function </li></ul><ul><li>Two aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual Functioning and Intelligence Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuropsychological Assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in Brain Function </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Brief History of Intelligence Testing <ul><ul><li>First test: pioneered by Alfred Binet and Theophile Simon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revised by Lewis Terman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over years, many new models of intelligence defined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many new intelligence tests created based on the models </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Definition of Intelligence Testing <ul><li>Intelligence testing: A subset of intellectual and cognitive functioning that assesses a broad range of cognitive capabilities that generally results in an IQ. </li></ul><ul><li>Purposes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To assist in determining giftedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess mental retardation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To identify certain types of learning disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess intellectual ability following an accident, the onset of dementia, substance abuse, disease processes, and trauma to the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As part of admissions process to certain private schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As part of a personality assessment battery to aid in understanding the whole </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Models of Intelligence <ul><li>Edward Spearman’s (1863-1945) two-factor approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General factor (g) and specific factor(s). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Weight” of g varied as a function of what was being measured. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g., ratio of general intelligence (g) to specific talent for music (s) was 1 to 4. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>Thurstone’s Multifactor Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seven primary mental abilities: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>verbal meaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>number ability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>word fluency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>perception speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spatial ability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reasoning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>memory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>Vernon’s Hierarchal Model of Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vernon’s top level is like Spearman’s (g) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second level has: “v:ed” for verbal and educational abilities, and “k:m” which represents mechanical-spatial-practical abilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third level is comprised of minor group factors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth level is made of specific factors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Figure 7.1, p. 143 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>Guilford’s Multifactor/Multi-dimensional Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three-dimensional model of cognitive ability: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>operations , or the general intellectual processes we use in understanding, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contents , or what we use to perform our thinking process, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>product , how we apply our operations to our content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Figure 7.2, p. 143 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>Cattell’s Fluid and Crystal Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid g f intelligence: The culturally free portion of intelligence with which we are innately born. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence (g c ): Acquired as we learn, and affected by our experiences, schooling, culture, and motivation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence generally increase with age and fluid intelligence tends to slightly decline as we age. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Figure 7.3, p. 144 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental model. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two major concepts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation: incorporating new stimuli or information into existing cognitive structures . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodation: creating new cognitive structures and/or behaviors from new stimuli. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on research of brain-damaged individuals, and literature on the brain, evolution, genetics, psychology and anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nine identified intelligences: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Verbal-Linguistic 6. Interpersonal Intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Mathematical-Logical 7. Intrapersonal Intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Musical 8. Naturalist </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Visual-Spatial 9. Existential Intelligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Bodily-Kinesthetic (not yet confirmed) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Says all humans have different amounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory is revolutionary, not mainstream. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Models of Intelligence (Cont’d) <ul><li>SEE TABLE 7.1 TO COMPARE ALL THE MODELS (p. 147) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Intelligence Testing <ul><li>To some degree, theories of intelligence are the basis for intelligence tests. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional intelligence tests measure intelligence based on traditional constructs (e.g., “g” and “s”) as opposed to Gardner’s model. </li></ul><ul><li>Most prominent intelligence tests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stanford-Binet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The three Wechsler Scales of Intelligence </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test <ul><li>Dates back to original work of Binet in 1904. </li></ul><ul><li>Takes 45 to 60 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Ages 2 to 90+ year olds. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses routing test, to help determine basal age. Then uses ceiling age. </li></ul><ul><li>Measures verbal and nonverbal intelligence across five factors: fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Yields a Full Scale IQ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See Table 7.2, p. 149 </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Stanford-Binet (Cont’d) <ul><li>Discrepancies between verbal and nonverbal scores can be an indication of a learning disability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability: For Full-Scale IQ = .97 - .98. </li></ul><ul><li>Correlates highly with other intelligence tests. </li></ul><ul><li>SB5 uses SD of 15, M = 100. </li></ul><ul><li>See Profile Sheet, Fig. 7.4, p. 150 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Weschler Scales of Intelligence <ul><li>WAIS-IV (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) 16–90. </li></ul><ul><li>WISC-IV (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) 6–16. </li></ul><ul><li>WPPSI-III (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence), 2.6 - 7yrs. and 3 months. </li></ul><ul><li>Similar tests: Downward extensions of each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful in assessing general cognitive functioning, mental retardation, giftedness, and learning problems </li></ul>
  17. 17. The WISC-IV (as an example of all Wechsler Tests) <ul><li>C ontains 15 subtests (see Table 7.3), p. 152 </li></ul><ul><li>The 15 subtests provide a Full Scale IQ and four additional composite score indexes (see Table 7.4, p. 153): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing Speed Index (PSI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Memory Index (WMI) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. WISC-IV (Cont’d) <ul><li>Uses Mean of 100, SD of 15 for FSIQ </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Mean of 10, SD of 3 for subscales </li></ul><ul><li>See Profile: Fig. 7.5, p. 153 </li></ul>
  19. 19. Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children <ul><li>Individually administered test of cognitive ability for ages 3 to 18. </li></ul><ul><li>Subtests and scoring allows for a choice, which one option is Cattell’s model of fluid and crystallized intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Examines visual processing, fluid reasoning, and short-term and long-term memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Mean of 100, SD of 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Good reliability and validity. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Nonverbal Intelligence Tests <ul><li>Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6.0 through 18 and 11 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six subtests: pictorial analogies, geometric analogies, pictorial categories, geometric categories, pictorial sequences, geometric sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criterion validity not impressive (only correlates with two subtest of WISC-III </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Nonverbal Intelligence Tests <ul><li>The Universal Intelligence Test (UNIT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ages 5-17 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six subtests: symbolic memory, cube design, spatial memory, analogic reasoning, object memory, and reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicts fairly well with WISC-III </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicts moderately with Woodcock Johnson-Revised broad knowledge scale </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. A Brief History of Neuropsychological Assessment <ul><li>Observations of behavioral changes following head injuries found in 5,000 year-old Egyptian medical documents </li></ul><ul><li>WWI: Interest in brain trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1950s: Saw that same type of brain injury could affect people differently </li></ul><ul><li>More recently: imaging devices add to our knowledge base </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment still is important, though: helps us understand “brain-behavior” relationships </li></ul>
  23. 23. Defining Neuropsychological Assessment <ul><li>As a diagnostic tool used to identify the root of a condition and the extent of the brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>To measure change in an individual’s functioning (e.g., cognitive ability, movement, reaction time) </li></ul><ul><li>To compare changes in cognitive or functional status to others within the normative sample </li></ul><ul><li>To provide specific rehabilitation treatment and planning guidelines for individuals and families </li></ul><ul><li>To provide specific guidelines for educational planning in the schools </li></ul>
  24. 24. Methods of Neuropsychological Assessment <ul><li>Fixed Battery Approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves the rigid and standardized administration of a uniform group of instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All individuals needing assessment get same set of tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two common tests: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Halsteid-Reitan Battery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Methods of Neuropsychological Assessment <ul><li>Halsted-Reitan Battery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed in 1950s by Halstead modified by his grad student Reitan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two children versions exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides cutoff scores or index of impairment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discriminates brain-damaged from “normals” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes 5-6 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eight core tests (see p. 158-159) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, test does not adequately provide psychometric information regarding validity, reliability, and norming </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Methods of Neuropsychological Assessment <ul><li>Flexible Battery Approach and the Boston Process Approach (BPA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of test dictated by referral questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinicians will utilize different tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BPA requires observation of test-taker during test administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong emphasis on qualitative information (how test-taker answers questions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This approach criticized because of their limited psychometric data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often not used in court because it is “unscientific” </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. The Role of Helpers in the Assessment of Intelligence and Cognitive Functioning <ul><li>The assessment of intelligence and neurological impairment often given in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School psychology programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctoral programs in counseling, clinical, and clinical neuropsychology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others can obtain training, usually through workshops or courses on their own </li></ul><ul><li>With such training, individuals can provide a large array of services </li></ul><ul><li>Those who do not have such training, should know some basis so they know when to refer </li></ul>
  28. 28. Final Thoughts on The Assessment of Intellectual and Cognitive Functioning <ul><li>Abuse of intelligence testing and cognitive functioning has occurred: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to maintain status quo (e.g., brighter people are better than those who have musical ability). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Miscalculation intelligence of minorities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over-classification of individuals who are learning disabled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misguided tool to defend racial differences of ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Means to differentiate social classes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thus, conclusions should be done knowing carefully and wisely knowing the “whole person” as well as the societal issues that are involved </li></ul>

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