Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
1
Motivation & Emotion
Dr James Neill
Centre for Applied Psychology
University of Canberra
2016
Image source
Individual em...
2
Individual
emotions
Reading:
Reeve (2015)
Ch 14
(pp. 404-428)
20 emotions in three sections:
• Basic emotions (7)
• Self...
3
Outline – Individual emotions
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 404)
Basic
 Anger
 Disgust
 Contempt
 Sadness
 Joy
 Interes...
4
Basic emotions
5
Basic emotions
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 406-414)
Basic emotions
Fear Anger Disgust
Sad-
ness
Interest Joy
potential
of ...
6
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AActress-fear-and-panic.jpg
7
Fear
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 406)
1. Arises from interpretation that the situation is
dangerous, i.e.:
1. Situational t...
8
Allies of fear
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 407)
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: long-term
trauma arising from experience of...
9
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Angry_woman.jpg
10
Anger
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 407-408)
1. Caused by obstacles in goal pursuit: Perceived
illegitimate restraint or be...
11
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/iamagenious/2490996809
12
Disgust
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 408-410)
1. Disgust’s primitive function is to prevent
consumption of offensive subst...
13
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PSM_V36_D704_Facial_expression_of_con...
14
Contempt
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 410)
1. Contempt arises from a sense of being morally
superior to another person.
2. ...
15
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sad_girl_cropped.jpg
16
Sadness
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 410-411)
1. Most negative emotion, arising from experiences
of separation or failure....
17
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interest.jpg
18
Interest
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 412-413)
1. Creates urge to explore, investigate, seek,
manipulate and extract info ...
19Image source: https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/File:Happiness_cropped.jpg
Which emotion is displayed?
20
Joy
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 411-412)
1. Joy is a positive feeling that makes life pleasant
and balances negative affe...
21
Self-conscious
emotions
22
Self-conscious emotions
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 414-418)
Self-conscious
emotions
Shame Guilt
Embar-
rasment
Pride Tri...
23Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Taunting_0001_cropped.jpg
Which emotion is displayed?
24
Shame
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 414-415)
 Powerful; associated with inferiority,
worthlessness, and a damaged self-ima...
25
Shame
Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 14.1 Duel motivational model of shame, p. 415)
Shame
Protect
the self
Restore
the se...
26Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Daddy,_what_did_You_do_in_the_Great_War_cropped.jpg
Which emotion ...
27
Guilt
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 415-416)
 Arises after the person evaluates his/her
behaviour as a failure. Signals th...
28
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Embarrassed_woman.jpg
29
Embarrassment
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 416-417)
 Signals that “something is amiss” and that
some aspects of the self ...
30
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US_Navy_061224-N-9909C-009_A_proud_fa...
31
Pride
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 417-418)
 Positive aspect: Arises from one’s success
and promotes:
 Achievement behav...
32
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Triumphant_newlyweds.jpg
33
Triumph
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 418)
 Emotional reaction that follows victory in a
competitive situation.
 Signals d...
34
Cognitively
complex
emotions
35
Cognitive complex emotions
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 418-426)
Cognitively
complex
emotions
Envy
Grati-
tude
Disap
point...
36
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Subtle_envy.jpg
37
Envy
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 412-413)
 A painful emotion caused by the good
fortune of others
 Benign envy: aims at...
38
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wikimania_Volunteers_Gratitude_Meetup...
39
Gratitude
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 412-413)
 Gratitude is a positive emotion towards a
person upon receiving somethin...
40
Gratitude
Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 14.2 Sequence of relation-based events in
gratitude versus indebtedness
Giver's ...
41
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1868_Renoir_Summer_anagoria_cropped.j...
42
Disappointment
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 412-413)
 Arrives when comparing the
outcome one received versus a
better out...
43
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/File:Regret_cropped.jpg
44
Regret
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 412-413)
 Arises with the non-occurrence of
a desired outcome caused by a
wrong behav...
45
Different consequences of
disappointment versus regret
Based on Reeve (2015, Table 14.2, p. 423)
Disappointment Regret
...
46
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hopeful_Face.jpg
47
Hope
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 423)
 Hope arises with a wish that a
desired goal will be attained.
 Hope is rooted in ...
48
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Smug_face_cropped.jpg
49
Schadenfreude
Based on Reeve (2015, p. 423)
 Entails taking pleasure in the
misfortune.
 Typically arises when the ot...
50
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source:
51
Empathy
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 423-426)
 Involves feeling what another person feels
and has two principle anteceden...
52
Which emotion is displayed?
Image source:
53
Compassion
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 412-413)
 A positive emotion when it
connotes caring and when the
focus is on the...
54
Summary: Basic (7)
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 426-427)
 Fear: Motivates self-protection in face of perceived danger or
...
55
Summary: Self-conscious (5)
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 426-427)
 Shame: Violation of Violations of moral and competency...
56
Summary: Complex (8)
Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 427)
 Envy: Arises from others' good fortune; Benign and Malicious
 Gr...
57
 Individual differences
Unconscious motivation (Ch 14)
Growth psychology (Ch 15)
 Summary & conclusion (Ch 16)
Upco...
58
References
 Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation
and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
 Reeve, J. (2015). ...
59
Open Office Impress
 This presentation was made using
Open Office Impress.
 Free and open source software.
 http://w...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Individual emotions

1,965 views

Published on

This lecture examines 20 individual emotions (7 basic emotions, 5 self-conscious emotions, and 8 cognitively complex emotions). More details: https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion/Lectures/Individual_emotions

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Individual emotions

  1. 1. 1 Motivation & Emotion Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2016 Image source Individual emotions
  2. 2. 2 Individual emotions Reading: Reeve (2015) Ch 14 (pp. 404-428) 20 emotions in three sections: • Basic emotions (7) • Self-conscious emotions (5) • Cognitively complex emotions (8)
  3. 3. 3 Outline – Individual emotions Based on Reeve (2015, p. 404) Basic  Anger  Disgust  Contempt  Sadness  Joy  Interest Basic  Anger  Disgust  Contempt  Sadness  Joy  Interest Cognitively complex  Envy  Gratitude  Disappointment  Regret  Hope  Schadenfreude  Empathy  Compassion Cognitively complex  Envy  Gratitude  Disappointment  Regret  Hope  Schadenfreude  Empathy  Compassion Self-conscious  Shame  Guilt  Embarrassment  Pride  Triumph Self-conscious  Shame  Guilt  Embarrassment  Pride  Triumph
  4. 4. 4 Basic emotions
  5. 5. 5 Basic emotions Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 406-414) Basic emotions Fear Anger Disgust Sad- ness Interest Joy potential of threat and harm fighting off threat and harm rejecting threat and harm after loss or separ- ation motive involve- ment satis- faction Cont- empt feeling of super- iority
  6. 6. 6 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AActress-fear-and-panic.jpg
  7. 7. 7 Fear Based on Reeve (2015, p. 406) 1. Arises from interpretation that the situation is dangerous, i.e.: 1. Situational threat (esp. threat of physical or psychological harm) 2. Perceived vulnerability (perception that one can do little to cope) 2. Trembling, perspiring, looking around, etc. 3. Serves as a warning signal and motivates defense (flight or freeze) 4. Supports learning new coping skills
  8. 8. 8 Allies of fear Based on Reeve (2015, p. 407) Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: long-term trauma arising from experience of extreme danger; elicits intense fear Phobias: fears of specific situations, events, bodily injury, animals, and places. Anxiety: does not have a identifiable threat but creates a state of arousal and tension.
  9. 9. 9 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Angry_woman.jpg
  10. 10. 10 Anger Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 407-408) 1. Caused by obstacles in goal pursuit: Perceived illegitimate restraint or betrayal of trust, rejection, unwanted criticism, lack of consideration by others, or cumulative annoyances. 2. Key function: Motivation to overcome obstacles by asserting and keeping control. 3. The most passionate emotion - energises, strengthens, fight/flight, increases sense of control. 4. People who express anger generally get more respect and status following a wrong. 5. Can motivate change for the better but can also lead to aggression and damage.
  11. 11. 11 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/iamagenious/2490996809
  12. 12. 12 Disgust Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 408-410) 1. Disgust’s primitive function is to prevent consumption of offensive substances. 2. Disgust motivates us to get rid or get away from contaminated or spoiled objects. 3. Domains: Food, bodily waste, animals, sexual behaviors, poor hygiene, contact with death or corpses, violations of the exterior body (gore, deformity), poor hygiene, contact with unsavory people, and moral offenses (e.g., child abuse, incest, infidelity).  Object of disgust depends on learning and culture - infants only show disgust for bitter or sour taste  Motivates positive coping behaviours to prevent or avoid contamination sources.
  13. 13. 13 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PSM_V36_D704_Facial_expression_of_contempt.jpg
  14. 14. 14 Contempt Based on Reeve (2015, p. 410) 1. Contempt arises from a sense of being morally superior to another person. 2. Contempt is an inherently social emotion, because it occurs only during social interactions. 3. The function of contempt is to maintain the social hierarchy. 4. Contempt signals one’s dominance and superiority over another.
  15. 15. 15 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sad_girl_cropped.jpg
  16. 16. 16 Sadness Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 410-411) 1. Most negative emotion, arising from experiences of separation or failure. 2. Turns attention inward, promoting personal reflection. 3. Motivates behaviour to alleviate distressful circumstances. 4. Indirectly facilitates social cohesiveness (to prevent separation). 5. Combined with rumination, may lead to depression which impairs problem solving, distracts attention, stimulates negative thinking, and erodes social supports.
  17. 17. 17 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interest.jpg
  18. 18. 18 Interest Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 412-413) 1. Creates urge to explore, investigate, seek, manipulate and extract info from objects around us. 2. Most prevalent emotion in day-to-day functioning. 3. Motivates environmental engagement and promotes learning, skill development, knowledge acquisition and achievement. 4. Replenishes personal resources. When people engage in a learning task with the motivational support of interest, they often experience a vitality that energises further engagement.
  19. 19. 19Image source: https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/File:Happiness_cropped.jpg Which emotion is displayed?
  20. 20. 20 Joy Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 411-412) 1. Joy is a positive feeling that makes life pleasant and balances negative affect. 2. Arises from experiencing desirable outcomes (e.g., task success, achievement, getting what we want, pleasant surprise) 3. Creates urge to play and be creative; energises, enthuses, makes optimistic, increases willingness to engage in tasks and relationships 4. Also “soothes” → creates pleasant well-being which helps to dissipate distress
  21. 21. 21 Self-conscious emotions
  22. 22. 22 Self-conscious emotions Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 414-418) Self-conscious emotions Shame Guilt Embar- rasment Pride Triumph publicly damaged self-image self- evaluation of failure social blunder after success after compet- itive victory
  23. 23. 23Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Taunting_0001_cropped.jpg Which emotion is displayed?
  24. 24. 24 Shame Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 414-415)  Powerful; associated with inferiority, worthlessness, and a damaged self-image.  Function: To provide immediate feedback about how well one’s self stands up to moral and performance-based standards.  Arises after the violation of standards associated with morality and competent functioning.  Moral and performance failures signal that something is wrong with the self.
  25. 25. 25 Shame Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 14.1 Duel motivational model of shame, p. 415) Shame Protect the self Restore the self Approach: Take actionIf situation is socially safe If situation is socially risky Avoidance: Withdrawal
  26. 26. 26Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Daddy,_what_did_You_do_in_the_Great_War_cropped.jpg Which emotion is displayed?
  27. 27. 27 Guilt Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 415-416)  Arises after the person evaluates his/her behaviour as a failure. Signals that one’s behaviour has caused harm, loss, or distress to a relationship partner.  Focus is on the worth of the self’s behaviours and actions and what can be done to undo the harm.  Guilt-generated behaviors often involve making amends and apologising to undo the distressing consequences of the behaviour.
  28. 28. 28 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Embarrassed_woman.jpg
  29. 29. 29 Embarrassment Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 416-417)  Signals that “something is amiss” and that some aspects of the self need to be hidden or carefully self-monitored.  Can occur:  after a social blunder that is committed in front of an audience, suggesting some deficiency.  during positive social situations such as being congratulated.  Functions to appease the audience by taking action to repair the negative self- impression.
  30. 30. 30 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:US_Navy_061224-N-9909C-009_A_proud_father_and_Sailor_from_the_destroyer_USS_Halsey_(DDG_97)_holds_his_child_for_the_first_time.jpg
  31. 31. 31 Pride Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 417-418)  Positive aspect: Arises from one’s success and promotes:  Achievement behaviour  Authentic and heartfelt self-esteem  Prosocial behaviours such as volunteering and altruism.  Negative aspect: Associated with narcissism and contributes to:  Aggression  Relationship conflict  Antisocial behaviour such as manipulating others.
  32. 32. 32 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Triumphant_newlyweds.jpg
  33. 33. 33 Triumph Based on Reeve (2015, p. 418)  Emotional reaction that follows victory in a competitive situation.  Signals dominance and social power over the defeated.
  34. 34. 34 Cognitively complex emotions
  35. 35. 35 Cognitive complex emotions Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 418-426) Cognitively complex emotions Envy Grati- tude Disap point ment Regret Hope Scha- den- freude Em- pathy Comp- assion
  36. 36. 36 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Subtle_envy.jpg
  37. 37. 37 Envy Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 412-413)  A painful emotion caused by the good fortune of others  Benign envy: aims at improving one’s position and leads to constructive behaviour aimed at moving up to the superior position held by the envied person.  Malicious envy: aims at improving one’s position by pulling down the envied person and leads to destructive behaviour.
  38. 38. 38 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Wikimania_Volunteers_Gratitude_Meetup_P1050338.JPG
  39. 39. 39 Gratitude Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 412-413)  Gratitude is a positive emotion towards a person upon receiving something of value through their generosity and prosocial behaviour.  Facilitates “communal relationships”.  However, acts of kindness can lead to a focus on what was received, leading to indebtedness which motivates reciprocity and contributes to “exchange relationships”
  40. 40. 40 Gratitude Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 14.2 Sequence of relation-based events in gratitude versus indebtedness Giver's act of kindness Kindness → Gratitude Benefit → Indebted- ness Builds a communal relationship Perceived care Builds an exchange relationship Reciprocity motivation
  41. 41. 41 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1868_Renoir_Summer_anagoria_cropped.jpg
  42. 42. 42 Disappointment Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 412-413)  Arrives when comparing the outcome one received versus a better outcome that might have resulted from the same action.  Example: I anticipated getting the job, but did not.
  43. 43. 43 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/File:Regret_cropped.jpg
  44. 44. 44 Regret Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 412-413)  Arises with the non-occurrence of a desired outcome caused by a wrong behavior or bad choice.  Example: I didn’t study for the test and now I regret it.
  45. 45. 45 Different consequences of disappointment versus regret Based on Reeve (2015, Table 14.2, p. 423) Disappointment Regret Feelings I feel powerless. Moderate dislike of the outcome. I should have known better. Strong dislike for the outcome. Thoughts My expectancy was disconfirmed. I made a mistake. Motivation There is nothing I want to do. I want a second chance. I want to undo what happened. Action Tendency There is nothing I want to do. I want to correct my mistake.
  46. 46. 46 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hopeful_Face.jpg
  47. 47. 47 Hope Based on Reeve (2015, p. 423)  Hope arises with a wish that a desired goal will be attained.  Hope is rooted in the desire to attain some attractive goal.
  48. 48. 48 Which emotion is displayed? Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Smug_face_cropped.jpg
  49. 49. 49 Schadenfreude Based on Reeve (2015, p. 423)  Entails taking pleasure in the misfortune.  Typically arises when the other person is disliked, envied or resented.
  50. 50. 50 Which emotion is displayed? Image source:
  51. 51. 51 Empathy Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 423-426)  Involves feeling what another person feels and has two principle antecedents:  Mimicry: one’s own facial expressions, voice tone and posture matches the other person.  Perspective-taking: one imagines one's self in another’s place.  An experience of empathy heightens the perceptions of closeness toward the other and creates an approach-based prosocial motivational orientation.
  52. 52. 52 Which emotion is displayed? Image source:
  53. 53. 53 Compassion Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 412-413)  A positive emotion when it connotes caring and when the focus is on the another who is suffering.  A negative emotion when it is tightly paired with distress and suffering and when the individual focuses on that personal distress.
  54. 54. 54 Summary: Basic (7) Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 426-427)  Fear: Motivates self-protection in face of perceived danger or threat  Anger: Engerises one to overcome obstacle in goal pursuit  Disgust: Repulsion against contaminated object  Contempt: Feeling of moral superiority to maintain social order  Sadness: Self-reflection following loss or separation  Joy: Pleasure from desirable outcomes; motivates interaction and goal striving  Interest: Curiousity which replenishes and motivates exploration, engagement and learning.  Fear: Motivates self-protection in face of perceived danger or threat  Anger: Engerises one to overcome obstacle in goal pursuit  Disgust: Repulsion against contaminated object  Contempt: Feeling of moral superiority to maintain social order  Sadness: Self-reflection following loss or separation  Joy: Pleasure from desirable outcomes; motivates interaction and goal striving  Interest: Curiousity which replenishes and motivates exploration, engagement and learning.
  55. 55. 55 Summary: Self-conscious (5) Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 426-427)  Shame: Violation of Violations of moral and competency standards  Guilt: Realisation that one's behaviour caused, with desire to repair  Embarrassment: Social blunder indicates something amiss with the self  Pride: Arises from success; Authentic pride and Hubristic pride  Triumph: Reaction to competitive victory; self-expression and dominance over another  Shame: Violation of Violations of moral and competency standards  Guilt: Realisation that one's behaviour caused, with desire to repair  Embarrassment: Social blunder indicates something amiss with the self  Pride: Arises from success; Authentic pride and Hubristic pride  Triumph: Reaction to competitive victory; self-expression and dominance over another
  56. 56. 56 Summary: Complex (8) Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 427)  Envy: Arises from others' good fortune; Benign and Malicious  Gratitude: Arises from receiving a gift from another; can lead to communal or exchange relations  Disappointment: Non-occurrence of positive outcome: Leads to resignation and inertia  Regret: Non-occurrence of positive outcome: Motivates making different decisions in future  Hope: Wish that a desired goal be obtained; motivates persistence  Schadenfreude: Pleasure at the misfortune of others  Empathy: Feeling emotions of another; arises from mimicry and perspective-taking  Compassion: Arises from other's suffering (negative) or overcoming suffering (positive)  Envy: Arises from others' good fortune; Benign and Malicious  Gratitude: Arises from receiving a gift from another; can lead to communal or exchange relations  Disappointment: Non-occurrence of positive outcome: Leads to resignation and inertia  Regret: Non-occurrence of positive outcome: Motivates making different decisions in future  Hope: Wish that a desired goal be obtained; motivates persistence  Schadenfreude: Pleasure at the misfortune of others  Empathy: Feeling emotions of another; arises from mimicry and perspective-taking  Compassion: Arises from other's suffering (negative) or overcoming suffering (positive)
  57. 57. 57  Individual differences Unconscious motivation (Ch 14) Growth psychology (Ch 15)  Summary & conclusion (Ch 16) Upcoming lectures
  58. 58. 58 References  Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Note: Image credits are in the slide notes
  59. 59. 59 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html

×