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Cell organelles

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  • 1. Cell Organelles
    • By:
    • Karyn
    • Ferguson
  • 2. CYTOPLASM
    • Gel-like aqueous substances that contains all cell components
    • Cytoplasm has three main functions, energy, storage, and manufacturing
  • 3. CELL (PLASMA) MEMBRANE
    • Function:
    • allows exchange of small molecules from one side of the membrane to the other and is – SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE
    • Prevents outside interference
  • 4. CYTOSKELETON
    • General: Maintaining cell shape and size. Help with movement of organelles inside cell
    • Microfilament:
      • Aid in cellular movement and contraction (muscle)
    • Microtubule
      • Assist in cell division (centrioles)
  • 5. THE NUCLEUS
    • The nucleus stores and processes genetic information in the form of DNA and RNA.
    • The nuclear envelope separates the nucleus from outside intrusions.
    • Nuclear pores transport of information
    • Nucleolus housed in nucleus and produces ribosomes
  • 6. MITOCHONDRIA
    • Within the cytoplasm of the cell
    • The cell ’s “ Power House ”
    • Site for CELLULAR RESPIRATION and generates fuel for the cell's activities in the form of ATP
    • They convert energy into forms that are usable by the cell.
  • 7. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
    • Pathway of membranes or tubules around the cell – TRANSPORT SYSTEM
    • Rough E.R .: synthesizes or makes proteins b/c of ribosomes – will be transported to golgi apparatus
    • Smooth E.R .: manufactures steroids
  • 8. RIBOSOME – The Laborer
    • Function:
    • Produces and assembles proteins by bringing RNA and amino acids together.
    • - produced in nucleolus and embedded on rough E.R
  • 9. GOLGI APPARATUS
    • Golgi apparatus is essentially a protein “Packaging Plant”
    • Manufactures, packages and transports proteins and other molecules
      • Works with E.R. in altering or modifying proteins for export
  • 10. Transport of Proteins
  • 11. Animal Cell vs. Plant
    • Generalized Animal Cell
      • Lysosome
    • Generalize Plant Cell
      • Cell Wall
      • Vacuole
      • Chloroplast
  • 12. LYSOSOME
    • Located throughout cytoplasm
    • “ Suicide bags” – Contains digestive enzymes that break down or digest macromolecules, old organelles, viruses and bacteria that are unwanted by the cell
  • 13. CELL WALL
    • Surrounds outside of plant cells
    • Composed of long strands of the polysaccharide, cellulose
      • Helps keep plant cells rigid
    • Functions:
    • to protect the cell against injury and invasion from harmful materials.
    • Provides cellular support
  • 14. CHLOROPLAST
    • Flattened membranous sac found in cytoplasm of plant cells
    • Chloroplast
      • Site for PHOTOSYNTHESIS where plants use CO 2 , water and sunlight to produce energy in the form of glucose
      • Contain the light-sensitive pigments, called chlorophyll a.
  • 15. CENTRAL VACUOLE
    • Plant: Central location of cell (most typical) 90%
    • Functions in storage, digestion and releasing of waste products
    • Types:
      • STORAGE : ions, molecules, water