E Equine Orientation R H


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  • A horse will move away from ‘aggravation’—whether that’s tactile pressure against the skin, traction on a lead rope, or the nipping behavior of the ‘lead horse’. You cannot teach a horse to follow by pulling on his head. However, horses lean into pressure. If a horse leans against another, the other horse will lean back into him rather than moving away.
  • Horse has 2 panoramic fields of view. He can look at several things at once—on different sides of his body. Handlers need to be aware of what horse is looking at. It is not necessarily the same thing the handler is looking at.
  • Dramatic or frequent changes of a person’s scent (i.e. cologne, aftershave, and perfume) can be very unnerving to some horses—particularly stallions whose olfactory senses are critical to reproductive behavior.
  • Left side handling tradition originated when all persons were made to be right handed. (Left handed people were thought to be children of the devil) The weapon for a right handed person would be carried on the left hip thus making it physically very difficult to throw the left leg over a horse.
  • E Equine Orientation R H

    1. 1. But I’m only going to do small animal work….
    2. 2. But I’m only going to do small animal work….
    3. 3. But I’m only going to do small animal work….
    4. 4. You may not plan to do it. But people will turn to you in an emergency. They’ll forgive you if you don’t know everything. They won’t forgive you if you don’t know anything
    5. 5. Lesson 1—Equine Orientation <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>1. To develop an understanding of the horse’s interactions with humans and other horses. </li></ul><ul><li>2. To utilize this understanding to improve veterinary care and minimize patient stress. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Family : Equidae <ul><li>Equus caballus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The horse as we know it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32 pairs of chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Family: Equidae <ul><li>Equus przewalski </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Przewalski’s Horse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The only true wild horse remaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>33 pairs of chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Make the Distinction Captive Domesticated
    9. 9. Make the Distinction Feral Wild
    10. 10. Family: Equidae <ul><li>Equus asinus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Donkey/jackass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>31 pairs of chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Family: Equidae <ul><li>Equus hemonius </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Onager/Wild Ass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>27 pairs of chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Family: Equidae <ul><li>Equus burchelli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plains Zebra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22 pairs of chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Family: Equidae <ul><li>Equus grevyi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperial Zebra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>23 pairs of chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Family: Equidae <ul><li>Equus zebra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mountain Zebra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16 pairs of chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Hybrid species-Mule <ul><li>Mare X Ass= Mule </li></ul><ul><li>Jennet X Stallion=Hinny </li></ul><ul><li>Mules are more common than hinnies due to logistics of breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Mule or Hinny may be male or female phenotype </li></ul><ul><li>Almost always sterile </li></ul>
    16. 16. So, what’s the point? <ul><li>All of these animals, despite their obvious differences, are equines. </li></ul><ul><li>The principles of equine medicine and surgery apply to all of them. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Equine Psychology <ul><li>Priorities—in order of importance to the </li></ul><ul><li>horse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play/Socialization </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Safety <ul><li>If a horse does not feel safe, its handler is not safe. </li></ul><ul><li>A horse cannot learn while frightened. </li></ul><ul><li>The instillation of fear is not an appropriate training technique. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Safety <ul><li>“Don’t worry, he’s more afraid of you </li></ul><ul><li>than you are of him” </li></ul><ul><li>A recipe for disaster </li></ul>
    20. 20. Food <ul><li>Bribing a horse with food—don’t do it! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ‘reward’ should never precede the desired behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If food is used as a ‘reward’ randomize delivery to avoid biting behavior </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Comfort <ul><li>Physical and emotional comfort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Training zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Given a choice, the horse will choose comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horses are not ‘approval seekers’ but ‘comfort seekers’ </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Psychology of the Herd <ul><li>Dominant stallion ‘leads’ herd from the rear </li></ul>
    23. 23. Play <ul><li>Necessary for good mental health </li></ul><ul><li>Vices develop when play is denied </li></ul><ul><li>Play can be used as a reward for desired behavior </li></ul>
    24. 24. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>FLIGHT </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kicking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Striking </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Physiologic Adaptations <ul><li>Sensory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Almost 360 degree visual field </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal pupillary opening=extensive peripheral vision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retina composed predominantly of rods; few cones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent night vision </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Color recognition minimal—blue/red/gray </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Field of Vision Monocular field 146 degrees Blind spot Binocular field 65 degrees Blind spot
    27. 27. Physiologic Adaptations <ul><li>Auditory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ears move independently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to accurately localize origin of sound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to listen to several discrete noises </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Physiologic Adaptations <ul><li>Olfactory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly developed sense of smell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of herd members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of reproductive status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note: A horse will recognize you if you’re wearing different clothes; if you change your scent he may not. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Physiologic Adaptations <ul><li>Tactile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grooming behavior crucial to herd structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social bonds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. “ It took me 35 years to learn that women and horses don’t like to be patted.” Pat Parelli
    31. 31. Human Animal Interaction <ul><li>Animals treat people the way they treat other animals . </li></ul><ul><li>People make the mistake of treating animals they way they treat other people. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Equine Body Language <ul><li>Threatening behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinned ears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bared teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turning away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting of hind leg </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Equine Body Language <ul><li>Compliant/Submissive Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ears forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standing still </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Human Body Language <ul><li>Eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Physical approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement/gestures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical contact </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How? </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Terminology <ul><li>Horse/Stallion: Intact male 5 years old or older </li></ul><ul><li>Colt: Intact male less than 5 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Gelding: Neutered male of any age </li></ul><ul><li>Rig/Ridgling: Cryptorchid male </li></ul><ul><li>Mare: Female 5 years old or older </li></ul><ul><li>Filly: Female less than 5 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Foal: Either sex from birth to weaning </li></ul><ul><li>Weanling: Either sex--weaning to 12 months </li></ul><ul><li>Yearling: Either sex--12-23 months </li></ul>
    36. 36. Terminology <ul><li>Maiden </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A horse of either sex that has not won a race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A female that has not yet had a foal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stud: Male used for breeding </li></ul>
    37. 37. Terminology <ul><li>Hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horse’s height is measured at the withers (the highest fixed point on the body) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The measurement is made in ‘hands’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A hand equals 4 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 inch =.1 hand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore a horse that measures 15.3 hands is 63” (or 5’3”) high at the withers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. 16.3 hands 16 x 4 = 64 + 3 ------ 67” Or 5’ 7”
    39. 39. Terminology <ul><li>Near side </li></ul><ul><li>Off/far side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horses are traditionally handled from the left. The horse’s left side is his near side, the off side is his right side. </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Color <ul><li>Bay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black mane & tail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muzzle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower legs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May have dorsal stripe </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Color <ul><li>Chestnut/Sorrel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red or flaxen mane & tail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No black markings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White markings on face and legs are acceptable </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Color <ul><li>Grey </li></ul><ul><li>Grey hair </li></ul><ul><li>NOT mixture of black & white hairs </li></ul><ul><li>Born dark (black) and lighten with age </li></ul>
    43. 43. Color <ul><li>Black </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All black hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have white markings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any brown hair in tail, on muzzle, or flank indicates dark bay or brown coloring not black </li></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Color <ul><li>Dun/Buckskin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tan haircoat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black mane & tail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black dorsal stripe </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Color <ul><li>Palomino </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blond hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White mane & tail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have white markings on face and legs </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Color <ul><li>Roan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White hairs interspersed in coat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red roan: chestnut & white </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blue roan: black & white </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bay roan: bay & white </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Head Markings <ul><li>Star </li></ul><ul><li>Star and snip </li></ul><ul><li>Star, strip and </li></ul><ul><li>snip </li></ul>
    48. 48. Head Markings <ul><li>Blaze </li></ul><ul><li>Bald face </li></ul>
    49. 49. Leg Markings
    50. 50. Identification <ul><li>Lip Tattoo </li></ul>
    51. 51. Identification <ul><li>Freeze Brand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid nitrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair regrows white </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Identification <ul><li>Heat brand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal burn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair does not regrow </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Identification <ul><li>Whorls or cowlicks </li></ul>
    54. 54. Identification Foal certificate
    55. 55. Identification <ul><li>Chestnuts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Night Eyes </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Identification <ul><li>Microchip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installed in middle third of the neck in the nuchal ligament </li></ul></ul>
    57. 57. Identification <ul><li>Department of Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6-month equine health permit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ driver’s license’ for horses </li></ul></ul>
    58. 58. Breeds <ul><li>Quarter Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Paint Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Arabian Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Thoroughbred </li></ul><ul><li>Appaloosa </li></ul>www.imh.org/imh/bw/home2.html