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Mitochondria
Angel Anna Lal
Msc Biotechnology
1st year.
INTRODUCTION
 The mitochondrion (plural mitochond
ria) .[greek];
 It is a double membrane-
bound organelle found eukaryo...
SIZE: Mitochondria range from 0.5 to 1.0 μm in diameter.
SHAPE: normally Sausage shaped,
 In fibroblasts-elongated and ...
In most animals ,
oozyte mitochondria [maternal] are the only
mitochondria that is inherited
.
Spermatazoa mitochondria ...
1. Outer Membrane
2. Intermembrane Space
3. Inner Membrane
4. Cristae
5. Matrix
OUTER MEMBRANE
 Simple phospholipid bilayer.
 It encloses the mitochondrion.
 Containing protein structures called pori...
Intermembrane space
Matrix
the space between inner membrane and outer membrane {O
cavity}
It has high proton concentration.
The space between inner a...
MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX:
Gel like consistency
Dense ,homogenous
2/3rd of total protein of mitochondria
 Mitochondria have...
MITOCHONDRIAL DNA (mt DNA):
Double stranded, covalently closed,
circular molecule.
Occurs in multiple copies.
Most usua...
FUNCTIONS OF MITOCHONDRIA:
Energy transducer of the cell- synthesis of ATP
Kreb’s cycle in matrix
ETC system
Phosphory...
Site of several metabolic reactions
Outer membrane
Oxidation of epinephrine
Degradation of tryptophan
Elongation of fatt...
OTHER FUNCTIONS:
 production of heat ( non shivering thermogenesis).
[ The unharnessed potential energy of proton-electro...
Cell mitochondria ppt
Cell mitochondria ppt
Cell mitochondria ppt
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Cell mitochondria ppt

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Structure of Mitochondria

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Cell mitochondria ppt

  1. 1. Mitochondria Angel Anna Lal Msc Biotechnology 1st year.
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  The mitochondrion (plural mitochond ria) .[greek];  It is a double membrane- bound organelle found eukaryotic cells.  mito= thread chondrion = granule like  Found in cytoplasm of the cell.  Power house of cell.  First observed by Richard Altman (1894).  Term mitochondria was coined by Carl Benda (1898).
  3. 3. SIZE: Mitochondria range from 0.5 to 1.0 μm in diameter. SHAPE: normally Sausage shaped,  In fibroblasts-elongated and thread like NUMBER: Depends on type size and functional state of cell. Eg: An average liver cells contain around 1500 mitochondria. LOCATION: Cells with high enrgy requirements; Eg:Sperm tail, Muscle, Flagella
  4. 4. In most animals , oozyte mitochondria [maternal] are the only mitochondria that is inherited . Spermatazoa mitochondria [paternal] also enters oocyte during fetilization,but destroyed during early embryonic development. Mechanism not yet ellucidated.
  5. 5. 1. Outer Membrane 2. Intermembrane Space 3. Inner Membrane 4. Cristae 5. Matrix
  6. 6. OUTER MEMBRANE  Simple phospholipid bilayer.  It encloses the mitochondrion.  Containing protein structures called porins.  Ions, nutrient molecules, ATP, ADP, etc. can pass through the outer membrane with ease. INNER MEMBRANE  Is freely permeable only to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water.  Contains complexes of the ETC, the ATP synthase complex, and transport proteins.  Presence of sophisticated ion transporters exist.  Several antiport systems exist, allowing exchange of anions between the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix.  It is devoid of cholesterol and rich in phospholipid & cardiolipin.
  7. 7. Intermembrane space Matrix
  8. 8. the space between inner membrane and outer membrane {O cavity} It has high proton concentration. The space between inner and outer memebrane is approx 70 angstrom. Conc is same as that of the cytosol. CRISTAE Are folds of inner mitochondrial membrane. Stalked particles or inner membrane spheres: cristae is covered with this inner membrane spheres called stalked particles or knobs or heads. They contain protein called F1 portion & F0 portion. For ATP synthesis and ATO oxidation.
  9. 9. MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX: Gel like consistency Dense ,homogenous 2/3rd of total protein of mitochondria  Mitochondria have: - enzymes -ribosomes -DNA -mRNA -granules -fibrils -tubules. Major enzymes include enzymes involved in: -Synthesis of nucleic acid and proteins -Fatty acid oxidation -TCA CYCLE (except succinate dehydrogenase)
  10. 10. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA (mt DNA): Double stranded, covalently closed, circular molecule. Occurs in multiple copies. Most usually remains attached to inner mitochondrial membrane. Stores biological info required for growth and multiplication of mitochondria. Can undergo replication and duplication.  Human mt DNA 2 rRNA 22 tRNA Not absolutely autonomous depends on nuclear DNA.[partially autonomous]
  11. 11. FUNCTIONS OF MITOCHONDRIA: Energy transducer of the cell- synthesis of ATP Kreb’s cycle in matrix ETC system Phosphorylating system- ATPase Extra mitochondrial inheritance: mtDNA contains plasma genes (extra chromosomal genes) Transmitted from mother to the offspring Synthesis of mtDNA, RNA, protein.  Bring about gene expression through gene duplication transcription and translation. Synthesis 13 different polypeptides in human.
  12. 12. Site of several metabolic reactions Outer membrane Oxidation of epinephrine Degradation of tryptophan Elongation of fattyacid Inner membrane : oxidative phosphorylation  Matrix Kreb’s cycle Beta oxidation Detoxification of ammonia in urea cycle Storage of calcium ions
  13. 13. OTHER FUNCTIONS:  production of heat ( non shivering thermogenesis). [ The unharnessed potential energy of proton-electrochemical gradient produced during ETC is released as heat.] Role in apoptosis ( programmed cell death). Synthesis of estrogen and testosterone. Role in neurotransmitter metabolism. Role on cholesterol metabolism.

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