Occur in all Eukaryotic cells.Involved in energy production.contain enzymes for citric-acid cycleOxidative phosphoryation.Production of ATP from ADP.
shape Very small organelles(0.5 *1-2 µm). Higher plants Rod shape with hemispheroidal ends, Some are cup or filamentous shape. Vary from globular to threadlike or branched Animals Long filaments , not spatial in arrangement.
Distribution Cells with active processes, Near wall ingrowths or chloroplast. Free in the cytoplasm. Packed in rigid structures, such among the myofibrils of cardiac muscle tissue.
Numbers Depends on what the cell needs to do. Examples Flagellated protozoa or sperm, they are found around the base of the flagellum. Cardiac muscle, they surround the contractile parts. Hummingbird flight muscle is the richest sources of mitochondria. Surviving When energy is not enough, more mitochondria are created ,they grow, move, and combine with other mitochondria.
Double membrane organelle. The double-membrane described as a large wrinkled bag packed inside of a smaller, unwrinkled bag. The two membranes create 3 compartments within the organelle differ in structure and function.Compartments The space between two membranes is called inter-membrane space.
The matrix which fills the space of innermitochondrial membrane.The cristae space (formed by infoldings ofthe inner membrane). Is a smooth simple phospholipid bilayer membrane. Ions,nutrient molecules, ATP, etc pass through outer membrane with ease.
Forming channels allow molecules of about10 kilodaltons or less to freely diffuse.The amount of phospholipids is higher thanintegral proteins called porins.The mitochondrial outer membrane canassociate with the (ER) membrane.The ER-mitochondria calcium signaling andthe transfer of lipids between the ER andmitochondria.
The inner membrane has infoldings calledthe cristae. The cristae greatly increase the totalsurface area of the inner membrane for thecomplexes and proteins.Is freely permeable only to O2,CO2,H2O.Regulating transfer of metabolites acrossthe membrane.It is made up of a large number of proteinsthan phospholipids that control producingATP.
Inner membraneHighly complex structure, including theelectron transport system, the ATPsynthetase complex, and transportproteins.NADH dehydrogenase which acceptprotons carried by NADH fromtricarboxylic acid cycle.Transmembrane proton channelsimportant in ATP synthesis.
Mitochondrial MatrixContains dissolved o2, h2o, co2, therecyclable intermediates that serve asenergy shuttles. Diffusion is very slow due to folds cristae.Citric acid cycle reactions occurrence.
Mitochondrial MatrixContain enzymes for the synthesis of ATP,ribosomes, tRNAs and the mitochondrialDNA.Matrix components can diffuse to innermembrane complexes and transportproteins within short time.
Mitochondrial developmentHuman mitochondrial DNA sequence revealed16,569 base pairs encoding 37 total genes:22 tRNA, 2rRNA, and 13 peptide genes.Has its own independent DNA which is similar tobacterial DNA. Posses the machinery to manufacture their ownRNAs and proteins.Reproduce by fission like bacteria do. due to theirindependence from the nuclear DNA and similaritieswith bacteria.