Reconstruction in the South (US History)


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A brief introduction to Reconstruction in the South after the Civil War

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  • By 1876, South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida were the only states that still had garrisons of federal troops supporting the Republican state governments through force of arms. All three states had disputed election returns due to massive fraud by both parties. An Electoral Commission, voting on party lines, certified the election for Hayes, who had been twenty votes shy of victory (while Tilden had been only one vote shy). Democrats in Congress staged a filibuster in protest, but a compromise was reached in which the Democrats would accept the result in return for the removal of federal troops from the South and a promise from Hayes not to intervene in the Southern states’ internal politics (i.e., not enforcing the Fifteenth Amendment).
  • Reconstruction in the South (US History)

    1. 1. “Carpetbaggers” Nickname applied by Southern whites to people who migrated South after the Civil War
    2. 2. The “Carpetbagger” Stereotype Click to play!
    3. 3. The Motives of the Carpetbaggers Power Opportunity Wealth Service
    4. 4. Educating Freedmen and Women Although many carpetbaggers went South to seek fortune and political office, many went South to educate freedmen and women. Hampton Institute (VA) Late Nineteenth Century
    5. 5. The Republican Coalition in the South “Carpetbaggers” “Scalawags” Freedmen
    6. 6. Resistance to Reconstruction
    7. 7. The (First) Ku Klux Klan Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, CSA Vigilantism 1865-1874
    8. 8. The Second Ku Klux Klan
    9. 9. The Two Klans “Kompared” The First Ku Klux Klan The Second Ku Klux Klan Time Period Reconstruction 1920s Regional Prevalence South Midwest, South Purpose Oppose carpetbagger governments Oppose immigration, Catholicism, black migration Methods Intimidation & Violence
    10. 10. Birth of a Nation • Highest grossing silent film EVER • Glamorized the KKK – Responsible for rise of Second KKK? (1915)
    11. 11. From Birth of a Nation POTUS
    12. 12. Birth of a Nation (1915) CLIP ONE NOTE: The inclusion of this video footage is for educational purposes and is not intended to endorse the views and perspectives contained therein.
    13. 13. 1872 Presidential Election • Republican Split – Radicals vs. Moderates • Horace Greeley – Liberal Republican party • Opposed Radical Reconstruction and government corruption • Democrats Back Greeley
    14. 14. You Win. You Die.
    15. 15. 18721868 1876
    16. 16. Birth of a Nation (1915) CLIP TWO NOTE: The inclusion of this video footage is for educational purposes and is not intended to endorse the views and perspectives contained therein.
    17. 17. Restoration of Southern “Home Rule” 1869-1877 1869 1874 1871 1877 1877 1877 1874 1873 1870 1869 1876
    18. 18. 1874 Northern public opinion turns against Radical Reconstruction. Perception of “Colored Rule” and corruption in the South under Carpetbag state governments ns/reconstruction/coloredrule.htm
    19. 19. 1874 Congressional Elections U.S. House of Representatives 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1872 1874 Republicans Democrats VOTERS REACT TO: • Bad Economy • Political Corruption • Reconstruction Policy
    20. 20. Birth of a Nation (1915) CLIP THREE NOTE: The inclusion of this video footage is for educational purposes and is not intended to endorse the views and perspectives contained therein.
    21. 21. Republican Platform Tilden: 184 Hayes: 166 Disputed: 19 FTW: 185 18721868 1876 Democratic Platform
    22. 22.
    23. 23. Compromise of 1877 DISPUTED ELECTION Samuel Tilden (D-NY) Rutherford B. Hayes (R-OH) “Rutherfraud” 184 166 185
    24. 24. “Redeemer” Governments Southern White “Bourbon” Democrats re-assert authority “Solid South” – DEMOCRATIC STRONGHOLD • Republican Party a non-entity in Southern politics until the 1960s Gov. Wade Hampton (SC)
    25. 25. The “Solid South” Almost 50 Years Later
    26. 26. The Textile Industry Moves South CHEAP LABOR
    27. 27. But the South was still primarily agricultural. Photo by Martin LaBar
    28. 28. Photo by stonebird
    29. 29. Segregation Photo by Universal Pops
    30. 30. VOTING RESTRICTIONS New York Historical Society
    31. 31. Literacy Tests Photo by ladytimeless
    32. 32. Poll Tax
    33. 33. Photo by Rene Bastiaanssen
    34. 34. Photo by Rene Bastiaanssen If this guy could vote...
    35. 35. Photo by allesok
    36. 36. The Supreme Court and Civil Rights (Late Nineteenth Century) In the late 19th century, the Supreme Court upheld Jim Crow, as well as restrictions on voting. (Restrictions were not explicitly based on race.) Photo by Joe Gratz
    37. 37. Plessy v. Ferguson Segregation Challenged (1896) Photo by stef_dit_patoc
    38. 38. Plessy v. Ferguson SEPARATE BUT EQUAL (1896) Photo by fd
    39. 39. The Reality 1904 political cartoon by John T. McCutcheon
    40. 40. OVERTURNED Brown v. Board (1954) Photo by &y
    41. 41. “One hundred years later, we must face the tragic fact that the Negro is still not free.”