Reconstruction Comes to An End


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Brief PowerPoint about the end of Reconstruction and the social issues left in its wake

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Reconstruction Comes to An End

  1. 1. T H E A M E R I C A N S S E C T I O N 1 2 . 3 Reconstruction Comes to An End
  2. 2. Southern Resistance Increases Socially  Carpetbaggers: Southern Democrats name for Northerners that come South  Scalawags: Name for Southerners who joined the Republican Party  Rise of the KKK (Ku Klux Klan) “Is This A Republican Form of Government?" Harper's Weekly, September 2, 1876
  3. 3. Southern Resistance Increases Politically:  Black Codes: racist state laws that limited freed slaves’ rights  Poll taxes (pay to vote) [does affect poor whites as well]  Literacy test [also affects white voters]  Grandfather Clause (if your grandfather could vote in 1860, no poll tax or literacy test)  Amnesty Act – returned the right to vote and old office to many former Confederates  Attempts to stop resistance:  Enforcement Acts:  Oversee elections  Send troops against the KKK
  4. 4. Southern Resistance Increases • White supremacists killed important Reconstruction leaders and used violence to prevent African-Americans from participating in politics and achieving economic independence 1) The rise of the Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacy groups • Democrats, who were opposed to Reconstruction, used violence to take over state government from Republicans, who supported Reconstruction 2) The use of intimidation against Republican voters in Mississippi, Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana
  5. 5. Southern Resistance Increases • Increased democratic power in the South by adding thousands of eligible Democratic voters • Removed an important source of African-American support in the South 3) Congress’ approval of both the Amnesty Act and the end of the Freedmen’s Bureau
  6. 6. Public Opinion Changes  Corruption up, people think money is being wasted  Credit Mobilier Affair  Whiskey Ring  Belknap Bribery  Panic of 1873: people more worried about the economy than punishing the South  Currency dispute: poor want more money printed  Supreme Court is dominated by racists
  7. 7. Changes in the Republican Party  White southern ‘scalawags’ not committed to protecting African- Americans  The party splits over corruption  Republicans v. liberal Republicans
  8. 8. Changes in the Republican Party • Diverted public attention in the North from what was happening in the South • Decreased support for Republicans (and their Reconstruction efforts) 4) The exposure of widespread corruption in the Grant administration • Weakened the Radical’s hold over the Republican Party • Lack of party unity made it harder for Radicals to impose Reconstruction 5) The formation of the Liberal Republican Party and the presidential campaign of 1872
  9. 9. Public Opinion Changes • Diverted public attention in the North from what was happening in the South • Weakened support for Radicals to impose Reconstruction 6) The Panic of 1873, economic depression, and currency controversies
  10. 10. Supreme Court Interpretation  U.S. v. Cruikshank 14th Amendment does not involve people discriminating against people; only the government discriminating  U.S. v. Reese undermined idea all black males can vote: ruled the 15th Amendment didn’t give right to vote, simply listed grounds on which states could not deny right to vote
  11. 11. Supreme Court Interpretation • Undid specific social changes accomplished by Reconstruction • Stripped the federal government of much of its power to protect the civil and voting rights of African-Americans 7) The Supreme Court decisions handed down in the Slaughterhouse cases, US v. Cruikshank, and US v. Reese • Weakened Radical Republican leadership 8) The deaths of such Radical Republican leaders as Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens
  12. 12. Election of 1876 Republican- Hayes of Ohio v. Democrat – Tilden of NY • Tilden won popular vote, needs 1 electoral vote more • Florida’s 20 electoral votes uncertain b/c of KKK violence  So…the electoral college can’t render a verdict!
  13. 13. Compromise of 1877  Hayes became president  Democrats allow it b/c troops will leave the South  Result: “Redemption” – White Southerners regain control of the South **White Supremacy and Home Rule Restored**
  14. 14. Compromise of 1877 • The end of Reconstruction • Withdrew federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina thereby restoring Democrats to power • Established home rule throughout the South allowing reversal of many Reconstruction reforms 9) The Compromise of 1877 (the political deal reached between supporters of Hayes and Tilden)
  15. 15. Common Core Practice 1. This cartoon depicts conditions a) before the Civil War. b) during the Civil War. c) during Reconstruction. d) None of the above.
  16. 16. Common Core Practice 2. What did the Ku Klux Klan believe? a) African Americans should not vote or hold office. b) African Americans had a right to an education. c) White Southerners were better off after the Civil War. d) The courts were the best place to resolve racial differences.
  17. 17. Common Core Practice 3. The Ku Klux Klan and the White League intimidated blacks through a) lynching. b) burning schools and churches. c) murder. d) All of the above.
  18. 18. Common Core Practice 4. What point of view does this cartoon present? a) It favors the Ku Klux Klan. b) It is neutral toward the Reconstruction South. c) It opposes the Ku Klux Klan. d) It was a recruitment poster for the Ku Klux Klan.