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Us hıstory.052212


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Us hıstory.052212

  1. 1. US history survey May 22, 2012 final classReconstruction (continued)
  2. 2. announcements• paper # 2 due today, Tuesday, May 22.• late papers will be accepted until Tuesday, May 29, but points will be deducted. No emails!• final exam: Tuesday, May 29, noon. Eat first, or bring a snack with you.
  3. 3. Ulysses S. Grant • former Union general. • President 1869 – 1877.
  4. 4. enfranchisement – 15th Amendment• women’s rights advocates, former abolitionists (both men and women), disagreed about who should be enfranchised.• 14th Amendment introduced the word “male” into Constitution for 1st time.• split between those favoring Black men’s vote first & those who wanted women’s suffrage at same time.
  5. 5. “This is the Negro’s hour.”Elizabeth Cady Stanton &Susan B. Anthony opposed15th Amendment w/owomen’s suffrage. “Lowerorder of Chinese, Africans,Germans, & Irish” wouldmake laws for women.Frederick Douglass & LucyStone.
  6. 6. women’s rights advocates• split into 2 organizations, both working for women’s suffrage.• not reunited until 1890.• women’s suffrage as a constitutional amendment didn’t happen until 1920 (19th Amendment).• women’s organizations also worked on marriage & divorce laws, unequal pay, property rights.• defeat of radical reconstruction & expanded citizenship meant there was little support for women’s suffrage.
  7. 7. freedom for former slaves• ability to move. Some freedpeople moved into cities & to Black Belt, in search of community.• family strengthened – searched for family members; made decisions about whether/ when women & children worked.• churches & family – central institutions of Black communities.• schools – thirst for education & knowledge.
  8. 8. Florida, 1870s or1880s.
  9. 9. work• white planters tried to retain African Americans as permanent agricultural workers.• Black people resisted working in gangs.• desired to establish independent homesteads.• compromise: sharecropping. By 1880, ¾ Black southerners were sharecroppers.• white owners exploited system & illiteracy of some Blacks to ensure indebtedness.
  10. 10. work in freedom
  11. 11. African American politics• freedom celebrations, mass meetings, parades, petitions, conventions – dominated by previously free, preachers, artisans, veterans of Union Army.• whites: “insolent,” “outrageous spectacles,” “putting on airs.”• Union League – Republican organization.• Black majority existed only in South Carolina, Mississippi, Louisiana – needed white Republican voters as well.
  12. 12. Carpetbaggers • white Northerners, Union veterans, businessmen, teachers, Freedmen’s Bureau agents. • won many Reconstruc. offices, especially in areas w/ large Black populations.
  13. 13. Scalawags • white Southerners from up-country, non-slave areas. Loyalists in CW. • wanted Republican Party to help settle old scores, get debt relief, & help with wartime devastation. • mostly committed to whites remaining in power.
  14. 14. S desire for economic development• “Yankees & Yankee notions are just what we want. We want their capital to build factories & workshops. We want their intelligence, their energy, and enterprise.” (Thomas Settle, North Carolina)• Scalawag ideas.
  15. 15. what S states accomplished• Republicans dominated 10 S constitutional conventions, 1867 – 1869.• 258/1027 constitutional delegates were AfAm.• expanded democracy – improved situation of poor whites as well as Blacks. – guaranteed political & civil rights for Blacks. – abolished property qualifcatns. for voting & juries. – abolished imprisonment for debt.• created 1st state-funded systems of education.• more than 600 Black state legislators post-CW.
  16. 16. S white resistance• KKK violence.• Colfax, Louisiana, 1873 – almost 100 Blacks murdered.
  17. 17. Black members of Congress • largest number in 1870s = 16. 2 senators. • declined to 0 in 1901. • all Republicans.
  18. 18. “redemption”• S Democrats “redeemed” S states.• results: created obstacles to Black voting, put more stringent controls on plantation labor, cut social services.• Supreme Court decisions curtailed protection of Black civil rights.• end of federal attempts to protect Black civil rights until mid-20th century.
  19. 19. Reconstruction results for South• unable to attract much investment from N or Europe, so little industrialization.• S declined into poorest agricultural region in country.• increased cotton dependency – King Cotton.• changed from diversified local farming to market-oriented production of cotton.• cotton prices declined – competition from Egypt & India.
  20. 20. Reconstruction results for North• industrial boom of war years continued.• 3 million immigrants, 1860 – 1880; all settled in N & W.• railroads continued to expand to more than all the rest of the world’s RRs combined.• RR companies were first big businesses.• Republican Party increasingly identified with interests of business.
  21. 21. election of 1876• Democrats expected to win presidency.• fraud, intimidation, disputed votes.• an electoral commission created to resolve it voted strictly on party lines.• compromise: Rutherford Hayes (R) became president. – more money for S internal improvements. – a Southerner in Hayes’ cabinet. – non-interference in South – “home rule.”
  22. 22. Rutherford B. Hayes Compromise of 1877• Hayes ordered removal of remaining federal troops.• Republicans abandoned freedpeople, carpetbaggers, scalawags, & Radicals.• “home rule” nullifed 14th & 15th Amendments & Civil Rights Act of 1866.• compromise repudiated idea of federal government protecting rights of all citizens.
  23. 23. and at the same time….• mining & oil refining, as well as RR, become big businesses.• Depression of 1873.• Great RR strike of 1877.• struggle between capital & labor replaced the “southern question” as main political issue.
  24. 24. Great RR Strike of 1877
  25. 25. coming soon:workers vs. robber barons
  26. 26. aftermath of Civil War• Is political freedom meaningful without economic freedom? – propertied independence. – self-ownership & right to compete in labor market.• Reconstruction solidified separation of political & economic spheres.• old idea of economy autonomy as essence of freedom became idea of radicals only.
  27. 27. announcements• paper # 2 due today, Tuesday, May 22.• late papers will be accepted until Tuesday, May 29, but points will be deducted. No emails!• final exam: Tuesday, May 29, noon. Eat first, or bring a snack with you.
  28. 28. It’s been great! See you in the USA.