1. How do we
bring the South
back into the
2. How do we
South after its
during the war?
3. How do we
4. What branch
the process of
Differing Views of Reconstruction
1. Wartime/10%: (Lincoln) – Lenient
2. Presidential: (Johnson) – Semi-lenient; punish
Confederate elite only
3. Congressional/Radical Reconstruction:
(Thaddeus Stevens and Rad. Rep.) – harsh;
treat South as conquered territory; empower blacks
and poor whites
With malice toward none, with charity for
all, with firmness in the right as God
gives us to see the right, let us strive on to
finish the work we are in, to bind up the
nation's wounds, to care for him who
shall have borne the battle and for his
widow and his orphan, to do all which
may achieve and cherish a just and
lasting peace . . .
- Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865
President Lincoln’s Plan
* Goal: restore Union ASAP
* Establish “loyal rule” in S
* Pardon all but highest ranking Confederates
* Recognition when 10% of 1860 voting pop.
took loyalty oath and est. new gov’t.
* Didn’t consult Congress
* Died before plan was enacted.
Governments” formed in
LA, TN, AR
* Weak and
dependent on the
Northern army for
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)
50% of 1860 voters to take
an “iron clad” oath of
allegiance (swearing they had
never aided the rebellion).
convention before the
election of state officials.
Enacted specific safeguards
of freedmen’s liberties.
Pocket vetoed by Lincoln.
Ratified in December, 1865.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been
duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or
any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
Freedmen’s Bureau (1865)
Former N. abolitionists
risked their lives to help
Called “carpetbaggers” by
white southern Democrat
“Scalawags” – white
southerners who joined Rep.
Establishment of Historically
Black Colleges in the South
President Andrew Johnson
Agreed with Lincoln
that states had never
legally left the Union.
“Damn the negroes! I am fighting these
traitorous aristocrats, their masters!”
President Johnson’s Plan (10%+)
Simple loyalty oath for all except Confederate officers and those
worth more than $20,000 (they could apply directly to Johnson)
New constitutions must repudiate slavery, secession and state debts.
Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called them
to oversee elections for constitutional conventions.
1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates.
2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back
to political power to control state organizations.
3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite
were back in power in the South!
Growing Northern Alarm!
Many Southern state constitutions fell
short of minimum requirements.
Johnson granted 13,500 special
Revival of southern defiance.
* Guarantee labor now that
blacks were emancipated.
* Restore pre-emancipation
Forced many blacks to become
Sharecropping: Give land to a
poor white/ex-slave and portion of
the crop goes to landowner; creates
unbroken debt cycle
Tenant Farming: farmer
rents land, keeps all harvest;
few farmers made it to this
Congress Breaks with the President
Congress bars Southern
Joint Committee on
February, 1866 President
vetoed the Freedmen’s
March, 1866 Johnson
vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act.
Congress passed both bills over
Johnson’s vetoes 1st in
U. S. history!!
Ratified in July, 1868.
* Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and
security of freed people.
* Insure against neo-Confederate political power.
Southern states would be punished for denying
the right to vote to black citizens!
The Balance of Power in Congress
State White Citizens Freedmen
SC 291,000 411,000
MS 353,000 436,000
LA 357,000 350,000
GA 591,000 465,000
AL 596,000 437,000
VA 719,000 533,000
NC 631,000 331,000
The 1866 Bi-Election
Johnson’s “Swing around the Circle”
Referendum on Rad Recon.
Johnson tour alienates voters and backfires.
3-1 majority in
Radical Plan for Readmission
Civil authorities in South subject to military
Required new state constitutions, including
black suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th
Military Reconstruction Act of 1867
Restart Reconstruction in 10 states that refuse to ratify 14th Amendment;
divided into 5 military districts.
Tenure of Office Act of 1867
Tenure of Office Act -
President can’t remove any
officials w/o Senate’s consent if
the position originally required
President Johnson’s Impeachment
Johnson removed Stanton in 1868.
House impeached 126 – 47
The Senate Trial
11 week trial.
35-19 (one short of
Blacks in Southern Politics
Core voters were black veterans.
Blacks politically unprepared.
Blacks could register and vote in states since 1867.
Ratified in 1870.
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be
denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
Women’s rights groups were furious that they were
not granted the vote!
Supreme Court Interpretation
U.S. v. Cruikshank:
14th Amendment does not involve
people discriminating against
people; only the government
U.S. v. Reese:
ruled 15th Amendment didn’t give
right to vote, simply listed
grounds on which states could not
deny right to vote
Ku Klux Klan:
the “Invisible Empire of the South”
The Failure of Federal Enforcement
Enforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871 [also
known as the KKK Act].
“The Lost Cause.”
The Civil Rights Act of 1875
Crime for any individual to deny full & equal use
of public conveyances and public places.
Prohibited discrimination in jury selection.
Shortcoming no strong enforcement
No new civil rights act was attempted for 90 years!
Northern Support Wanes
Changes within the
‘Scalawags’ not committed
to protecting African-
The party splits over
Panic of 1873 [6-year
Concern over westward
expansion and Indian wars