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  1. 1. Reconstruction
  2. 2. Key Questions 1. How do we bring the South back into the Union? 2. How do we rebuild the South after its destruction during the war? 3. How do we integrate and protect newly- emancipated black freedmen? 4. What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction?
  3. 3. Differing Views of Reconstruction 1865-1877 1. Wartime/10%: (Lincoln) – Lenient 2. Presidential: (Johnson) – Semi-lenient; punish Confederate elite only 3. Congressional/Radical Reconstruction: (Thaddeus Stevens and Rad. Rep.) – harsh; treat South as conquered territory; empower blacks and poor whites
  4. 4. With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace . . . - Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865
  5. 5. President Lincoln’s Plan 10% Plan * Goal: restore Union ASAP * Establish “loyal rule” in S * Pardon all but highest ranking Confederates * Recognition when 10% of 1860 voting pop. took loyalty oath and est. new gov’t. * Didn’t consult Congress * Died before plan was enacted.
  6. 6. 1864  “Lincoln Governments” formed in LA, TN, AR * Weak and dependent on the Northern army for their survival.
  7. 7. Wade-Davis Bill (1864)  50% of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never aided the rebellion).  State constitutional convention before the election of state officials.  Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties.  Pocket vetoed by Lincoln. Senator Benjamin Wade (R-OH) Congressman Henry W. Davis (R-MD)
  8. 8. 13th Amendment  Ratified in December, 1865.  Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.  Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
  9. 9. Freedmen’s Bureau (1865)  Former N. abolitionists risked their lives to help southern freedmen.  Called “carpetbaggers” by white southern Democrat  “Scalawags” – white southerners who joined Rep. Party
  10. 10. Freedmen’s Bureau School
  11. 11. Establishment of Historically Black Colleges in the South
  12. 12. President Andrew Johnson  Jacksonian Democrat.  Anti-Aristocrat.  White Supremacist.  Agreed with Lincoln that states had never legally left the Union. “Damn the negroes! I am fighting these traitorous aristocrats, their masters!”
  13. 13. President Johnson’s Plan (10%+)  Simple loyalty oath for all except Confederate officers and those worth more than $20,000 (they could apply directly to Johnson)  New constitutions must repudiate slavery, secession and state debts.  Named provisional governors in Confederate states and called them to oversee elections for constitutional conventions. EFFECTS? 1. Disenfranchised certain leading Confederates. 2. Pardoned planter aristocrats brought them back to political power to control state organizations. 3. Republicans were outraged that planter elite were back in power in the South!
  14. 14. Growing Northern Alarm!  Many Southern state constitutions fell short of minimum requirements.  Johnson granted 13,500 special pardons.  Revival of southern defiance. BLACK CODES
  15. 15. Black Codes  Purpose: * Guarantee labor now that blacks were emancipated. * Restore pre-emancipation race relations.  Forced many blacks to become sharecroppers
  16. 16. Sharecropping: Give land to a poor white/ex-slave and portion of the crop goes to landowner; creates unbroken debt cycle Tenant Farming: farmer rents land, keeps all harvest; few farmers made it to this
  17. 17. Sharecropping
  18. 18. Congress Breaks with the President  Congress bars Southern Congressional delegates.  Joint Committee on Reconstruction created.  February, 1866  President vetoed the Freedmen’s Bureau bill.  March, 1866  Johnson vetoed the 1866 Civil Rights Act.  Congress passed both bills over Johnson’s vetoes  1st in U. S. history!!
  19. 19. 14th Amendment  Ratified in July, 1868. * Provide a constitutional guarantee of the rights and security of freed people. * Insure against neo-Confederate political power.  Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens!
  20. 20. The Balance of Power in Congress State White Citizens Freedmen SC 291,000 411,000 MS 353,000 436,000 LA 357,000 350,000 GA 591,000 465,000 AL 596,000 437,000 VA 719,000 533,000 NC 631,000 331,000
  21. 21. The 1866 Bi-Election Johnson’s “Swing around the Circle”  Referendum on Rad Recon.  Johnson tour alienates voters and backfires.  Republicans won 3-1 majority in Congress!
  22. 22. Radical Plan for Readmission  Civil authorities in South subject to military supervision.  Required new state constitutions, including black suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th Amendments.
  23. 23. Military Reconstruction Act of 1867  Restart Reconstruction in 10 states that refuse to ratify 14th Amendment; divided into 5 military districts.
  24. 24. Tenure of Office Act of 1867 Tenure of Office Act - President can’t remove any officials w/o Senate’s consent if the position originally required Senate approval Edwin Stanton
  25. 25. President Johnson’s Impeachment  Johnson removed Stanton in 1868.  House impeached 126 – 47
  26. 26. The Senate Trial 11 week trial. Johnson acquitted 35-19 (one short of required 2/3s).
  27. 27. The 1868 Republican Ticket
  28. 28. 1868 Presidential Election
  29. 29. The Election of 1868
  30. 30. 1872 Presidential Election
  31. 31. The Election of 1872
  32. 32. Grant Administration Scandals  Era of unprecedented growth and corruption.
  33. 33. William “Boss” Tweed, NYC - Tammany Hall’s political machine) [Thomas Nast  crusading cartoonist/reporter]
  34. 34. And They Say He Wants a Third Term
  35. 35. Blacks in Southern Politics  Core voters were black veterans.  Blacks politically unprepared.  Blacks could register and vote in states since 1867.  The 15th Amendment guaranteed federal voting.
  36. 36. 15th Amendment  Ratified in 1870.  The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.  The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.  Women’s rights groups were furious that they were not granted the vote!
  37. 37. Colored Rule in the South?
  38. 38. Supreme Court Interpretation U.S. v. Cruikshank: 14th Amendment does not involve people discriminating against people; only the government discriminating U.S. v. Reese: ruled 15th Amendment didn’t give right to vote, simply listed grounds on which states could not deny right to vote
  39. 39. Ku Klux Klan: the “Invisible Empire of the South”
  40. 40. The Failure of Federal Enforcement  Enforcement Acts of 1870 & 1871 [also known as the KKK Act].  “The Lost Cause.”  Redeemers (prewar Democrats and Union Whigs).
  41. 41. The Civil Rights Act of 1875  Crime for any individual to deny full & equal use of public conveyances and public places.  Prohibited discrimination in jury selection.  Shortcoming  no strong enforcement  No new civil rights act was attempted for 90 years!
  42. 42. Northern Support Wanes  Changes within the Republican Party:  ‘Scalawags’ not committed to protecting African- Americans  The party splits over corruption  Panic of 1873 [6-year depression].  Concern over westward expansion and Indian wars
  43. 43. 1876 Presidential Tickets
  44. 44. 1876 Presidential Election
  45. 45. The Political Crisis of 1877  “Corrupt Bargain” Part II?
  46. 46. Hayes Prevails
  47. 47. Alas, the Woes of Childhood… Sammy Tilden—Boo-Hoo! Ruthy Hayes’s got my Presidency, and he won’t give it to me!
  48. 48. A Political Crisis: The “Compromise” of 1877
  49. 49. Compromise of 1877 • Hayes became president • Federal troops will leave the South • Result: “Redemption” – White Southerners regain control of the South • Home Rule Restored
  50. 50. Reconstruction: Success or Failure?
  51. 51. Recap: