Ch 15 Reconstruction

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Ch 15 Reconstruction

  1. 1. Reconstruction<br />1866-1877<br />
  2. 2. The State of the Union (after the war)<br />Economically<br /><ul><li>The South is in ruins
  3. 3. The underpinnings of an entire economic system has collapsed
  4. 4. Inflation is extremely high
  5. 5. Poverty can be seen everywhere</li></ul>Politically<br /><ul><li>The North had complete dominance over the Southern “secessionist” states
  6. 6. The Republican Party is expected to stimulate business through federal measures</li></ul>Special Field Order No. 15<br /><ul><li>Gen. W. T. Sherman orders that “40 acres and a mule” for the freedmen in the Sea Islands off the coasts of South Carolina and Georgia
  7. 7. Freedmen begin to tie economic autonomy with liberty</li></li></ul><li>Phases of Reconstruction<br />Presidential Reconstruction (1866-1867)<br />Radical Reconstruction (1867-1873)<br />Redemption (1873-1877)<br />Issues:<br /><ul><li>How do secessionist states regain recognition with the United States?
  8. 8. What do we do with the Confederates?
  9. 9. Civil status for their leaders
  10. 10. What is the Constitutional and legal status of freed blacks (freedmen)?</li></li></ul><li>Lincoln’s Legacy for Reconstruction (1863-1865)<br />The Ten Percent Plan (1863)<br /><ul><li>Lincoln wanted a quick and painless method to bring the secessionist states back to the Union after the war ended
  11. 11. The plan indicated that any state would be reaccepted to the Union after 10% of the people who voted in the 1860 election took an oath to the United States.
  12. 12. The only exclusion were CSA officers and leaders.</li></ul>Congress’ Response to Lincoln: The Wade-Davis Bill (1864)<br /><ul><li>Congress felt that Lincoln was too conciliatory and weak on the secessionist states.
  13. 13. They were afraid the slave and plantation owners would quickly regain all their previous power.
  14. 14. The Wade-Davis Bill indicated that 50% of the people of a secessionist state would be required to take an oath to the United States before they could be considered for statehood.</li></li></ul><li>Presidential Reconstruction (President Andrew Johnson)<br />
  15. 15. Presidential Reconstruction (1866-1867)<br />Freedmen’s Bureau<br /><ul><li>Established in 1866 to help fight for the rights of freedmen in hostile areas in the South
  16. 16. Had an impossible task; only 1000 agents in the South
  17. 17. Was an experiment in social policy that might have worked in the New Deal era or the 1960s
  18. 18. Goals:
  19. 19. Establish schools for blacks
  20. 20. Aid to poor/aged blacks
  21. 21. Settle racial disputes
  22. 22. Secure equal treatment and civility for blacks in the court system
  23. 23. Made decent gains in healthcare and education, but it gets overshadowed with Reconstruction and lasting racial animosity</li></li></ul><li>Presidential Reconstruction (1866-1867)<br />Black Codes<br /><ul><li>Set of laws put in place by Southern states to limit the political power of freedmen
  24. 24. Overthrown in 1866 by the Civil Rights Act, greatly influenced by the Freedmen’s Bureau</li></ul>13th Amendment<br /><ul><li>Ratified 6 December 1865
  25. 25. Abolished slavery forever</li></ul>Johnson’s Vetoes<br /><ul><li>Took a very conciliatory approach to Southern, very lenient on pardoning CSA leaders if they apologized
  26. 26. Vetoed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the 14th Amendment (both moderate proposals)
  27. 27. Johnson claims that they were a violation of states’ rights; the federal government is trying to bully the South
  28. 28. Democrats loved him for this</li></li></ul><li>Radical Reconstruction<br />
  29. 29. Radical Reconstruction (1867-1873)<br />Reconstruction Act of 1867<br /><ul><li>Johnson really tried to keep this one from getting passed
  30. 30. The act effectively seized control of Reconstruction from Johnson
  31. 31. More Radical Republicans were coming into Congress; outnumbering moderates and Democrats
  32. 32. The act divides the South into 5 military districts
  33. 33. First District: Virginia
  34. 34. Second District: North and South Carolina
  35. 35. Third District: Georgia, Alabama, and Florida
  36. 36. Fourth District: Arkansas and Mississippi
  37. 37. Fifth District: Texas and Louisiana</li></ul>Annexation of Alaska<br /><ul><li>Secretary of State William H. Seward negotiated a treaty between Russia and the U.S. to purchase Alaska “Seward’s Icebox” for $15 million</li></li></ul><li>Radical Reconstruction (1867-1873)<br />Johnson Gets Impeached<br /><ul><li>Congress attempts to impeach him twice; they succeed the second time
  38. 38. Charge him with violating the Tenure of Office Act
  39. 39. He narrowly escapes being thrown out of office
  40. 40. Good lawyers convince Congress he would play nice until the end of his term
  41. 41. Johnson becomes the first president to get impeached and the first to succeed an assassinated president</li></ul>Christmas Day Amnesty Act<br /><ul><li>Johnson grants unconditional amnesty to all Confederates on 25 December 1868, less than a month before he turned over the office to Ulysses S. Grant</li></ul>14th Amendment<br /><ul><li>Guarantees citizenship for all freedmen</li></ul>15th Amendment<br /><ul><li>Guarantees suffrage (right to vote) regardless of race, color, or previous servitude (slavery)
  42. 42. Feminists enraged because they were not included</li></li></ul><li>Rise of the Ku Klux Klan<br />
  43. 43. Rise of the Ku Klux Klan<br />Reaction to Reconstruction<br /><ul><li>Klan was created in 1865 immediately after the end of the Civil War
  44. 44. Really did not gain steam until Radical Reconstruction in the late 1860s
  45. 45. The group was essentially a reaction to two things:
  46. 46. A rising number of discontented veterans in the South
  47. 47. Dramatically altered social situation where whites had to reclaim white supremacy
  48. 48. Waco’s own Felix H. Robertson was most likely a member (his son was a member of the Klan in the 1920s)
  49. 49. The Klan becomes tied with the Democratic Party
  50. 50. Essentially a Para-military force that served the interests of Democrats, planters, and all those who wished for white supremacy to return to an “Old South”
  51. 51. The group relates well to the “Lost Cause” mentality
  52. 52. President Grant effectively uses federal power to silence the Klan throughout the rest of Reconstruction
  53. 53. Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871
  54. 54. They never really go away; just go underground until the 1920s</li></li></ul><li>
  55. 55. Klansmen in Mississippi<br />
  56. 56. Ku Klux Klan Warning to Carpetbaggers in Ohio<br />
  57. 57. Radical Reconstruction (1867-1873)<br />Carpetbaggers<br /><ul><li>Northerners who moved to the South during Radical and Redemptive Reconstruction
  58. 58. Had economic and business goals in mind, but claimed they were there to support the Freedmen’s Bureau and help out the South
  59. 59. Railroads and speculation in rail lines were of primary interest</li></ul>Scalawags<br /><ul><li>Southern whites (often Democrats) that openly supported Reconstruction and Republicans</li></li></ul><li>Redemptive Reconstruction (Ulysses S. Grant)<br />
  60. 60. Redemptive Reconstruction (1873-1877)<br />The Grant Administration<br /><ul><li>Known primarily as an era of scandals
  61. 61. Grant had difficulty dealing with a Congress that was split on issues such as:
  62. 62. Tariffs
  63. 63. Currency
  64. 64. Civil Service Reform
  65. 65. Mark Twain reflects on this period as an ‘age of excess’; also becomes known as the “Gilded Age”</li></ul>Panic of 1873<br /><ul><li>Really marks the shift between Radical and Redemptive Reconstruction
  66. 66. The economy in the South was bad, but it gets much worse
  67. 67. Cotton prices fall in half
  68. 68. Many small landowners, merchants, and some wholesalers go bankrupt
  69. 69. Sharecropping becomes common
  70. 70. Sharing the risk of owning land; black and white farmers participate
  71. 71. Crop-Lien System – farmers have to commit a portion of their year’s crops as collateral for purchasing needed goods
  72. 72. President Grant takes the blame; Republicans lose many seats in Congress</li></li></ul><li>Redemptive Reconstruction (1873-1877)<br />Election of 1876<br /><ul><li>Democratic candidate: Samuel Tilden
  73. 73. Republican candidate: Rutherford B. Hayes
  74. 74. The election causes great turmoil as some states send in two sets of election results
  75. 75. Congress is unsure what course of action is best
  76. 76. No one really knew who won the election</li></ul>Compromise “Bargain” of 1877<br /><ul><li>Congress established a special commission to settle the election
  77. 77. An informal agreement eventually places another Republican in the presidency in exchange for ending Reconstruction
  78. 78. Terms:
  79. 79. Rutherford B. Hayes (Rep.) would become president
  80. 80. Hayes had to end Reconstruction immediately
  81. 81. Hayes had to guarantee federal aid to the South and remove federal troops
  82. 82. Democrats would not cause trouble if the Republicans followed through with the terms
  83. 83. Hayes takes office and ends Reconstruction within the first month of his presidency</li></li></ul><li>Election of 1876<br />
  84. 84. Legacy of Reconstruction<br /><ul><li>Essentially a 12 year struggle that failed in almost all aspects
  85. 85. Failed to make a solid plan to reinvigorate the Southern economy after the war
  86. 86. Failed to clearly define what citizenship meant for freedmen
  87. 87. Laid the foundation for future freedom struggles
  88. 88. Failed economically, socially, and politically in all regards
  89. 89. One of the darker moments in United States history
  90. 90. Especially the Johnson presidency </li>

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