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Jim crow laws

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This lecture is devoted to the Jim Crow Era. It relates the different civil rights cases that marked the beginnings of the era, and sheds light on black disenfranchisement in the Southern states as well as segration in both public and private spheres

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Jim crow laws

  1. 1. Segregation and Racism in America
  2. 2. From Black Codes to Jim Crow Laws The Black codes were outlawed by the 14th amendment (1868) and by the Reconstruction Act of 1867. Black Codes were a violation of the 14th amendment. However, White southerners determined to keep races separate and unequal through forced segregation • Called for separation of races in daily life; created new set of laws called the Jim Crow laws that lasted nearly 100 years
  3. 3. “Jim Crow” Period of history where segregation of blacks and whites was the law. Jim Crow a character that mocked African Americans. Also called minstrel or blackface Highly stereotypical and exaggerated black figure that was subject to white humor.
  4. 4. FOURTEENTH AMENDMENT (1868) • Citizenship Clause • Prohibits state from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property. • Equal Protection Clause-requires each state to provide equal protection to people within its jurisdiction. FIFTEENTH AMENDMENT (1870) Gave Black American adult males the right to vote. Where did it all begin?
  5. 5. 1866 to 1875, Congress passed several civil rights acts to implement the 13th and 14th amendments. The Civil Rights Act of 1875 imposed criminal penalties against private businesses guilty of racial discrimination. 1877: withdrawal of federal troops brought an end to Reconstruction period -> Southern states began to pass laws creating separate societies for white and black Americans. Civil Rights Acts
  6. 6. Civil Rights Cases (1883)  Despite Civil Rights Act of 1875 , most privately owned businesses continued to deny service to African Americans.
  7. 7. The cases  5 cases involving application of the federal law were collected and presented to the Supreme Court in 1882-1883.  African-American citizens protested their exclusion from a hotel dining room in Kansas; from the opera in New York City; from the better seats of a San Francisco theater; and from a car set aside for ladies on a train.
  8. 8. Civil Rights Cases  Court Decision  The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was declared unconstitutional because the 14th amendment’s equal protection clause applied to the discriminatory acts taken by states, not by individuals in the private sector.  Importance  Many privately owned businesses could now refuse service to African Americans
  9. 9. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)  Louisiana passed a law requiring railroads to provide “equal but separate accommodations”  Homer Plessy a man of mixed race deliberately sat in the white section and identified himself as black.  He was arrested and the case went to the United States Supreme Court.  Plessy's lawyer argued that the Separate Car Act violated the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendment
  10. 10. Plessy v. Ferguson  Decision Court stated that Louisiana Act of 1890 (separate but equal accommodations) did not violate the Constitution. And that it was the most reasonable approach considering the social relations at the time.  The court ruled that the object of the [14th ] Amendment was to enforce the absolute equality but not to “abolish distinctions based upon color. .” and that separation of race did not imply inferiority of colored race.
  11. 11. Plessy v. Ferguson  Led the way for states to create “separate but equal” facilities, allowing for legal segregation based on race. “Jim Crow” ruled the South.  This decision will take half a century to be overtuRned by Brown v. Board of Education in 1954 when the Court ruled “separate but equal” was unconstitutional.
  12. 12. Jim Crow Laws First, voting rights were curtailed throughout the states. Then, a series of laws denying African Americans access to certain places were created
  13. 13. “Separate but equal . . .” • Schools • Churches • Restaurants • Movies • Hotels • Libraries • Housing • ...
  14. 14. • The laws passed throughout the nation (most notably in the South) aimed at separating the races. • Separate facilities provided were always inferior, sometimes absolutely horrific. Jim Crow Laws
  15. 15. Education
  16. 16. WHAT ABOUTVOTING RIGHTS?
  17. 17. New black codes included unfair voting laws; adding the Literacy test, Poll taxes and the Grandfather clause; The Literacy test Many blacks had no education; could not pass tests Worked against both poor whites and blacks at first. Gradually evolved into a mechanism applied only to blacks Black Disfranchisement
  18. 18. Alabama LiteracyTest (1940s) Does enumeration affect the income tax levied on citizens in various states? A United States Senator elected at the general election in November takes office the following year on what date? How many states were required to approve the original Constitution in order for it to be in effect? Who passes laws dealing with piracy? On the impeachment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, who tries the case? After the presidential electors have voted, to whom do they send the count of their votes? If the two houses of Congress cannot agree on adjournment, who sets the time? Of the original 13 states, the one with the largest representation in the first Congress was ______.
  19. 19. Grandfather Clause A person could only vote if his grandfather had been eligible to vote. A person was exempted from other voting requirements if his grandfather had been eligible to vote. PollTaxes State voting fees: Seven states had poll taxes up to the 1960’s. Tax ranged from $1 to $3.50 per year. But this was usually a cumulative tax; Taxes payable in person every year between the ages of 21 and 45.
  20. 20. Lynching & Race Riots Frequently during this period, African Americans were were frequently accused of crimes, and killed in a lynching instead of a trial. Most common forms of racial violence in late 1800s . Nearly 900 blacks lynched from 1882 to 1892. lynching= murders of individuals without a trial
  21. 21. Take the Test…: 1. Take off work to go register, potentially get fired. (Bosses who did not fire were harassed) 2. Fill out an application form, oaths you had to take were four pages long.You had to swear that your answers to every single question were true under penalty of perjury…the information you entered on the form would be passed on to the KKK. 3. Pass the literacy test. 4. If you pass and make it past these levels, you will be hunted down by the KKK and often lynched. Will you be granted the right to vote?
  22. 22. This is Bill. Bill attends all lectures. Bill can answer all quiz questions Bill is smart Be like Bill 
  23. 23. A. THE 1ST AMENDMENT B. THE 13TH AMENDMENT C. THE 14TH AMENDMENT D. THE 15TH AMENDMENT Q1 BLACK CODESWERE OUTLAWED BY
  24. 24. A. 10YEARS B. 12YEARS C. 50YEARS D. 100YEARS Q3 JIM CROW LAWS LASTEDED
  25. 25. A. BLACK HEAD B. MINSTREL C. NEGRO D. FREEDMAN Q2 JIM CROWWAS ALSO CALLED
  26. 26. A. IMPOSED CRIMINAL PENALTIES AGAINST PRIVATE BUSINESSES GUILTY OF RACISM B. ORDEREDTHE WITHDRAWAL OF FEDERAL TROOPS C. PROTECTED PERSONAL FREEDOM OF CHOICE D. PROHIBITED SEPARATION OF PUBLIC FACILITIES Q4 THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1875
  27. 27. A. AFRICAN AMERICANS WERE NOT ENTITLED TO FULL CITIZENSHIP B. THE 14TH AMENDMENT DID NOT APPLY TO STATES C. THE 14TH AMENDMENT DID NOT APPLY TO THE PRIVATE SECTOR D. THE 14TH AMENDMENT DID NOT APPLY TO SOUTHERN STATES Q5 THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1875WAS DECLARED UNCONSTITUTIONAL BECAUSE
  28. 28. A. WHITE RACE B. BLACK RACE C. MIXED RACE D. THE STORY DOESN’T TELL Q6 HOMER PLESSY WAS OF
  29. 29. A. HE WENTTO A THEATER FOR WHITE PEOPLE B. HE WANTEDTO GOTO A WHITE SEGREAGATED SCHOOL C. HE SAT IN A RESTAURANT CATERING ONLYWHITE PEOPLE D. HE SAT IN A WHITE SECTION OF A TRAIN Q7 WHICH OFTHE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS ABOUT PLESSY IS RIGHT
  30. 30. A. THE CIVIL RIGHTS CASESWERE PRESENTEDTO THE SUPREME COURT BY AFRICAN AMERICANS VICTIMS OF SEGREGATION B. THE SUPREME COURT RULED IN FAVOR OF PLESSY IN PLESSYV FERGUSON C. IN PLESSYV FERGUSONTHE COURT RULED THATTHE 14TH AMENDMENT DID NOT PROHIBIT SEPERATION D. THE SUPREME COURT RULED IN FAVOR OF BROWN IN BROWNV BOARD OF EDUCATION Q8 WHICH OFTHE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IS WRONG
  31. 31. A. WAS AN ORAL EXAM B. WAS CONDUCTED BYTHE FREEDMEN’S BUREAU C. INCLUDED QUESTIONS ABOUTTHE AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM D. ASSESSED THE ENGLISH SPELLING OF AFRICAN AMERICANS Q9 THE LITERACYTEST
  32. 32. A. THE VOTING FEE B. THE VOTING TAX C. THE POLL FEE D. THE POLL TAX Q10 THE FEESTO BE PAID BYVOTERS WERE CALLED

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