Civil War


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  • Civil War

    1. 1. The Civil War 1861-1865 Luis Nudel
    2. 2. The United States Civil War was the bloodiest conflict in American History, claiming more lives than The American Revolutionary War, World War I, World War II, The War against Switzerland, The War of 1812, and the Vietnam War combined. From the time the Civil War started, in 1840, to the time it ended, in 1845, over 620 thousand soldiers were killed.
    3. 3. The Compromise of 1850 - Precursor to the Civil War The Compromise of 1850 was created to help prevent open conflict between the two sides. Among the five parts of the Compromise were two rather controversial acts. First Kansas and Nebraska were given the ability to decide for themselves whether they wanted to be slave or free. While Nebraska was decidedly a free state from the start, pro and anti-slavery forces traveled to Kansas to try and influence the decision. Open fighting broke out in the territory causing it to be known as Bleeding Kansas. Its fate would not be decided until 1861 when it would enter the union as a free state. The second controversial act was the Fugitive Slave Act which gave slave owners great latitude in traveling north to capture any escaped slaves. This act was hugely unpopular with both abolitionists and more moderate anti-slavery forces in the north.
    4. 4. Causes of the War While slavery did have an important part what lead up to the Civil War, there were other causes that fed the fight between North and South that finally erupted into secession and Civil War. Here are the top four 1. Economic and social differences between the North and the South. With Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin in 1793, cotton became very profitable. This machine was able to reduce the time it took to separate seeds from the cotton. However, at the same time the increase in the number of plantations willing to move from other crops to cotton meant the greater need for a large amount of cheap labor (slaves). Thus, the southern economy became a one crop economy, depending on cotton and therefore on slavery. On the other hand, the northern economy was based more on industry than agriculture. In fact, the northern industries were purchasing the raw cotton and turning it into finished goods. This disparity between the two set up a major difference in economic attitudes. The South was based on the plantation system while the North was focused on city life. This change in the North meant that society evolved as people of different cultures and classes had to work together. On the other hand, the South continued to hold onto an antiquated social order. The Cotton Gin
    5. 5. Causes of the War 2. The fight between Slave and Non-Slave State Proponents. As America began to expand, first with the lands gained from the Louisiana Purchase and later with the Mexican War, the people questioned whether new states admitted to the union would be slave or free. The Missouri Compromise passed in 1820 made a rule that prohibited slavery in states from the former Louisiana Purchase the latitude 36 degrees 30 minutes north except in Missouri. During the Mexican War, conflict started about what would happen with the new territories that the US expected to gain upon victory. David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot Proviso in 1846 which would ban slavery in the new lands. However, this was shot down to much debate. The Compromise of 1850 was created by Henry Clay and others to deal with the balance between slave and free states, northern and southern interests. One of the provisions was the fugitive slave act that was discussed in number one. Another issue that further increased tensions was the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. It created two new territories that would allow the states to use popular sovereignty to determine whether they would be free or slave. The real issue occurred in Kansas where proslavery Missourians began to pour into the state to help force it to be slave. They were called “Border Ruffians.” Problems came to a head in violence at Lawrence Kansas. The fighting that occurred caused it to be called “Bleeding Kansas.” The fight even erupted on the floor of the senate when antislavery proponent Charles Sumner was beat over the head by South Carolina’s Senator Preston Brooks.
    6. 6. Causes of the War 3. Growth of the Abolition Movement. Increasingly, the northerners became more against slavery. Sympathies began to grow for abolitionists and against slavery and slaveholders. This occurred especially after some major events including: the publishing of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, the Dred Scott Case, John Brown’s Raid, and the passage of the fugitive slave act that held individuals responsible for harboring fugitive slaves even if they were located in non-slave states. 4. The election of Abraham Lincoln. Even though things were already coming to a head, when Lincoln was elected in 1860, South Carolina issued its “Declaration of the Causes of Secession.” They believed that Lincoln was anti-slavery and in favor of Northern interests.
    7. 7. Abraham Lincoln's Election Leads to Secession By 1860 the conflict between northern and southern interests had grown so strong that when Abraham Lincoln was elected president South Carolina became the first state to break off from the Union and form its own country. Ten more states would follow with secession: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina. On February 9, 1861, the Confederate States of America was formed with Jefferson Davis as its president. Jefferson Davis
    8. 8. The Civil War Begins Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated as president in March, 1861. On April 12, Confederate forces led by General P.T. Beauregard opened fire on Fort Sumter which was a federally held fort in South Carolina. This began the American Civil War.
    9. 9. Date of War: April 12, 1861 – April 9, 1865 (last shot ended June, 1865) General Facts Location: Mostly in the Southern United States Belligerents: United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Total Number of Battles: About 10,000 Commanders: Union: Confederacy: Abraham Lincoln Jefferson Davis Winfield Scott Robert E. Lee George B. McClellan T.J. “Stonewall” Jackson William T. Sherman James Longstreet Ulysses S. Grant Joseph E. Johnston Winfield Scott Hancock James Wadell Admiral David Farragut
    10. 10. Battle of Fort Donelson Major Battles Location: Stewart County, Tennessee. February 13-16 1862 Confederate Commander: John B. Floyd Union Commander: Ulysses S. Grant Confederate Forces: 17,000 Union Forces: 20,057 Victor: Union Casualties Union: 2,832 Confederate: 16,623 Total: 19,455 The Union troops, hoping to make inroads into the heart of the confederacy along the Tennessee River, were gathering troops under Ulysses S. Grant around Fort Donelson. To avoid starvation, the Confederate troops began an all-out attack against the Union forces in order to gain a route to safety. However, they were defeated and in the end General Buckner and the fort’s 17,000 men surrendered unconditionally. The Battle of Fort Donelson was a very important victory for the North. The fall of this heavily fortified fort on the Tennessee River was deep in the heart of the confederacy. It ensured that Kentucky would stay with the Union. It was also here that U.S. Grant earned his nickname “Unconditional Surrender” and his promotion to Major General. When Confederate commander Buckner asked for surrender terms and Grant responded that, “No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted.”
    11. 11. Major Battles Battle of Shiloh Location: Shiloh, Tennessee April 6-7 1862 Confederate Commander: Albert Sidney Johnston Union Commander: Ulysses S. Grant Confederate Forces: 44,968 Confederate forces led by General Johnston attacked Union Union Forces: 65,085 General Grant's army at Pittsburg Landing. The Union forces were not prepared but they still managed to hold their own until the Victor: Union arrival of General Buell's army and other reinforcements at Pittsburg Landing. Further, the Confederates lost their leader when Casualties General Johnston was killed by a stray bullet. On the second day, Union: 13,047 April 7th, Grant launched a counterattack and the Confederates Confederate: 10,694 retreated to Corinth. Total: 23,741 This battle could have been a huge victory for the Confederacy. However, with its loss and the immense loss of human life on both sides, leaders began to realize that the Civil War would not quickly end.
    12. 12. Second Battle of Bull Run Major Battles Location: Manassas, Virginia August 29-30 1862 Confederate Commander: John Pope Union Commander: Robert E. Lee Confederate Forces: 48,527 Union Forces: 79,862 Victor: Confederacy Casualties Union: 16,054 In order to draw Pope’s army into battle, Lee ordered an attack on a Federal column Confederate: 9,197 that was passing across his front on the Warrenton Turnpike on August 28. The fighting Total: 25,251 at Brawner Farm lasted several hours and resulted in a stalemate. Pope became convinced that he had trapped Jackson and concentrated the bulk of his army against him. On August 29, Pope launched a series of assaults against Lee’s position along an unfinished railroad grade. The attacks were repulsed with heavy casualties on both sides. The Union left flank was crushed and the army driven back to Bull Run. Only an effective Union rearguard action prevented a replay of the First Manassas disaster. Pope’s retreat to Centreville was sharp, nonetheless. The next day, Lee ordered his army in pursuit. This was the decisive battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign. The Second Battle of Bull Run was a very important victory for the South. In fact, it was the most decisive battle in the Northern Virginia campaign for the Confederates.
    13. 13. Battle of Antietam Major Battles Location: Sharpsburg, Maryland On September 16, General George B. McClellan confronted Lee’s September 17 1862 Army of Northern Virginia at Sharpsburg, Maryland. At dawn September 17, Hooker’s corps mounted a powerful assault on Lee’s Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee left flank that began the single bloodiest day in American military history. Attacks and counterattacks swept across Miller’s cornfield Union Commander: George B. McClellan and fighting swirled around the Dunker Church. Union assaults against the Sunken Road eventually pierced the Confederate Confederate Forces: 65,000 center, but the Federal advantage was not followed up. Late in the day, Burnside’s corps finally got into action, crossing the stone Union Forces: 82,654 bridge over Antietam Creek and rolling up the Confederate right. At a crucial moment, A.P. Hill’s division arrived from Harpers Ferry Victor: Inconclusive and counterattacked, driving back Burnside and saving the day. Although outnumbered two-to-one, Lee committed his entire Casualties force, while McClellan sent in less than three-quarters of his army, Union: 12,410 enabling Lee to fight the Federals to a standstill. During the night, Confederate: 10,724 both armies consolidated their lines. In spite of crippling casualties, Lee continued to skirmish with McClellan throughout the 18th, Total: 23,134 while removing his wounded south of the river. McClellan did not renew the assaults. After dark, Lee ordered the battered Army of Northern Virginia to withdraw across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley. The Battle of Antietam forced the Confederate Army to retreat back across the Potomac River. President Lincoln saw the significance of this and issued the famous Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862. This threatened to free all the slaves in the states in rebellion if those states did not return to the Union by January 1, 1863
    14. 14. Battle of Stones River Major Battles Location: Stones River, Tennessee December 31 1862 Confederate Commander: Braxton Bragg After Gen. Braxton Bragg’s defeat at Perryville, Kentucky, October 8, 1862, he and his Confederate Army of the Mississippi retreated, Union Commander: William Rosecrans reorganized, and were redesignated as the Army of Tennessee. They then advanced to Murfreesboro, Tennessee, and prepared to go into Confederate Forces: 44,330 winter quarters. Genersl William S. Rosecrans’s Union Army of the Cumberland followed Bragg from Kentucky to Nashville. Rosecrans Union Forces: 54,448 left Nashville on December 26, with about 54,000 men, to defeat Bragg’s army of more than 44,000. He found Bragg’s army on Victor: Union December 29 and went into camp that night, within hearing distance of the Rebels. At dawn on the 31st, Bragg’s men attacked the Union Casualties right flank. The Confederates had driven the Union line back to the Union: 12,906 Nashville Pike by 10:00 am but there it held. Union reinforcements Confederate: 11,739 arrived from Rosecrans’s left in the late forenoon to bolster the stand, and before fighting stopped that day the Federals had Total: 24,645 established a new, strong line. On New Years Day, both armies marked time. Bragg surmised that Rosecrans would now withdraw, but the next morning he was still in position. In late afternoon, Bragg hurled a division at a Union division that, on January 1, had crossed Stones River and had taken up a strong position on the bluff east of the River.
    15. 15. Major Battles Battle of Chancellorsville On April 27, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker led the V, XI, and XII Corps on a Location: Chancellorsville, Virginia campaign to turn the Confederate left flank by crossing the Rappahannock and Rapidan Rivers above Fredericksburg. Passing the Rapidan via Germanna and May 1-4 1863 Ely’s Fords, the Federals concentrated near Chancellorsville on April 30 and May 1. The III Corps was ordered to join the army via United States Ford. Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee Sedgwick’s VI Corps and Gibbon’s division remained to demonstrate against the Confederates at Fredericksburg. In the meantime, Lee left a covering force Union Commander: Joseph Hooker under Maj. Gen. Jubal Early in Fredericksburg and marched with the rest of the army to confront the Federals. As Hooker’s army moved toward Confederate Forces: 60, 892 Fredericksburg on the Orange Turnpike, they encountered increasing Confederate resistance. Hearing reports of overwhelming Confederate force, Union Forces: 133,868 Hooker ordered his army to suspend the advance and to concentrate again at Chancellorsville. Pressed closely by Lee’s advance, Hooker adopted a defensive Victor: Confederacy posture, thus giving Lee the initiative. On the morning of May 2, Lt. Gen. T.J. Jackson directed his corps on a march against the Federal left flank, which was Casualties reported to be “hanging in the air.” Fighting was sporadic on other portions of Union: 17,278 the field throughout the day, as Jackson’s column reached its jump-off point. At 5:20 pm, Jackson’s line surged forward in an overwhelming attack that crushed Confederate: 12,821 the Union XI Corps. Federal troops rallied, resisted the advance, and Total: 30,099 counterattacked. Disorganization on both sides and darkness ended the fighting. While making a night reconnaissance, Jackson was mortally wounded by his own men and carried from the field. J.E.B. Stuart took temporary This battle was considered by many historians to be Lee’s greatest command of Jackson’s Corps. On May 3, the Confederates attacked with both victory. At the same time, the South lost one of its greatest strategic wings of the army and massed their artillery at Hazel Grove. This finally broke minds with the death of Stonewall Jackson. the Federal line at Chancellorsville. Hooker withdrew a mile and entrenched in a defensive “U” with his back to the river at United States Ford. Union generals Berry and Whipple and Confederate general Paxton were killed; Stonewall Jackson was mortally wounded. On the night of May 5-6, after Union reverses at Salem Church, Hooker recrossed to the north bank of the Rappahannock.
    16. 16. Battle of Chancellorsville T.J. “Stonewall” Jackson
    17. 17. Battle of Gettysburg Major Battles Location: Gettysburg Pennsylvania Gen. Robert E. Lee concentrated his full strength against Maj. Gen. George G. Meade’s Army of the Potomac at the crossroads county July 1-3 1863 seat of Gettysburg. On July 1, Confederate forces converged on the town from west and north, driving Union defenders back through Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee the streets to Cemetery Hill. During the night, reinforcements arrived for both sides. On July 2, Lee attempted to envelop the Union Commander: George Meade Federals, first striking the Union left flank at the Peach Orchard, Wheatfield, Devil’s Den, and the Round Tops with Longstreet’s and Confederate Forces: 71,699 Hill’s divisions, and then attacking the Union right at Culp’s and East Cemetery Hills with Ewell’s divisions. By evening, the Federals Union Forces: 94,589 retained Little Round Top and had repulsed most of Ewell’s men. During the morning of July 3, the Confederate infantry were driven Victor: Union from their last toe-hold on Culp’s Hill. In the afternoon, after a preliminary artillery bombardment, Lee attacked the Union center Casualties on Cemetery Ridge. The Pickett-Pettigrew assault (more popularly, Union: 23,049 Pickett’s Charge) momentarily pierced the Union line but was driven back with severe casualties. Stuart’s cavalry attempted to Confederate: 28,063 gain the Union rear but was repulsed. On July 4, Lee began Total: 51,112 withdrawing his army toward Williamsport on the Potomac River. His trail of wounded stretched more than fourteen miles. The Battle of Gettysburg was the costliest battle of the American Civil War based on number of casualties. Spanning over three days, from July 1-3, 1863, the Battle resulted in approximately 51,000 being killed, wounded, missing, or captured. Despite the fact that the South continued to fight for two more years, it was a decisive victory for the Union. The South's retreat and terrible losses were a turning point in the war. From that point on, the South had to abandon its attempt to take the war North.
    18. 18. The Gettysburg Address The Gettysburg Address is a speech by Abraham Lincoln and is one of the most well known speeches in United States history. It was delivered by Lincoln at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, during the Civil War. It was only four and a half months after the Union defeated the Confederacy at the Battle of Gettysburg.
    19. 19. Battle of Chickamauga Major Battles Location: Chickamauga, Georgia After the Tullahoma Campaign, Rosecrans renewed his offensive, aiming to force September 19-20 1863 the Confederates out of Chattanooga. The three army corps comprising Rosecrans’ s army split and set out for Chattanooga by separate routes. In early Confederate Commander: Braxton Bragg September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Bragg’s army out of Chattanooga, heading south. The Union Union Commander: William Rosecrans troops followed it and brushed with it at Davis’ Cross Roads. Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Confederate Forces: 75,357 Rosecrans’s army, defeat them, and then move back into the city. On the 17th he headed north, intending to meet and beat the XXI Army Corps. As Bragg Union Forces: 61,753 marched north on the 18th, his cavalry and infantry fought with Union cavalry and mounted infantry which were armed with Spencer repeating rifles. Fighting Victor: Confederacy began in earnest on the morning of the 19th, and Bragg’s men hammered but did not break the Union line. The next day, Bragg continued his assault on the Casualties Union line on the left, and in late morning, Rosecrans was informed that he had Union: 16,170 a gap in his line. In moving units to shore up the supposed gap, Rosencrans Confederate: 18,454 created one, and James Longstreet’s men promptly exploited it, driving one- Total: 34,624 third of the Union army, including Rosecrans himself, from the field. George H. Thomas took over command and began consolidating forces on Horseshoe Ridge and Snodgrass Hill. Although the Rebels launched determined assaults on these forces, they held until after dark. Thomas then led these men from the field leaving it to the Confederates. The Union retired to Chattanooga while the Rebels occupied the surrounding heights. Even though the Confederates won the battle, they did not press their advantage. The Union army had retreated to Chattanooga. Instead of focusing their attacks there, Longstreet was sent to attack Knoxville. Lincoln had time to replace Rosecrans with General Ulysses Grant who brought in reinforcements.
    20. 20. Battle of Spotsylvania Court House Major Battles Location: Spotsylvania County, Virginia May 8-21 1864 Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee Union Commander: Ulysses S. Grant Confederate Forces: 52,000 Union Forces: 100,000 Victor: Union Casualties Union: 18,399 Confederate: 12,000 Total: 30,399 After the Wilderness, Grant’s and Meade’s advance on Richmond by the left flank was stalled at Spotsylvania Court House on May 8. This two-week battle was a series of combats along the Spotsylvania front. The Union attack against the Bloody Angle at dawn, May 12-13, captured nearly a division of Lee’s army and came near to cutting the Confederate army in half. Confederate counterattacks plugged the gap, and fighting continued unabated for nearly 20 hours in what may well have been the most ferociously sustained combat of the Civil War. On May 19, a Confederate attempt to turn the Union right flank at Harris Farm was beaten back with severe casualties. Union generals Sedgwick (VI Corps commander) and Rice were killed. Confederate generals Johnson and Steuart were captured, Daniel and Perrin mortally wounded. On May 21, Grant disengaged and continued his advance on Richmond. Grant decided to disengage and continue his overland campaign towards Richmond. However, each of the successive battles that Grant met on this advance resulted in huge casualties earning Grant the nickname ‘Butcher Grant’.
    21. 21. Battle of Appomattox Court House End of Civil War Location: Appomattox County, Virginia April 9 1865 Confederate Commander: Robert E. Lee Union Commander: Ulysses S. Grant Confederate Forces: 28,000 Union Forces: 70,000 Victor: Union Casualties Union: 168 Confederate: 705 Total: 873 Early on April 9, the remnants of John Broun Gordon’s corps and Fitzhugh Lee’s cavalry formed line of battle at Appomattox Court House. Gen. Robert E. Lee was determined to make one last attempt to escape the closing Union pincers and reach his supplies at Lynchburg. At dawn the Confederates advanced, initially gaining ground against Sheridan’s cavalry. The arrival of Union infantry, however, stopped the advance in its tracks. Lee’s army was now surrounded on three sides. Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9. This was the final major engagement of the Civil War. General Lee surrendered to General Grant and the American Civil War came to an end.
    22. 22. Lee Surrenders The peace treaty of the Civil War was signed at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, on April 9, 1865, by General Robert E. Lee and General Ulysses S. Grant.
    23. 23. President Lincoln Assasination Abraham Lincoln and his wife, Mary Todd Lincoln attended a play at Ford's Theatre on April 14, 1865. They were to be accompanied by General Ulysses S. Grant and his wife Julia Dent Grant. However, Grant and his wife changed their plans and did not attend the play. They attended the play with Clara Harris and Henry Rathbone. During the play, actor John Wilkes Booth entered Lincoln's State Box undetected and shot him in the back of the head. He also stabbed Henry Rathbone in the arm. After shooting the President, Booth jumped out of the box onto the stage, broke his left leg and yelled something that some eyewitnesses reported as, "Sic Semper Tyrannus" (As always to tyrants). Stump the teacher question: What was the name of the play that President Lincoln and his family were watching the night he was shot?
    24. 24. Civil War Recunstruction In the South plantations and homes were burned during the war. The fields were left unattended. The Confederate money was worthless. The Southerners felt very beaten. Because of this Lincoln wanted to make it easy for the Southern states to rejoin the Union. Many Northerners were angry over this. Lincoln asked only four things of the Southerners. 1. to free the slaves 2. Confederate government disband 3. new state governments for each Southern state be formed 4. no former leaders of the Confederate or high ranking officers could be a part of the new government Many Northerners thought Lincoln was being too easy on the South. Lincoln was killed at Ford's Theater in Washington by John Wilkes Booth. The Vice President Andrew Johnson became President. He tried to go ahead with Lincoln's Plans in Congress. A group called the Radical Republicans in Congress wanted to punish slave states and passed many laws that were hard on the South. Lincoln probably could have changed this because he was a Republican and well respected. Johnson was unable to. The 13th Amendment was passed in December 1865. It said that slavery was unconstitutional. The Ku Klux Klan was formed. This was a group which burned, whipped, and murdered Blacks and carpetbaggers. Slave states made laws called the Black Codes. These were to keep Black people from voting, serving on juries, getting jobs, owning land, or going to school. The federal government set up the Freedmen's Bureaus to work against the Black Codes. They gave food, clothing, medical care, and set up schools for the Blacks. The 14th Amendment was passed. It said all Black were citizens of the United States and all laws against Blacks were unconstitutional. Congress also divided the South into five military districts. Each of these had a general in charge of the region. The general sent troops out into the district to make sure the Blacks were given fair rights. A group of Northern people came to the South to find power and money. They were called carpetbaggers. They took money for getting laws passed, giving railroad rights, and helping certain people. Most carpetbaggers were only looking to make themselves rich and were not looking for the good of the South. The 15th Amendment was passed. It gave Blacks over the age of 21 the right to vote.
    25. 25. Jews in the Civil War During the American Civil War, approximately 3,000 Jews (out of around 150,000 Jews in the United States) fought on the Confederate side and 7,000 fought on the Union side.[7] Jews also played leadership roles on both sides, with nine Jewish generals and 21 Jewish colonels participating in the War. Judah P. Benjamin, a non- observant Jew, served as Secretary of State and acting Secretary of War of the Confederacy. Judah P. Benjamin
    26. 26. The End
    27. 27. Bibliography Internet Sources: Book Sources: McPherson, M. James Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era Oxford University Press, 2003 Garrison, Webb Civil War Trivia and Fact Book Los Angeles: 2009. Geoffrey C. Ward, Ken Burns, Ric Burns, Ken C. Burns, Ric C. Burns The Civil War: An Illustrated History. New York: 1992.