What caused the Civil War?
• Economic and social differences between the
North and the South.
• States right vs. federal rights.
• The fight between Slave and Non-Slave States
• Growth of the Abolition Movement
• The election of Abraham Lincoln.
Lincoln’s Actions at Ft. Sumpter
• Abraham Lincoln decided to use force
because the South was not following the
– Supplies are sent to Ft. Sumter in
Charleston Harbor (April 12, 1861)
– Confederates opened fire on the
fort, starting the war.
Battle at Fort Sumter
April 12-14, 1861
Union - Major Anderson
Confederate - Brig. Gen Beauregard
Beauregard demands surrender of the fort, but
Anderson refuses. Confederates open fire and
Union was unable to defend. Anderson
surrenders the fort.
• Confederate victory, no casualties.
Battle of Bull Run
• June 1861
• The Union army was initially successful but
Confederates reinforced and defeated Union
• Humiliating for the North; boosted confidence
of the South
• Each side underestimated the other. Both
realized this was not going to be a quick war
Battle of Shiloh
General Ulysses S. Grant
• April, 1862 Pickwick, TN
• Confederates attacked at
Shiloh and were successful
until Union reinforcements
• Union victory for General
Ulysses S. Grant, but at a
Battle of Antietam
• Strategic victory for the Union
• Bloodiest single day of the war – 22,000 men killed in
one day! 2,000 men every hour!
• Led to Lincoln issuing
the Emancipation Proclamation
• Freed the slaves only
in states that had
seceded from the
• It did not free slaves
in border states.
• July 1-3, 1863 - BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG, Pa.
• Gettysburg is the largest battle in the history of the Western
• Over 100,000 people died in 3 days It was the last time the South
invaded the North.
• That from these honored dead we take
increased devotion to that cause for which
they gave the last full measure of devotion
-- that we here highly resolve that these
dead shall not have died in vain -- that this
nation, under God, shall have a new birth
of freedom -- and that government of the
people, by the people, for the people, shall
not perish from the earth.
Over 618,000 military deaths during Civil War.
Effects of Civil War
Creation of a single unified country
Abolition of slavery
Increased power to federal government
U.S. now an industrial nation
Stronger sense of nationalism
Western lands opened to settlement
South was economically and physically