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THE HUMAN HEART
PRESENTED BY
Dr Mubashar Iqbal
Introduction to Heart
The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a closed fist that
functions as the body’s circulatory pump.
It takes in deoxygenated blood through the veins and delivers it to
the lungs for oxygenation before pumping it into the various arteries
(which provide oxygen and nutrients to body tissues by transporting
the blood throughout the body). The heart is located in the thoracic
cavity medial to the lungs and posterior to the sternum
On its superior end, the base
of the heart is attached to the
aorta
pulmonary arteries and veins,
and the vena cava. The
inferior tip of the heart,
known as the apex, rests just
superior to the diaphragm.
The base of the heart is
located along the body’s
midline with the apex pointing
toward the left side.
Because the heart points to
the left, about 2/3 of the
heart’s mass is found on the
left side of the body and the
other 1/3 is on the right
Anatomy of the Heart
Pericardium
The heart sits within a fluid-filled cavity called the
pericardial cavity. The walls and lining of the pericardial
cavity are a special membrane known as the pericardium.
Pericardium is a type of serous membrane that produces
serous fluid to lubricate the heart and prevent friction
between the ever beating heart and its surrounding
organs. Besides lubrication, the pericardium serves to
hold the heart in position and maintain a hollow space
for the heart to expand into when it is full. The
pericardium has 2 layers—a visceral layer that covers the
outside of the heart and a parietal layer that forms a sac
around the outside of the pericardial cavity.
Chambers of the Heart
The heart contains 4 chambers: the right atrium, left
atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle. The atria are
smaller than the ventricles and have thinner, less
muscular walls than the ventricles. The atria act as
receiving chambers for blood, so they are connected to
the veins that carry blood to the heart. The ventricles
are the larger, stronger pumping chambers that send
blood out of the heart. The ventricles are connected to
the arteries that carry blood away from the heart.
The chambers on the right side of the heart are smaller
and have less myocardium in their heart wall when
compared to the left side of the heart. This difference in
size between the sides of the heart is related to their
functions and the size of the 2 circulatory loops. The
right side of the heart maintains pulmonary circulation to
the nearby lungs while the left side of the heart pumps
blood all the way to the extremities of the body in the
systemic circulatory loop.
Valves of the Heart
The heart functions by pumping
blood both to the lungs and to
the systems of the body. To
prevent blood from flowing
backwards or “regurgitating”
back into the heart, a system of
one-way valves are present in
the heart. The heart valves can
be broken down into two types:
atrioventricular and semilunar
valves.
Atrioventricular valves. The
atrioventricular (AV) valves are
located in the middle of the
heart between the atria and
ventricles and only allow blood
to flow from the atria into the
ventricles. The AV valve on the
right side of the heart tricuspid
valve is called the because it is
made of three cusps (flaps) that
separate to allow blood to pass
through and connect to block
regurgitation of blood. The AV
valve on the left side of the
heart is called the mitral
valve or the bicuspid valve
because it has two cusps. The AV
valves are attached on the
ventricular side to tough strings
called chordae tendineae.
The chordae tendineae pull on the AV valves to keep them from
folding backwards and allowing blood to regurgitate past them.
During the contraction of the ventricles, the AV valves look like
domed parachutes with the chordae tendineae acting as the ropes
holding the parachutes taut.
Semilunar valves. The semilunar valves, so named for the crescent
moon shape of their cusps, are located between the ventricles and
the arteries that carry blood away from the heart. The semilunar
valve on the right side of the heart is the pulmonary valve, so
named because it prevents the backflow of blood from the
pulmonary trunk into the right ventricle. The semilunar valve on
the left side of the heart is theaortic valve, named for the fact
that it prevents the aorta from regurgitating blood back into the
left ventricle. The semilunar valves are smaller than the AV valves
and do not have chordae tendineae to hold them in place. Instead,
the cusps of the semilunar valves are cup shaped to catch
regurgitating blood and use the blood’s pressure to snap shut.
HEART DIAGRAM
INTERNAL ANATOMY OF
HEART
The Cardiac Cycle
The cardiac cycle includes
all of the events that take
place during one heartbeat.
There are 3 phases to the
cardiac cycle: atrial systole,
ventricular systole, and
relaxation.
Atrial systole: During the
atrial systole phase of the
cardiac cycle, the atria
contract and push blood
into the ventricles. To
facilitate this filling, the AV
valves stay open and the
semilunar valves stay closed
to keep arterial blood from
re-entering the heart. The
atria are much smaller than
the ventricles, so they only
fill about 25% of the
ventricles during this phase.
The ventricles remain in
diastole during this phase.
Ventricular systole: During ventricular systole, the
ventricles contract to push blood into the aorta and
pulmonary trunk. The pressure of the ventricles
forces the semilunar valves to open and the AV valves
to close. This arrangement of valves allows for blood
flow from the ventricles into the arteries. The
cardiac muscles of the atria repolarize and enter the
state of diastole during this phase.
Relaxation phase: During the relaxation phase, all 4
chambers of the heart are in diastole as blood pours
into the heart from the veins. The ventricles fill to
about 75% capacity during this phase and will be
completely filled only after the atria enter systole.
The cardiac muscle cells of the ventricles repolarize
during this phase to prepare for the next round of
depolarization and contraction. During this phase,
the AV valves open to allow blood to flow freely into
the ventricles while the semilunar valves close to
prevent the regurgitation of blood from the great
arteries into the ventricles.
Blood Flow through the
Heart
Deoxygenated blood
returning from the body
first enters the heart
from the superior
andinferior vena cava.
The blood enters the
right atrium and is
pumped through the
tricuspid valve into the
right ventricle. From the
right ventricle, the blood
is pumped through
the pulmonary
semilunar valve into
the pulmonary trunk.
The pulmonary trunk
carries blood to the lungs
where it releases carbon
dioxide and absorbs
oxygen. The blood in the
lungs returns to the
heart through
the pulmonary veins.
From the pulmonary
veins, blood enters the
heart again in the left
atrium.
The left atrium contracts
to pump blood through
the bicuspid (mitral)
valve into the left
ventricle. The left
ventricle pumps blood
through the aortic
semilunar valve into the
aorta. From the aorta,
blood enters into
systemic circulation
throughout the body
tissues until it returns to
the heart via the vena
cava and the cycle
repeats.
HEART SOUNDS
The sounds of a normal heartbeat are known as “lubb” and “dupp” and
are caused by blood pushing on the valves of the heart. The “lubb”
sound comes first in the heartbeat and is the longer of the two heart
sounds. The “lubb” sound is produced by the closing of the AV valves at
the beginning of ventricular systole. The shorter, sharper “dupp” sound
is similarly caused by the closing of the semilunar valves at the end of
ventricular systole. During a normal heartbeat, these sounds repeat in a
regular pattern of lubb-dupp-pause. Any additional sounds such as liquid
rushing or gurgling indicate a structure problem in the heart. The most
likely causes of these extraneous sounds are defects in the atrial or
ventricular septum or leakage in the valves.
The human heart

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The human heart

  • 3. Introduction to Heart The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a closed fist that functions as the body’s circulatory pump. It takes in deoxygenated blood through the veins and delivers it to the lungs for oxygenation before pumping it into the various arteries (which provide oxygen and nutrients to body tissues by transporting the blood throughout the body). The heart is located in the thoracic cavity medial to the lungs and posterior to the sternum
  • 4. On its superior end, the base of the heart is attached to the aorta pulmonary arteries and veins, and the vena cava. The inferior tip of the heart, known as the apex, rests just superior to the diaphragm. The base of the heart is located along the body’s midline with the apex pointing toward the left side. Because the heart points to the left, about 2/3 of the heart’s mass is found on the left side of the body and the other 1/3 is on the right
  • 5. Anatomy of the Heart Pericardium The heart sits within a fluid-filled cavity called the pericardial cavity. The walls and lining of the pericardial cavity are a special membrane known as the pericardium. Pericardium is a type of serous membrane that produces serous fluid to lubricate the heart and prevent friction between the ever beating heart and its surrounding organs. Besides lubrication, the pericardium serves to hold the heart in position and maintain a hollow space for the heart to expand into when it is full. The pericardium has 2 layers—a visceral layer that covers the outside of the heart and a parietal layer that forms a sac around the outside of the pericardial cavity.
  • 6. Chambers of the Heart The heart contains 4 chambers: the right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle. The atria are smaller than the ventricles and have thinner, less muscular walls than the ventricles. The atria act as receiving chambers for blood, so they are connected to the veins that carry blood to the heart. The ventricles are the larger, stronger pumping chambers that send blood out of the heart. The ventricles are connected to the arteries that carry blood away from the heart. The chambers on the right side of the heart are smaller and have less myocardium in their heart wall when compared to the left side of the heart. This difference in size between the sides of the heart is related to their functions and the size of the 2 circulatory loops. The right side of the heart maintains pulmonary circulation to the nearby lungs while the left side of the heart pumps blood all the way to the extremities of the body in the systemic circulatory loop.
  • 7. Valves of the Heart The heart functions by pumping blood both to the lungs and to the systems of the body. To prevent blood from flowing backwards or “regurgitating” back into the heart, a system of one-way valves are present in the heart. The heart valves can be broken down into two types: atrioventricular and semilunar valves. Atrioventricular valves. The atrioventricular (AV) valves are located in the middle of the heart between the atria and ventricles and only allow blood to flow from the atria into the ventricles. The AV valve on the right side of the heart tricuspid valve is called the because it is made of three cusps (flaps) that separate to allow blood to pass through and connect to block regurgitation of blood. The AV valve on the left side of the heart is called the mitral valve or the bicuspid valve because it has two cusps. The AV valves are attached on the ventricular side to tough strings called chordae tendineae.
  • 8. The chordae tendineae pull on the AV valves to keep them from folding backwards and allowing blood to regurgitate past them. During the contraction of the ventricles, the AV valves look like domed parachutes with the chordae tendineae acting as the ropes holding the parachutes taut. Semilunar valves. The semilunar valves, so named for the crescent moon shape of their cusps, are located between the ventricles and the arteries that carry blood away from the heart. The semilunar valve on the right side of the heart is the pulmonary valve, so named because it prevents the backflow of blood from the pulmonary trunk into the right ventricle. The semilunar valve on the left side of the heart is theaortic valve, named for the fact that it prevents the aorta from regurgitating blood back into the left ventricle. The semilunar valves are smaller than the AV valves and do not have chordae tendineae to hold them in place. Instead, the cusps of the semilunar valves are cup shaped to catch regurgitating blood and use the blood’s pressure to snap shut.
  • 11. The Cardiac Cycle The cardiac cycle includes all of the events that take place during one heartbeat. There are 3 phases to the cardiac cycle: atrial systole, ventricular systole, and relaxation. Atrial systole: During the atrial systole phase of the cardiac cycle, the atria contract and push blood into the ventricles. To facilitate this filling, the AV valves stay open and the semilunar valves stay closed to keep arterial blood from re-entering the heart. The atria are much smaller than the ventricles, so they only fill about 25% of the ventricles during this phase. The ventricles remain in diastole during this phase.
  • 12. Ventricular systole: During ventricular systole, the ventricles contract to push blood into the aorta and pulmonary trunk. The pressure of the ventricles forces the semilunar valves to open and the AV valves to close. This arrangement of valves allows for blood flow from the ventricles into the arteries. The cardiac muscles of the atria repolarize and enter the state of diastole during this phase. Relaxation phase: During the relaxation phase, all 4 chambers of the heart are in diastole as blood pours into the heart from the veins. The ventricles fill to about 75% capacity during this phase and will be completely filled only after the atria enter systole. The cardiac muscle cells of the ventricles repolarize during this phase to prepare for the next round of depolarization and contraction. During this phase, the AV valves open to allow blood to flow freely into the ventricles while the semilunar valves close to prevent the regurgitation of blood from the great arteries into the ventricles.
  • 13. Blood Flow through the Heart Deoxygenated blood returning from the body first enters the heart from the superior andinferior vena cava. The blood enters the right atrium and is pumped through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. From the right ventricle, the blood is pumped through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk. The pulmonary trunk carries blood to the lungs where it releases carbon dioxide and absorbs oxygen. The blood in the lungs returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins. From the pulmonary veins, blood enters the heart again in the left atrium. The left atrium contracts to pump blood through the bicuspid (mitral) valve into the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps blood through the aortic semilunar valve into the aorta. From the aorta, blood enters into systemic circulation throughout the body tissues until it returns to the heart via the vena cava and the cycle repeats.
  • 14. HEART SOUNDS The sounds of a normal heartbeat are known as “lubb” and “dupp” and are caused by blood pushing on the valves of the heart. The “lubb” sound comes first in the heartbeat and is the longer of the two heart sounds. The “lubb” sound is produced by the closing of the AV valves at the beginning of ventricular systole. The shorter, sharper “dupp” sound is similarly caused by the closing of the semilunar valves at the end of ventricular systole. During a normal heartbeat, these sounds repeat in a regular pattern of lubb-dupp-pause. Any additional sounds such as liquid rushing or gurgling indicate a structure problem in the heart. The most likely causes of these extraneous sounds are defects in the atrial or ventricular septum or leakage in the valves.