SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 52
Download to read offline
ANATOMY AND
PHYSIOLOGY OF HEART
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
OF HEART
THE HEART
 The heart is a chambered muscular organ that pumps
blood received from the veins into the arteries, and
maintains flow of blood through the entire circulatory
system.
 It has roughly the size of closed fist.
 It lies in the mediastinum behind sternum between 4th
and 8th thoracic vertebrae.
 The weight of the heart is 225 to 300 gms in adults.
 Heart is transverse in shape for children but it has
normal pyramidal shape in adults by 25 years.
LOCATION OF HEART
LOCATION OF HEART
 The human heart is located within the thoracic cavity,
medially between the lungs in the space known as the
mediastinum.
 Within the mediastinum, the heart lies in its own
space called the pericardial cavity.
 The base of the heart is located at the level of the
third costal cartilage.
 The inferior tip of the heart, the apex, lies just to the
left of the sternum between the junction of the
fourth and fifth ribs.
Cont..
 The slight deviation of the apex to the left is reflected
in a depression in the medial surface of the inferior
lobe of the left lung, called the cardiac notch.
COVERINGS OF HEART
 The heart is surrounded by membrane called
Pericardium.
 The pericardium lies within the middle mediastinum.
 Its function is to restrict excessive movements of the
heart as a whole and to serve as a lubricated container
in which the different parts of the heart can contract.
STRUCTURE OF HEART WALL
LAYERS OF HEART WALL
 Epicardium: The outer layer of the heart. The
term epicardium means “on the heart”. This is
the visceral layer of the pericardium called as
serous pericardium.
Cont..
 Myocardium:
a. This is the thick, contractile, middle layer of the
heart.
b. They possess interconnected muscle cell junctions
called syncytium for the electrical
connections to work. It can pass an action
potential from fiber to fiber.
c. The interconnected muscle fibers also helps to hold
the high pressured blood strongly inside the heart.
d. Myocardium is damaged in case of MI and cardiac
arrest.
Cont..
 Endocardium:
a. It is innermost layer of heart and made of endothelial
tissues.
b. It also cover the beam like projections of myocardial
tissue. These projections are called trabeculae
carneae and it helps to add force to the contraction of
heart.
c. Inward folds or pockets formed by the endocardium
and connective tissues are called valves (AV & SL) which
prevents the return flow of the blood. There are
tricuspid valves and bicuspid valves.
CHAMBERS OF HEART
The heart consists of four chambers.
1. Right atrium: Two large veins deliver de-
oxygenated blood to the right atrium. The superior
vena cava carries blood from the upper body. The
inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower body.
Then the right atrium pumps the blood to right
ventricle.
2. Right ventricle: The lower right chamber pumps
the de-oxygenated blood to the lungs through the
pulmonary artery. The lungs reload blood with
oxygen.
Cont..
3. Left atrium: After the lungs fill blood with
oxygen, the pulmonary veins carry the blood
to the left atrium. This upper chamber pumps
the blood to left ventricle.
4. Left ventricle: The left ventricle is slightly
larger than the right. It pumps oxygen-rich
blood to the rest of body.
THE RIGHT ATRIUM
 Right border of the heart.
 It receives blood from three veins; superior
vena cava, inferior vena cava and coronary
sinus.
 The valve between right atrium and right
ventricle is called tricuspid valve/right
atrioventricular valve. It is made of dense
cusps of connective tissue.
THE RIGHT VENTRICLE
 Receives blood from the right atrium through the
tricuspid valve .
 The edges of the valve cusps are attached to chordae
tendineae which are, in turn, attached below to
papillary muscles.
 The wall of the right ventricle is thicker than that of the
atria and contains a mass of muscular bundles known as
trabeculae carneae.
 Blood flows through the valve and into the pulmonary
arteries via the pulmonary trunk to be oxygenated in the
lungs.
THE RIGHT VENTRICLE
The Left Atrium
 Receives oxygenated blood from four
pulmonary veins.
 The walls are same thick as right atrium.
 The mitral (bicuspid) / left
atrioventricular valve guards the passage
of blood from the left atrium to the left
ventricle.
The Left Atrium
The Left Ventricle
 The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right
ventricle but the structure is similar. This is the thickest
chamber of the heart.
 It forms the apex of the heart.
 Like the right ventricle it also contains Trabeculae
carneae and chordae tendineae that anchor the cusps
to papillary muscles.
 Blood pass from the aortic valve/semilunar valve into the
ascending aorta.
 A branch of the ascending aorta called coronary artery
provides blood supply to the cardiac tissues.
THE RIGHT VENTRICLE
The Heart Valves
Atrio-ventricular valves
 Right AV (Tricuspid): Separates the right atrium from the
right ventricle. Prevents backflow into atrium.
 Left AV (Bicuspid): Separates the left atrium from the left
ventricle. Prevents backflow into atrium.
Semi-lunar valves
 Pulmonary valve: Separates the right ventricle from the
pulmonary arteries. Prevents backflow after ventricular
contraction.
 Aortic valve: Separates the left ventricle from the aorta.
Prevents backflow after ventricular contraction.
Blood flow through the heart
 The blood flow starts from right atrium.
 Then it flows to right ventricle through atrio-ventricular /
tricuspid valve.
 From right ventricle it flows through pulmonary
semilunar valves into the pulmonary artery and then to
pulmonary trunk.
 The pulmonary trunk branches to form right and left
pulmonary artery for gas exchange at left and right lungs.
 From lungs the oxygenated blood comes to left atrium
through pulmonary veins.
 From left atrium blood flows through mitral valve/left
atrio-ventricular/bicuspid valve to left ventricle.
Cont..
 From left ventricle blood is
pumped to aorta through aortic
valve then the supply goes to
different branches to different
parts of the body.
 The venous drainage from
different parts of the body
brings deoxygenated blood back
to right atrium through inferior
vena cava and superior vena
cava.
CORONARY CIRCULATION
Arterial Supply of the Heart
 Myocardial cells receive blood
supply from coronary arteries both
right and left.
 The closure of aortic valve during
ventricular relaxation prevents the
backflow of the blood and fills the
coronary artery.
 The arterial supply of the heart is
provided by the right and left
coronary arteries, which arise from
the ascending aorta immediately
above the aortic valve.
Branches of Coronary Arteries
1. Right Coronary artery: Branches
 Right marginal arteries.
 Posterior descending artery
2. Left Coronary artery: Branches
 Circumflex artery.
 Left Marginal artery.
 Left anterior descending artery
 Diagonal branches
Venous Drainage of the Heart
 Most venous blood from
the coronary capillaries
drain into the coronary
sinus ,which lies in the
posterior part of the atrio-
ventricular groove .
 Some veins do not enter
the sinus rather it drain the
venous blood directly into
right atrium with inferior
vena cava.
Nerve Supply of the Heart
CARDIAC CONDUCTION SYSTEM
 The cardiac conduction
system is a network of
specialized cardiac muscle cells
that initiate and transmit the
electrical impulses responsible
for the coordinated
contractions of each cardiac
cycle.
Cont..
Two types of cells control heartbeat:
 Conducting cells carry the electric signals.
 Muscle cells control heart’s contractions.
Components of the Cardiac
Conduction System
1. Sinoatrial node
2. Atrioventricular node
3. Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
4. Purkinje fibres
1. Sinoatrial Node
 Sinoatrial node is sometimes called as heart’s
natural pacemaker. It sends the electrical
impulses that start the heartbeat.
 The SA node is in the upper part of heart’s
right atrium. It is at the edge of atrium near
superior vena cava.
2. Atrioventricular Node
 The atrio-ventricular node delays the SA
node’s electrical signal. It delays the signal by a
consistent amount of time (a fraction of a
second) each time.
 The AV node is located in an area known as
the triangle of Koch. This is near the central
area of the heart.
3. Bundle of His
 The bundle of His is also called the
atrioventricular bundle. It is a branch of fibers
(nerve cells) that extends from AV node.
 This fiber bundle receives the electrical signal
from the AV node and carries it to the Purkinje
fibers.
 The bundle of His runs down the length of the
interventricular septum.
Cont..
The bundle of His has two branches:
 Left bundle branch sends electrical signals
through the Purkinje fibers to left ventricle.
 Right bundle branch sends electrical signals
through the Purkinje fibers to right ventricle.
4. Purkinje Fibers
 The Purkinje fibers are branches of specialized
nerve cells. They send electrical signals very
quickly to the right and left heart ventricles.
 When the Purkinje fibers deliver electrical
signals to the ventricles, the ventricles
contract.
CONDUCTING SYSTEM OF THE
HEART
Conduction of Impulse in the Heart
Initiation of impulse: Impulse is generated in SA
node at a rate of 70-80/minute. Therefore SA
node is called as pacemaker of heart.
Cont..
Spread of impulse:
 The wave of impulse spreads to both atria through
muscle tissues simultaneously causing them to
contract.
 From SA node impulse passes to ventricles through
AV node.
 Upon reaching the atrioventricular (AV) node, the
signal is delayed by 0.13 seconds.
 This delay causes ventricles to contract after atrial
contraction is over.
Cont..
 It is then conducted into the bundle of his, down the
interventricular septum.
 The bundle branches and the Purkinje fibres spread
the wave impulses at fastest rate along the ventricles,
causing them to contract.
 Impulse generation and transmission is an electrical
event whereas contraction and relaxation of heart
muscle are mechanical events.
 Mechanical events always follow electrical events.
Conduction of Impulse in the Heart

More Related Content

What's hot

Kidney structure (anatomy)
Kidney structure (anatomy)Kidney structure (anatomy)
Kidney structure (anatomy)
D.A.B.M
 
Structure and function of the lungs
Structure and function of the lungsStructure and function of the lungs
Structure and function of the lungs
Lloyd Dean
 

What's hot (20)

The heart walls
The heart wallsThe heart walls
The heart walls
 
The structure and Function of the Heart
The structure and Function of the Heart The structure and Function of the Heart
The structure and Function of the Heart
 
Heart
HeartHeart
Heart
 
2.1 blood circulation
2.1 blood circulation2.1 blood circulation
2.1 blood circulation
 
Blood vessels.2.
Blood vessels.2.Blood vessels.2.
Blood vessels.2.
 
Anatomy of the Cardiovascular system
Anatomy of the Cardiovascular systemAnatomy of the Cardiovascular system
Anatomy of the Cardiovascular system
 
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HEART
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HEARTANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HEART
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HEART
 
Right atrium of heart
Right atrium of heartRight atrium of heart
Right atrium of heart
 
Structure of a human cell
Structure of a human cellStructure of a human cell
Structure of a human cell
 
Blood and Nerve supply of the heart
Blood and Nerve supply of the heartBlood and Nerve supply of the heart
Blood and Nerve supply of the heart
 
Blood supply to heart
Blood supply to heartBlood supply to heart
Blood supply to heart
 
LUNG ANATOMY
LUNG ANATOMYLUNG ANATOMY
LUNG ANATOMY
 
Pulmonary & systemic circulation
Pulmonary & systemic circulationPulmonary & systemic circulation
Pulmonary & systemic circulation
 
2. External features of the heart
2. External  features of the heart2. External  features of the heart
2. External features of the heart
 
Kidney structure (anatomy)
Kidney structure (anatomy)Kidney structure (anatomy)
Kidney structure (anatomy)
 
The conducting system of heart
The conducting system of heartThe conducting system of heart
The conducting system of heart
 
Anatomy of the heart
Anatomy of the heartAnatomy of the heart
Anatomy of the heart
 
Heart circulation
Heart  circulationHeart  circulation
Heart circulation
 
SINOATRIAL NODE
SINOATRIAL NODESINOATRIAL NODE
SINOATRIAL NODE
 
Structure and function of the lungs
Structure and function of the lungsStructure and function of the lungs
Structure and function of the lungs
 

Similar to heart anatomy pdf.pdf

Cardio 2
Cardio  2Cardio  2
Cardio 2
prigee
 
Anatomy Of The Heart
Anatomy Of The HeartAnatomy Of The Heart
Anatomy Of The Heart
shabeel pn
 
Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular SystemCardiovascular System
Cardiovascular System
000 07
 

Similar to heart anatomy pdf.pdf (20)

"THE HEART"
"THE HEART""THE HEART"
"THE HEART"
 
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.pptx
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.pptxCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.pptx
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.pptx
 
Anatomy and physiology of the heart by Adeboye Oluwajuyitan
Anatomy and physiology of the heart by Adeboye OluwajuyitanAnatomy and physiology of the heart by Adeboye Oluwajuyitan
Anatomy and physiology of the heart by Adeboye Oluwajuyitan
 
heart-180521025843.pdf
heart-180521025843.pdfheart-180521025843.pdf
heart-180521025843.pdf
 
Heart anatomy & physiology slide share, circulatory system pdf
Heart anatomy & physiology slide share, circulatory system pdfHeart anatomy & physiology slide share, circulatory system pdf
Heart anatomy & physiology slide share, circulatory system pdf
 
Anatomy (The Heart)
Anatomy (The Heart)Anatomy (The Heart)
Anatomy (The Heart)
 
Cardio 2
Cardio  2Cardio  2
Cardio 2
 
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
 
Cardiovascular system
Cardiovascular systemCardiovascular system
Cardiovascular system
 
Anatomy Of The Heart
Anatomy Of The HeartAnatomy Of The Heart
Anatomy Of The Heart
 
Cardiovascular system ppt
Cardiovascular system pptCardiovascular system ppt
Cardiovascular system ppt
 
17 Heart
17 Heart17 Heart
17 Heart
 
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM- human anatomy and physiology.pptx
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM- human anatomy and physiology.pptxCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM- human anatomy and physiology.pptx
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM- human anatomy and physiology.pptx
 
Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular SystemCardiovascular System
Cardiovascular System
 
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.pptx
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.pptxCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.pptx
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.pptx
 
Heart.pptx
Heart.pptxHeart.pptx
Heart.pptx
 
The human heart
The human heartThe human heart
The human heart
 
Human heart
Human heartHuman heart
Human heart
 
Cardiovascular System
Cardiovascular SystemCardiovascular System
Cardiovascular System
 
08 Heart.ppt
08 Heart.ppt08 Heart.ppt
08 Heart.ppt
 

More from Pooja Rani

Retinopathy of prematurity.pdf ROP newborn
Retinopathy of prematurity.pdf ROP newbornRetinopathy of prematurity.pdf ROP newborn
Retinopathy of prematurity.pdf ROP newborn
Pooja Rani
 
braden scale.pdf braden scale pressure sore
braden scale.pdf braden scale pressure sorebraden scale.pdf braden scale pressure sore
braden scale.pdf braden scale pressure sore
Pooja Rani
 
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. NICU. neonate
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. NICU. neonateNeonatal Intensive Care Unit. NICU. neonate
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. NICU. neonate
Pooja Rani
 
methods of data collection in nursing research
methods of data collection in nursing researchmethods of data collection in nursing research
methods of data collection in nursing research
Pooja Rani
 
fertilization and implantation-converted.pdf
fertilization and implantation-converted.pdffertilization and implantation-converted.pdf
fertilization and implantation-converted.pdf
Pooja Rani
 

More from Pooja Rani (20)

Retinopathy of prematurity.pdf ROP newborn
Retinopathy of prematurity.pdf ROP newbornRetinopathy of prematurity.pdf ROP newborn
Retinopathy of prematurity.pdf ROP newborn
 
braden scale.pdf braden scale pressure sore
braden scale.pdf braden scale pressure sorebraden scale.pdf braden scale pressure sore
braden scale.pdf braden scale pressure sore
 
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. NICU. neonate
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. NICU. neonateNeonatal Intensive Care Unit. NICU. neonate
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. NICU. neonate
 
Kangaroo Mother Care . neonate. newborncare
Kangaroo Mother Care . neonate. newborncareKangaroo Mother Care . neonate. newborncare
Kangaroo Mother Care . neonate. newborncare
 
methods of data collection in nursing research
methods of data collection in nursing researchmethods of data collection in nursing research
methods of data collection in nursing research
 
Nose anatomy & physiology sensory system
Nose anatomy & physiology sensory systemNose anatomy & physiology sensory system
Nose anatomy & physiology sensory system
 
fertilization and implantation-converted.pdf
fertilization and implantation-converted.pdffertilization and implantation-converted.pdf
fertilization and implantation-converted.pdf
 
moving and lifting of patient-converted.pdf
moving and lifting of patient-converted.pdfmoving and lifting of patient-converted.pdf
moving and lifting of patient-converted.pdf
 
TONGUE.pdf
TONGUE.pdfTONGUE.pdf
TONGUE.pdf
 
systemic and pulmonary circulation.pdf
systemic and pulmonary circulation.pdfsystemic and pulmonary circulation.pdf
systemic and pulmonary circulation.pdf
 
Cardiac cycle.pdf
Cardiac cycle.pdfCardiac cycle.pdf
Cardiac cycle.pdf
 
nutritional needs.pdf
nutritional needs.pdfnutritional needs.pdf
nutritional needs.pdf
 
joints.pdf
joints.pdfjoints.pdf
joints.pdf
 
lymphatic system.pdf
lymphatic system.pdflymphatic system.pdf
lymphatic system.pdf
 
Blood grouping.pdf
Blood grouping.pdfBlood grouping.pdf
Blood grouping.pdf
 
hemostasis.pdf
hemostasis.pdfhemostasis.pdf
hemostasis.pdf
 
ANATOMY OF EYE n.pdf
ANATOMY OF EYE n.pdfANATOMY OF EYE n.pdf
ANATOMY OF EYE n.pdf
 
structure of kidney.pdf
structure of kidney.pdfstructure of kidney.pdf
structure of kidney.pdf
 
nephrons.pdf
nephrons.pdfnephrons.pdf
nephrons.pdf
 
Anti-tubercular drugs.pdf
Anti-tubercular drugs.pdfAnti-tubercular drugs.pdf
Anti-tubercular drugs.pdf
 

Recently uploaded

CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...
CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...
CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...
ocean4396
 
Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...
Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...
Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...
Abortion pills in Kuwait Cytotec pills in Kuwait
 
Cytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
Cytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose AcademicsCytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
Cytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
MedicoseAcademics
 

Recently uploaded (20)

CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...
CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...
CAS 110-63-4 BDO Liquid 1,4-Butanediol 1 4 BDO Warehouse Supply For Excellent...
 
Let's Talk About It: Ovarian Cancer (The Emotional Toll of Treatment Decision...
Let's Talk About It: Ovarian Cancer (The Emotional Toll of Treatment Decision...Let's Talk About It: Ovarian Cancer (The Emotional Toll of Treatment Decision...
Let's Talk About It: Ovarian Cancer (The Emotional Toll of Treatment Decision...
 
TEST BANK For Lewis's Medical Surgical Nursing in Canada, 4th Edition by Jane...
TEST BANK For Lewis's Medical Surgical Nursing in Canada, 4th Edition by Jane...TEST BANK For Lewis's Medical Surgical Nursing in Canada, 4th Edition by Jane...
TEST BANK For Lewis's Medical Surgical Nursing in Canada, 4th Edition by Jane...
 
Is Rheumatoid Arthritis a Metabolic Disorder.pptx
Is Rheumatoid Arthritis a Metabolic Disorder.pptxIs Rheumatoid Arthritis a Metabolic Disorder.pptx
Is Rheumatoid Arthritis a Metabolic Disorder.pptx
 
Quality control tests of suppository ...
Quality control tests  of suppository ...Quality control tests  of suppository ...
Quality control tests of suppository ...
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.GawadHemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
 
Tips to Choose the Best Psychiatrists in Indore
Tips to Choose the Best Psychiatrists in IndoreTips to Choose the Best Psychiatrists in Indore
Tips to Choose the Best Psychiatrists in Indore
 
Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...
Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...
Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...
 
Mgr university bsc nursing adult health previous question paper with answers
Mgr university  bsc nursing adult health previous question paper with answersMgr university  bsc nursing adult health previous question paper with answers
Mgr university bsc nursing adult health previous question paper with answers
 
DR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in India
DR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in IndiaDR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in India
DR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in India
 
Cytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
Cytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose AcademicsCytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
Cytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
 
Making Patient-Centric Immunotherapy a Reality in Lung Cancer: Best Practices...
Making Patient-Centric Immunotherapy a Reality in Lung Cancer: Best Practices...Making Patient-Centric Immunotherapy a Reality in Lung Cancer: Best Practices...
Making Patient-Centric Immunotherapy a Reality in Lung Cancer: Best Practices...
 
Unveiling Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: exploring it's hidden depths
Unveiling Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: exploring it's hidden depthsUnveiling Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: exploring it's hidden depths
Unveiling Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: exploring it's hidden depths
 
ESC HF 2024 Spotlights Day-2.pptx heart failure
ESC HF 2024 Spotlights Day-2.pptx heart failureESC HF 2024 Spotlights Day-2.pptx heart failure
ESC HF 2024 Spotlights Day-2.pptx heart failure
 
Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique (INIT)
Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique (INIT)Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique (INIT)
Integrated Neuromuscular Inhibition Technique (INIT)
 
SEMESTER-V CHILD HEALTH NURSING-UNIT-1-INTRODUCTION.pdf
SEMESTER-V CHILD HEALTH NURSING-UNIT-1-INTRODUCTION.pdfSEMESTER-V CHILD HEALTH NURSING-UNIT-1-INTRODUCTION.pdf
SEMESTER-V CHILD HEALTH NURSING-UNIT-1-INTRODUCTION.pdf
 
NDCT Rules, 2019: An Overview | New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules 2019
NDCT Rules, 2019: An Overview | New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules 2019NDCT Rules, 2019: An Overview | New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules 2019
NDCT Rules, 2019: An Overview | New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules 2019
 
Gallbladder Double-Diverticular: A Case Report المرارة مزدوجة التج: تقرير حالة
Gallbladder Double-Diverticular: A Case Report  المرارة مزدوجة التج: تقرير حالةGallbladder Double-Diverticular: A Case Report  المرارة مزدوجة التج: تقرير حالة
Gallbladder Double-Diverticular: A Case Report المرارة مزدوجة التج: تقرير حالة
 
HIFI* ℂall Girls In Thane West Phone 🔝 9920874524 🔝 💃 Me All Time Serviℂe Ava...
HIFI* ℂall Girls In Thane West Phone 🔝 9920874524 🔝 💃 Me All Time Serviℂe Ava...HIFI* ℂall Girls In Thane West Phone 🔝 9920874524 🔝 💃 Me All Time Serviℂe Ava...
HIFI* ℂall Girls In Thane West Phone 🔝 9920874524 🔝 💃 Me All Time Serviℂe Ava...
 
Varicose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas Hospital
Varicose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas HospitalVaricose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas Hospital
Varicose Veins Treatment Aftercare Tips by Gokuldas Hospital
 

heart anatomy pdf.pdf

  • 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HEART ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF HEART
  • 2. THE HEART  The heart is a chambered muscular organ that pumps blood received from the veins into the arteries, and maintains flow of blood through the entire circulatory system.  It has roughly the size of closed fist.  It lies in the mediastinum behind sternum between 4th and 8th thoracic vertebrae.  The weight of the heart is 225 to 300 gms in adults.  Heart is transverse in shape for children but it has normal pyramidal shape in adults by 25 years.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 6. LOCATION OF HEART  The human heart is located within the thoracic cavity, medially between the lungs in the space known as the mediastinum.  Within the mediastinum, the heart lies in its own space called the pericardial cavity.  The base of the heart is located at the level of the third costal cartilage.  The inferior tip of the heart, the apex, lies just to the left of the sternum between the junction of the fourth and fifth ribs.
  • 7. Cont..  The slight deviation of the apex to the left is reflected in a depression in the medial surface of the inferior lobe of the left lung, called the cardiac notch.
  • 8. COVERINGS OF HEART  The heart is surrounded by membrane called Pericardium.  The pericardium lies within the middle mediastinum.  Its function is to restrict excessive movements of the heart as a whole and to serve as a lubricated container in which the different parts of the heart can contract.
  • 10.
  • 11. LAYERS OF HEART WALL  Epicardium: The outer layer of the heart. The term epicardium means “on the heart”. This is the visceral layer of the pericardium called as serous pericardium.
  • 12. Cont..  Myocardium: a. This is the thick, contractile, middle layer of the heart. b. They possess interconnected muscle cell junctions called syncytium for the electrical connections to work. It can pass an action potential from fiber to fiber. c. The interconnected muscle fibers also helps to hold the high pressured blood strongly inside the heart. d. Myocardium is damaged in case of MI and cardiac arrest.
  • 13. Cont..  Endocardium: a. It is innermost layer of heart and made of endothelial tissues. b. It also cover the beam like projections of myocardial tissue. These projections are called trabeculae carneae and it helps to add force to the contraction of heart. c. Inward folds or pockets formed by the endocardium and connective tissues are called valves (AV & SL) which prevents the return flow of the blood. There are tricuspid valves and bicuspid valves.
  • 14.
  • 15. CHAMBERS OF HEART The heart consists of four chambers. 1. Right atrium: Two large veins deliver de- oxygenated blood to the right atrium. The superior vena cava carries blood from the upper body. The inferior vena cava brings blood from the lower body. Then the right atrium pumps the blood to right ventricle. 2. Right ventricle: The lower right chamber pumps the de-oxygenated blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. The lungs reload blood with oxygen.
  • 16. Cont.. 3. Left atrium: After the lungs fill blood with oxygen, the pulmonary veins carry the blood to the left atrium. This upper chamber pumps the blood to left ventricle. 4. Left ventricle: The left ventricle is slightly larger than the right. It pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of body.
  • 17. THE RIGHT ATRIUM  Right border of the heart.  It receives blood from three veins; superior vena cava, inferior vena cava and coronary sinus.  The valve between right atrium and right ventricle is called tricuspid valve/right atrioventricular valve. It is made of dense cusps of connective tissue.
  • 18.
  • 19. THE RIGHT VENTRICLE  Receives blood from the right atrium through the tricuspid valve .  The edges of the valve cusps are attached to chordae tendineae which are, in turn, attached below to papillary muscles.  The wall of the right ventricle is thicker than that of the atria and contains a mass of muscular bundles known as trabeculae carneae.  Blood flows through the valve and into the pulmonary arteries via the pulmonary trunk to be oxygenated in the lungs.
  • 21. The Left Atrium  Receives oxygenated blood from four pulmonary veins.  The walls are same thick as right atrium.  The mitral (bicuspid) / left atrioventricular valve guards the passage of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
  • 23. The Left Ventricle  The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right ventricle but the structure is similar. This is the thickest chamber of the heart.  It forms the apex of the heart.  Like the right ventricle it also contains Trabeculae carneae and chordae tendineae that anchor the cusps to papillary muscles.  Blood pass from the aortic valve/semilunar valve into the ascending aorta.  A branch of the ascending aorta called coronary artery provides blood supply to the cardiac tissues.
  • 25. The Heart Valves Atrio-ventricular valves  Right AV (Tricuspid): Separates the right atrium from the right ventricle. Prevents backflow into atrium.  Left AV (Bicuspid): Separates the left atrium from the left ventricle. Prevents backflow into atrium. Semi-lunar valves  Pulmonary valve: Separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary arteries. Prevents backflow after ventricular contraction.  Aortic valve: Separates the left ventricle from the aorta. Prevents backflow after ventricular contraction.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. Blood flow through the heart  The blood flow starts from right atrium.  Then it flows to right ventricle through atrio-ventricular / tricuspid valve.  From right ventricle it flows through pulmonary semilunar valves into the pulmonary artery and then to pulmonary trunk.  The pulmonary trunk branches to form right and left pulmonary artery for gas exchange at left and right lungs.  From lungs the oxygenated blood comes to left atrium through pulmonary veins.  From left atrium blood flows through mitral valve/left atrio-ventricular/bicuspid valve to left ventricle.
  • 29. Cont..  From left ventricle blood is pumped to aorta through aortic valve then the supply goes to different branches to different parts of the body.  The venous drainage from different parts of the body brings deoxygenated blood back to right atrium through inferior vena cava and superior vena cava.
  • 30.
  • 32. Arterial Supply of the Heart  Myocardial cells receive blood supply from coronary arteries both right and left.  The closure of aortic valve during ventricular relaxation prevents the backflow of the blood and fills the coronary artery.  The arterial supply of the heart is provided by the right and left coronary arteries, which arise from the ascending aorta immediately above the aortic valve.
  • 33. Branches of Coronary Arteries 1. Right Coronary artery: Branches  Right marginal arteries.  Posterior descending artery 2. Left Coronary artery: Branches  Circumflex artery.  Left Marginal artery.  Left anterior descending artery  Diagonal branches
  • 34.
  • 35. Venous Drainage of the Heart  Most venous blood from the coronary capillaries drain into the coronary sinus ,which lies in the posterior part of the atrio- ventricular groove .  Some veins do not enter the sinus rather it drain the venous blood directly into right atrium with inferior vena cava.
  • 36. Nerve Supply of the Heart
  • 37. CARDIAC CONDUCTION SYSTEM  The cardiac conduction system is a network of specialized cardiac muscle cells that initiate and transmit the electrical impulses responsible for the coordinated contractions of each cardiac cycle.
  • 38. Cont.. Two types of cells control heartbeat:  Conducting cells carry the electric signals.  Muscle cells control heart’s contractions.
  • 39. Components of the Cardiac Conduction System 1. Sinoatrial node 2. Atrioventricular node 3. Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) 4. Purkinje fibres
  • 40.
  • 41. 1. Sinoatrial Node  Sinoatrial node is sometimes called as heart’s natural pacemaker. It sends the electrical impulses that start the heartbeat.  The SA node is in the upper part of heart’s right atrium. It is at the edge of atrium near superior vena cava.
  • 42. 2. Atrioventricular Node  The atrio-ventricular node delays the SA node’s electrical signal. It delays the signal by a consistent amount of time (a fraction of a second) each time.  The AV node is located in an area known as the triangle of Koch. This is near the central area of the heart.
  • 43.
  • 44. 3. Bundle of His  The bundle of His is also called the atrioventricular bundle. It is a branch of fibers (nerve cells) that extends from AV node.  This fiber bundle receives the electrical signal from the AV node and carries it to the Purkinje fibers.  The bundle of His runs down the length of the interventricular septum.
  • 45.
  • 46. Cont.. The bundle of His has two branches:  Left bundle branch sends electrical signals through the Purkinje fibers to left ventricle.  Right bundle branch sends electrical signals through the Purkinje fibers to right ventricle.
  • 47. 4. Purkinje Fibers  The Purkinje fibers are branches of specialized nerve cells. They send electrical signals very quickly to the right and left heart ventricles.  When the Purkinje fibers deliver electrical signals to the ventricles, the ventricles contract.
  • 48. CONDUCTING SYSTEM OF THE HEART
  • 49. Conduction of Impulse in the Heart Initiation of impulse: Impulse is generated in SA node at a rate of 70-80/minute. Therefore SA node is called as pacemaker of heart.
  • 50. Cont.. Spread of impulse:  The wave of impulse spreads to both atria through muscle tissues simultaneously causing them to contract.  From SA node impulse passes to ventricles through AV node.  Upon reaching the atrioventricular (AV) node, the signal is delayed by 0.13 seconds.  This delay causes ventricles to contract after atrial contraction is over.
  • 51. Cont..  It is then conducted into the bundle of his, down the interventricular septum.  The bundle branches and the Purkinje fibres spread the wave impulses at fastest rate along the ventricles, causing them to contract.  Impulse generation and transmission is an electrical event whereas contraction and relaxation of heart muscle are mechanical events.  Mechanical events always follow electrical events.
  • 52. Conduction of Impulse in the Heart