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THE HUMAN
HEART ACTIVITY
MADEBY
DR MUBASHAR IQBAL
INTRODUCTION
TO HEART
The heart is a powerful muscle that pumps blood
throughout the body by means of a coordinated
contraction. The contraction is generated by an
electrical activation, which is spread by a wave of
bioelectricity that propagates in a coordinated manner
throughout the heart. Under normal conditions , the
sinoatrial node initiates an electrical impulse that
propagates through the atria to the atrio ventricular
node, where a delay permits ventricular filling before
the electrical impulse proceeds through the
specialized His-Purkinje conduction system that
spreads the electrical signal at speeds of meters per
This electrical impulse propagates diffusively
through the heart and elevates the voltage at each
cell, producing an action potential, during which a
surge in intracellular calcium initiates the
mechanical contraction. The normal rhythm is
altered when one or more spiral These waves are
life-threatening because they act as high-
frequency sources and underlie complex cardiac
electrical dynamics such astachycardia and
fibrillation.
HEART
ANATOMYHeart: A powerful muscle slightly larger than a
clenched fist. It is composed of four chambers, two
upper (the
atria) and two lower (the ventricles). It works as a
pump to send oxygen-rich blood through all the parts
of the
body. A human heart beats an average of 100,000
times per day. During that time, it pumps more than
4,300
gallons of blood throughout the entire body
Right Ventricle: The lower right chamber of the heart. During the
normal cardiac cycle, the right ventricle
receives deoxygenated blood as the right atrium contracts. During
this process the pulmonary valve is closed,
allowing the right ventricle to fill. Once both ventricles are full, they
contract. As the right ventricle contracts, the
tricuspid valve closes and the pulmonary valve opens. The closure of
the tricuspid valve prevents blood from
returning to the right atrium, and the opening of the pulmonary valve
allows the blood to flow into the pulmonary
artery toward the lungs for oxygenation of the blood
The right and left ventricles contract simultaneously; however,
because the right ventricle is thinner than the left,
it produces a lower pressure than the left when contracting. This
lower pressure is sufficient to pump the
deoxygenated blood the short distance to the lungs.
Left Ventricle: The lower left chamber of the heart. During the normal
cardiac cycle, the left ventricle receives
oxygenated blood through the mitral valve from the left atrium as it
contracts. At the same time, the aortic valve
leading to the aorta is closed, allowing the ventricle to fill with blood.
Once both ventricles are full, they
contract. As the left ventricle contracts, the mitral valve closes and
the aortic valve opens. The closure of the
mitral valve prevents blood from returning to the left atrium, and the
opening of the aortic valve allows the blood
to flow into the aorta and from there throughout the body. The left
and right ventricles contract simultaneously;
however, because the left ventricle is thicker than the right, it
produces a higher pressure than the right when
contracting. This higher pressure is necessary to pump the
oxygenated blood throughout the body.
Right Atrium: The upper right chamber of the heart. During the
normal cardiac cycle, the
right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body (blood from
the head and upper
body arrives through the superior vena cava, while blood from the
legs and lower torso
arrives through the inferior vena cava). Once both atria are full, they
contract, and the
deoxygenated blood from the right atrium flows into the right
ventricle through the open
tricuspid valve
Left Atrium: The upper left chamber of the heart. During the normal
cardiac cycle, the left
atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the
pulmonary veins. Once both
atria are full, they contract, and the oxygenated blood from the left
atrium flows into the
left ventricle through the open mitral valve.
Superior Vena Cava: One of the two main veins bringing
deoxygenated blood from the
body to the heart. Veins from the head and upper body feed into the
superior vena cava,
which empties into the right atrium of the heart.
Inferior Vena Cava: One of the two main veins bringing deoxygenated
blood from the
body to the heart. Veins from the legs and lower torso feed into the
inferior vena cava,
which empties into the right atrium of the heart.
Aorta: The central conduit from the heart to the body, the aorta
carries oxygenated blood
from the left ventricle to the various parts of the body as the left
ventricle contracts.
Because of the large pressure produced by the left ventricle, the aorta
is the largest single
blood vessel in the body and is approximately the diameter of the
thumb. The aorta
proceeds from the left ventricle of the heart through the chest and
through the abdomen and
ends by dividing into the two common iliac arteries, which continue
to the legs.
Atrial septum: The wall between the two upper chambers (the right and left
atrium) of the
heart.
Pulmonary trunk: A vessel that conveys deoxygenated blood from the right
ventricle of
the heart to the right and left pulmonary arteries, which proceed to the
lungs. When the
right ventricle contacts, the blood inside it is put under pressure and the
tricuspid valve
between the right atrium and right ventricle closes. The only exit for blood
from the right
ventricle is then through the pulmonary trunk. The arterial structure
stemming from the
pulmonary trunk is the only place in the body where arteries transport
deoxygenated blood.
Pulmonary veins: The vessels that transport oxygenated blood from the
lungs to the left
atrium. The pulmonary veins are the only veins to carry oxygenated blood.
Pulmonary Valve: One of the four one-way valves that keep blood moving
properly
Aortic Valve: One of the four one-way valves that keep blood moving properly
through
the various chambers of the heart. The aortic valve, also called a semi-lunar
valve,
separates the left ventricle from the aorta. As the ventricles contract, it opens
to allow
the oxygenated blood collected in the left ventricle to flow throughout the
body. It closes
as the ventricles relax, preventing blood from returning to the heart. Valves on
the
heart’s left side need to withstand much higher pressures than those on the
right side.
Sometimes they can wear out and leak or become thick and stiff.
Mitral Value: One of the four one-way valves that keep blood moving properly
through
the various chambers of the heart. The mitral valve separates the left atrium
from the left
ventricle. It opens to allow the oxygenated blood collected in the left atrium to
Tricuspid Valve: One of the four one-way valves that keep blood
moving properly
through the various chambers of the heart. Located between the right
atrium and the
right ventricle, the tricuspid valve is the first valve that blood
encounters as it enters the
heart. When open, it allows the deoxygenated blood collected in the
right atrium to flow
into the right ventricle. It closes as the right ventricle contracts,
preventing blood from
flowing backwards to the right atrium, thereby forcing it to exit
through the pulmonary
valve into the pulmonary artery.
The human heart activity

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The human heart activity

  • 3. INTRODUCTION TO HEART The heart is a powerful muscle that pumps blood throughout the body by means of a coordinated contraction. The contraction is generated by an electrical activation, which is spread by a wave of bioelectricity that propagates in a coordinated manner throughout the heart. Under normal conditions , the sinoatrial node initiates an electrical impulse that propagates through the atria to the atrio ventricular node, where a delay permits ventricular filling before the electrical impulse proceeds through the specialized His-Purkinje conduction system that spreads the electrical signal at speeds of meters per
  • 4. This electrical impulse propagates diffusively through the heart and elevates the voltage at each cell, producing an action potential, during which a surge in intracellular calcium initiates the mechanical contraction. The normal rhythm is altered when one or more spiral These waves are life-threatening because they act as high- frequency sources and underlie complex cardiac electrical dynamics such astachycardia and fibrillation.
  • 5. HEART ANATOMYHeart: A powerful muscle slightly larger than a clenched fist. It is composed of four chambers, two upper (the atria) and two lower (the ventricles). It works as a pump to send oxygen-rich blood through all the parts of the body. A human heart beats an average of 100,000 times per day. During that time, it pumps more than 4,300 gallons of blood throughout the entire body
  • 6. Right Ventricle: The lower right chamber of the heart. During the normal cardiac cycle, the right ventricle receives deoxygenated blood as the right atrium contracts. During this process the pulmonary valve is closed, allowing the right ventricle to fill. Once both ventricles are full, they contract. As the right ventricle contracts, the tricuspid valve closes and the pulmonary valve opens. The closure of the tricuspid valve prevents blood from returning to the right atrium, and the opening of the pulmonary valve allows the blood to flow into the pulmonary artery toward the lungs for oxygenation of the blood The right and left ventricles contract simultaneously; however, because the right ventricle is thinner than the left, it produces a lower pressure than the left when contracting. This lower pressure is sufficient to pump the deoxygenated blood the short distance to the lungs.
  • 7. Left Ventricle: The lower left chamber of the heart. During the normal cardiac cycle, the left ventricle receives oxygenated blood through the mitral valve from the left atrium as it contracts. At the same time, the aortic valve leading to the aorta is closed, allowing the ventricle to fill with blood. Once both ventricles are full, they contract. As the left ventricle contracts, the mitral valve closes and the aortic valve opens. The closure of the mitral valve prevents blood from returning to the left atrium, and the opening of the aortic valve allows the blood to flow into the aorta and from there throughout the body. The left and right ventricles contract simultaneously; however, because the left ventricle is thicker than the right, it produces a higher pressure than the right when contracting. This higher pressure is necessary to pump the oxygenated blood throughout the body.
  • 8. Right Atrium: The upper right chamber of the heart. During the normal cardiac cycle, the right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body (blood from the head and upper body arrives through the superior vena cava, while blood from the legs and lower torso arrives through the inferior vena cava). Once both atria are full, they contract, and the deoxygenated blood from the right atrium flows into the right ventricle through the open tricuspid valve
  • 9. Left Atrium: The upper left chamber of the heart. During the normal cardiac cycle, the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary veins. Once both atria are full, they contract, and the oxygenated blood from the left atrium flows into the left ventricle through the open mitral valve. Superior Vena Cava: One of the two main veins bringing deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart. Veins from the head and upper body feed into the superior vena cava, which empties into the right atrium of the heart.
  • 10. Inferior Vena Cava: One of the two main veins bringing deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart. Veins from the legs and lower torso feed into the inferior vena cava, which empties into the right atrium of the heart. Aorta: The central conduit from the heart to the body, the aorta carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the various parts of the body as the left ventricle contracts. Because of the large pressure produced by the left ventricle, the aorta is the largest single blood vessel in the body and is approximately the diameter of the thumb. The aorta proceeds from the left ventricle of the heart through the chest and through the abdomen and ends by dividing into the two common iliac arteries, which continue to the legs.
  • 11. Atrial septum: The wall between the two upper chambers (the right and left atrium) of the heart. Pulmonary trunk: A vessel that conveys deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the right and left pulmonary arteries, which proceed to the lungs. When the right ventricle contacts, the blood inside it is put under pressure and the tricuspid valve between the right atrium and right ventricle closes. The only exit for blood from the right ventricle is then through the pulmonary trunk. The arterial structure stemming from the pulmonary trunk is the only place in the body where arteries transport deoxygenated blood. Pulmonary veins: The vessels that transport oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium. The pulmonary veins are the only veins to carry oxygenated blood. Pulmonary Valve: One of the four one-way valves that keep blood moving properly
  • 12. Aortic Valve: One of the four one-way valves that keep blood moving properly through the various chambers of the heart. The aortic valve, also called a semi-lunar valve, separates the left ventricle from the aorta. As the ventricles contract, it opens to allow the oxygenated blood collected in the left ventricle to flow throughout the body. It closes as the ventricles relax, preventing blood from returning to the heart. Valves on the heart’s left side need to withstand much higher pressures than those on the right side. Sometimes they can wear out and leak or become thick and stiff. Mitral Value: One of the four one-way valves that keep blood moving properly through the various chambers of the heart. The mitral valve separates the left atrium from the left ventricle. It opens to allow the oxygenated blood collected in the left atrium to
  • 13. Tricuspid Valve: One of the four one-way valves that keep blood moving properly through the various chambers of the heart. Located between the right atrium and the right ventricle, the tricuspid valve is the first valve that blood encounters as it enters the heart. When open, it allows the deoxygenated blood collected in the right atrium to flow into the right ventricle. It closes as the right ventricle contracts, preventing blood from flowing backwards to the right atrium, thereby forcing it to exit through the pulmonary valve into the pulmonary artery.