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Ingredients for poultry ration
By
Dr. Ghulam Abbas Hashmi
PhD Poultry Science
MSc (Hons) Poultry Science
MSc (Hons) Animal Breeding and Genetics
Carbohydrates (Energy)
Carbohydrates
Sugar, starches
Indigestible fiber (cellulose) not used
Energy is needed for
•Muscular activity, movement, and keeping warm
•Biochemical energy for maintenance and growth of tissue
Glucose is metabolized and energy (ATP) is released
Energy expressed as calories
Most of feed intake is for calories (about 80% of the diet)
Fats help make cell membranes
Energy Sources
Cereal Grains
Corn (maize): world’s most important feed grain
Wheat
Barley, oats
Sorghums (milo): tannins
Millet
Rice
• Maize (Rabi)
• Richest source of energy ( High oil contents)
• Low CP i.e. 8%-9%
• UDP% value 65
• Deficient in tryptophane, vit B12
• Extremely low in calcium and fibers and fair in phosphorus
• Yellow maize with 0.5 ppm carotene and 5ppm xanthophyll
• Maize kernel contains two types of protein
• Zein , deficient in tryptophane and lysine
• Glutelin better source of tryptophane and lysine
• Varieties
Opaque
Floury
Wheat (Rabi)
High CH2O contents
CP% 9-13.5
UDP% 20-36
Good substitute for corn
Deficient in biotin
Rich in Vit. E
Protein in endosperm are Prolamine and glutelin
Glutelin have three times as much lysine as that of Prolamine
Gluten are protein in endosperm contain higher Glt and Pro
All gluten possesses elasiticity
Barley (Rabi)
High CH2O contents than oat but lower than corn
CP% 11.5
UDP% 21
Less digestible than corn and has more fiber
Contain little yellow pigment
B-glucan causes wet dropping problems
It is better than oat as a fattening feed.
Oats (Rabi)
Too low in energy
More fiber contents and less digestible (70%)
CP% 12
UDP% 14-20
Highest of oil content (5%) of any grain
Contribute high palatability to feed
Dehulled oats are similar to maiz
Sorghum (Kharif)
Resemble corn in all respects
Lower in fat than corn
UDP% 52
It is rather hard
whole grain can be fed
Tannin problem can be solved by water and alkali treatment
Rice (Kharif)
Grown for human consumption
CP% 8.00
Rough and fibrous husk makes the grain unpalatable
Brown rice is rich in starch, low in fat
Broken rice or rice tips are commonly used in poultry diet 10-20%
Contain high level of trpsin inhibitor
Millet (Kharif)
Nutritive value similar to that of oats
Higher percentage of indigestible fiber
UDP% 68
Rye (Kharif)
Nutritive value similar to that of wheat
Higher percentage of indigestible nonstarch CH2O ( pentosans and
pectins)
CP% 12.6
Sticky wet feces, Mgt. problems and carcass problems
Anti nutritional factor are tannins, alkyl resorcinol and trypsin inhibitor
Ergot fungus problem
Triticale
Hybrid of durum wheat and rye
Perform well on poorer soil
Nutritive value is between the wheat and rye
Anti nutritional factors of rye are found in some varieties
Nutrient Composition of Cereal Grains
Ingredient Crude protein
(%)
Metabolisable energy
(kcal/kg)
Calcium
(%)
Available phosphorous
(%)
Lysine
(%)
Wheat 13.0 3153 0.05 0.20 0.5
Sorghum 9.0 3263 0.02 0.15 0.3
Barley 11.5 2795 0.10 0.20 0.4
Rye 12.5 2734 0.05 0.18 0.5
Triticale 15.4 3110 0.05 0.19 0.4
Oats 12.0 2756 0.10 0.20 0.4
Maize 9.0 3420 0.10 0.34
Alternative Energy Sources
Cereals and milling by-products
Wheat middlings
Rice screenings
Roots and tubers
Cassava (manioc) roots, sweet potatoes, taro, yams
Fruits and by-products
Banana and plantain, breadfruit, dates
Miscellaneous
Molasses (by-product of sugar cane industry)
Fats (palm oil, coconut oil, animal fats)
Cereal by products
Wheat bran
Course outer covering of wheat
CP% 16.3
Protein not well digested
UDP% 23
Rich in Niacine, Vit. B12, P (more Phytin), Mg and Fe
Laxative
Increase palatability
Wheat middling
Consists of fine particles of wheat bran, wheat shorts, wheat germ and
wheat flour etc.
Deficient in Ca, carotene and Vit. D
Rice bran
Consist of seed coat and germ which is removed from rice grains
Contain half energy as corn
13%- 15% fat
Rich in Thiamine, Niacine and Mn
Palatable
Rancidity prb.
Mix with rice polishing
Rice polishing
By product of rice milling obtained in brushing the grains
Rich in B Vit.and thiamine
High fat contents
Rancidity prb. During summer storage
Adultrted with rice husk which contain 20% silica
High in fiber and oxalate contents
Protein
Muscle tissue (meat) is protein
Amino acids
Building blocks of protein; protein synthesis
Essential amino acids
Can’t be made by chicken
Must be in the diet
About 20% of diet needs to be protein
Protein sources
Legumes
Soybeans or soybean meal (cooked or heat-treated)
Peanut meal
Sunflower, safflower, sesame meals
Field peas, beans (navy, lima, fava)
Popular Feed Combination
Grains
Low in lysine; high in methionine
Legumes
High in lysine, low in methionine
Corn/soybean diet is most common
Synthetic amino acids
Methionine and lysine often limiting
Alternative Protein Sources
Cottonseed meal
Coconut meal, palm kernel meal
Milling by-products
Corn gluten meal
Brewers and distillers by-products
Animal Protein Meals
Fishmeal
Meat and bone meal
Blood and offal
Milk, buttermilk and dairy by-products (whey)
Live protein
Earthworms
Insects (fly larvae, grasshoppers, crickets, termites, bees)
Snails
Cotton seed meal (Kharif)
Manufactured from residue left after extracting oil from seeds.
CP% 38-47
UDP% 11-45
Low in Lys, Met, Thr and try
It should be fed fish meal or other feeds high in lysine
Toxic principles are gossypol and gossypurpurine which can be
destroyed by steam cooking the seeds.
Gossypol free cotton seed varieties are now available
Addition of Fe salts can alleviate the harmful effets of gossy pol
Also contain cyclopropenoid fatty acids i.e malvalic acid and sterculic
acid
These fatty acids increase aflatoxin damages, alter liver metabolism and
causes pink discoloration of yolk
Use up to 8%
Soybean meal (Kharif)
Manufactured from residue left after extracting oil from seeds.
CP% 45 hulled-50 dehulled
High quality protein
Deficient in minerals
UDP% 28
Excellent source of Lys
Good source of choline riboflavin and gly
Low in Met and cys
Over 90% digestible A.A.
Raw soybeans contain soyin , appetite depressor and trypsin inhibitor
both can be destroyed by heat
During toasing process anti nutritional factors can be reduced or
destroyed
Over toasing may also be dterimental.
Rapeseed meal (Rabi)
By product from the production of rapeseeds
Progoitrin
CP%35
UDP% 23
Although erucic acid is converted in the bird to oleic acid, it tends to
depress the growth rate and egg wt.
Quality can be improved by oil extraction process
Conditioning process can destroy the enzyme myrosinase which convert
glucosinolate to goitrogenic substances
Optimum temp. for conditioning ranges from 100 to 105 0
C for a
duration of 15-20 minutes
AA. contents are same as that of Soybean except that it is slightly lower
in lys and high in Met
Riboflavin contents are same as that of Soybean meal
Rapeseed is much richer choline and nicotinic acid than Soybean meal
Rich source of Selenium
High level of sulfer may cause leg abnormalities and sinapine
Canola meal (Rabi)
Created from rapeseed meal through selection by Canadian botanist in
1970s
More yellow in color than dark brown color
Low in glucosinolate in meal and erucic acid in oil
AA composition smilar to that of soybean
Protein supplement for all class of L/S
May be used at max. level of 20%
High level of sulfer may cause leg abnormalities and sinapine
Sunflower meal
Sunflower seed is second most important source of vegetable oil
Pericarp accounts about 40% of weight
Good source of nicotinic acid but deficient in lys
Expeller meal have higher energy contents than solvent extracted meal
CP% 43
CF% over 20
UDP% 24
Low temp. processing is desirable to prevent denaturation of lys and
other essential aa
High in Met but low in Lys and Thr
High level of chlorogenic acid
May be ysed up to 15%
Corn gluten meal (30%)
Major by product of wet milling of corn to poduce starch and syrup
Rich in carotene and xanthophyll
Poor in Lys and Try
Corn gluten meal (60%)
Major by product of wet milling of corn to poduce starch and syrup
Containing twice the CP contents of corn gluten feed
Rich in carotene and xanthophyll
Poor in Lys and Try
Guar meal
CP% 40-45
ME 2022-2270 K cal/Kg
Richer in Lys Cys and Gly than groundnut comparable in Met contents
Trypsin inhibitorfactor
Residual guar gums up to 18%
Animal protein sources
Blood meal
Dark chocolate color powder
Extermely rich high quality protein source
CP% 80
UDP% 76-82
Richest source of Lys
Rich source of Arg, Met, Cys Leu but low in Ile and Gly
Low biological value
Low digestibility
Reduce growth rate
inclusion level 1%-3%
• Feather meal
• Rich source of fat and proteins
• CP% 84
• Poor quqlity protein
• Deficient in Met, Lys, His and Try
• Rich in Leu and Cys
Fish meal
Rich in all essential a. a., Vit B12, choline, Ca and P
Good source of riboflavin
Cp% 55 -70
Fat % 2-12
Salt% 1.3-4
Unsaturated fats are susceptible to oxidation and produce toxic free
radicals
Oxidation causes heating
Gizzersine and Histamine are formed during heat processingand cause
Gizzard erosion and lesions
Fishy taint in the meat
Production of toxin due to over heating adversely affect the hatchability
Fish meal should be limited to3%-4%
Unconventional protein sources
Beneficial microorganisms like certain bacteria,
Fungi, yeast and algae
Quality of protein is comparable to that of
conventional protein sources
Unknown growth factors
Bacteria
Either grow on plant material (glucose and cellulose) or culture media
(Alcohols or petroleum derivatives)
Highest quality SCP obtained by bacteria grow in methanol
Pruteen is bacterial biomass obtainad by growing M. Methylotrophus in
methanol
65-85% CP
Use in the form of pellets
Fungi
Aspergillus and Penicillium strains
Culture media used include corn, mollases, potatoand cellulytic by
products
Peziza audrinica can be grown on poultry litter and cattle feces
Fungi rapidly multiply with in 2-3 hours over a wide range of pH,
osmotic pressure and temperature
CP% 30-60
Deficient in Met
Biological value can be increased to about 95% by adding 0.2% Met
Algae
Chlorella and Scenedesmus species
Low digestibility
Can be improvedby geneticselection,, excessive hydrolysis or different
culture media
CP% 50-60
High level of carotene and xanthophyll
Yeast
Saccharomyces cervisae, Torulla utilis, C. Lypotilica and C.
paraffinica
CP%16-20
Rich in Ca, P, Vit B and glycogen.
Hydrolyze the biomass to release nucleic acid then add Met and
flavoring agents
SCP are cheaper
Pruteen can replace fish meal even at inclusion level of 10%-15% as it
contain around 60% CP
Drawbacks
13%-22% nucleic acid in bacterial protein and 6-41% in yeast protein
Increased metabolic rate of purine in liver
Uric acid problems
SCP obtained by petroleum contain toxins
May reduce digestibility up to 15% due to presence of mycopeptides and
indigestible compounds
Digestibility can be improved by heat treatment
Rumen contents
CP%28
High biological value
Balanced A.A., fair in vit. B complex and rich in
minerals
High fiber contents
Inclusion level 10%
Poultry litter
About 60% of litter protein is in form of NPN
KOH treatment is used to improve utilization
About 10% addition of treated poultry litter in
layers improve egg production and egg quality
Nitrate toxicity
Processing problems
Meal from Insects
Cheaper
Natural diet
Include grasshoppers, crickets, termites, aphids, scale insects, beetles,
caterpillars, pupa,flies, fleas, bees, wasps and ants etc
CP% 40-75
Easily grown on waste material
Meals from small animals
Earth worm
Highly palatable
Cultivate for fishing
Vermiculture are now well established
Culture require;
Food source
Adequate moisture 50%
Adequate Aeration
1Kg worm consume .5-1Kg wasts/day
Top feeder 10-20 cm
Up to 30000 worms/m2
Snails
Major garden pest in Africa
Abundant in wet season
Hydrocyanic acid
Coocking
Dried fish silage A way of turning waste fish into quality
animal protein supplement; can completely
replace fishmeal
Limitation: requires drying
Blood meal High protein content
Limitations: extremely deficient in isoleucine,
poor palatability; can be included at no more
than 5%
Hydrolysed feather meal High protein content
Limitations: deficient in several essential
amino acids, low availability of amino acids;
can be included at no more than 5%
Poultry by-product meal Feeding value similar to that of meat meal;
recommended inclusion level of 5%
Skimmed milk powder Reject milk powder; good-quality protein; can
be included at up to 5%
Novel sources:
insects, fly larvae, earthworms,
termites, bees, snails, etc
Good protein sources; can replace 50% of
fishmeal in formulations; useful supplements
for family poultry
Limitation: no commercial production and
harvesting system

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Poultry feed ingredients

  • 1. Ingredients for poultry ration By Dr. Ghulam Abbas Hashmi PhD Poultry Science MSc (Hons) Poultry Science MSc (Hons) Animal Breeding and Genetics
  • 2. Carbohydrates (Energy) Carbohydrates Sugar, starches Indigestible fiber (cellulose) not used Energy is needed for •Muscular activity, movement, and keeping warm •Biochemical energy for maintenance and growth of tissue Glucose is metabolized and energy (ATP) is released Energy expressed as calories Most of feed intake is for calories (about 80% of the diet) Fats help make cell membranes
  • 3. Energy Sources Cereal Grains Corn (maize): world’s most important feed grain Wheat Barley, oats Sorghums (milo): tannins Millet Rice
  • 4. • Maize (Rabi) • Richest source of energy ( High oil contents) • Low CP i.e. 8%-9% • UDP% value 65 • Deficient in tryptophane, vit B12 • Extremely low in calcium and fibers and fair in phosphorus • Yellow maize with 0.5 ppm carotene and 5ppm xanthophyll • Maize kernel contains two types of protein • Zein , deficient in tryptophane and lysine • Glutelin better source of tryptophane and lysine • Varieties Opaque Floury
  • 5. Wheat (Rabi) High CH2O contents CP% 9-13.5 UDP% 20-36 Good substitute for corn Deficient in biotin Rich in Vit. E Protein in endosperm are Prolamine and glutelin Glutelin have three times as much lysine as that of Prolamine Gluten are protein in endosperm contain higher Glt and Pro All gluten possesses elasiticity
  • 6. Barley (Rabi) High CH2O contents than oat but lower than corn CP% 11.5 UDP% 21 Less digestible than corn and has more fiber Contain little yellow pigment B-glucan causes wet dropping problems It is better than oat as a fattening feed.
  • 7. Oats (Rabi) Too low in energy More fiber contents and less digestible (70%) CP% 12 UDP% 14-20 Highest of oil content (5%) of any grain Contribute high palatability to feed Dehulled oats are similar to maiz
  • 8. Sorghum (Kharif) Resemble corn in all respects Lower in fat than corn UDP% 52 It is rather hard whole grain can be fed Tannin problem can be solved by water and alkali treatment
  • 9. Rice (Kharif) Grown for human consumption CP% 8.00 Rough and fibrous husk makes the grain unpalatable Brown rice is rich in starch, low in fat Broken rice or rice tips are commonly used in poultry diet 10-20% Contain high level of trpsin inhibitor
  • 10. Millet (Kharif) Nutritive value similar to that of oats Higher percentage of indigestible fiber UDP% 68
  • 11. Rye (Kharif) Nutritive value similar to that of wheat Higher percentage of indigestible nonstarch CH2O ( pentosans and pectins) CP% 12.6 Sticky wet feces, Mgt. problems and carcass problems Anti nutritional factor are tannins, alkyl resorcinol and trypsin inhibitor Ergot fungus problem
  • 12. Triticale Hybrid of durum wheat and rye Perform well on poorer soil Nutritive value is between the wheat and rye Anti nutritional factors of rye are found in some varieties
  • 13. Nutrient Composition of Cereal Grains Ingredient Crude protein (%) Metabolisable energy (kcal/kg) Calcium (%) Available phosphorous (%) Lysine (%) Wheat 13.0 3153 0.05 0.20 0.5 Sorghum 9.0 3263 0.02 0.15 0.3 Barley 11.5 2795 0.10 0.20 0.4 Rye 12.5 2734 0.05 0.18 0.5 Triticale 15.4 3110 0.05 0.19 0.4 Oats 12.0 2756 0.10 0.20 0.4 Maize 9.0 3420 0.10 0.34
  • 14. Alternative Energy Sources Cereals and milling by-products Wheat middlings Rice screenings Roots and tubers Cassava (manioc) roots, sweet potatoes, taro, yams Fruits and by-products Banana and plantain, breadfruit, dates Miscellaneous Molasses (by-product of sugar cane industry) Fats (palm oil, coconut oil, animal fats)
  • 15. Cereal by products Wheat bran Course outer covering of wheat CP% 16.3 Protein not well digested UDP% 23 Rich in Niacine, Vit. B12, P (more Phytin), Mg and Fe Laxative Increase palatability
  • 16. Wheat middling Consists of fine particles of wheat bran, wheat shorts, wheat germ and wheat flour etc. Deficient in Ca, carotene and Vit. D
  • 17. Rice bran Consist of seed coat and germ which is removed from rice grains Contain half energy as corn 13%- 15% fat Rich in Thiamine, Niacine and Mn Palatable Rancidity prb. Mix with rice polishing
  • 18. Rice polishing By product of rice milling obtained in brushing the grains Rich in B Vit.and thiamine High fat contents Rancidity prb. During summer storage Adultrted with rice husk which contain 20% silica High in fiber and oxalate contents
  • 19. Protein Muscle tissue (meat) is protein Amino acids Building blocks of protein; protein synthesis Essential amino acids Can’t be made by chicken Must be in the diet About 20% of diet needs to be protein
  • 20. Protein sources Legumes Soybeans or soybean meal (cooked or heat-treated) Peanut meal Sunflower, safflower, sesame meals Field peas, beans (navy, lima, fava)
  • 21. Popular Feed Combination Grains Low in lysine; high in methionine Legumes High in lysine, low in methionine Corn/soybean diet is most common Synthetic amino acids Methionine and lysine often limiting
  • 22. Alternative Protein Sources Cottonseed meal Coconut meal, palm kernel meal Milling by-products Corn gluten meal Brewers and distillers by-products
  • 23. Animal Protein Meals Fishmeal Meat and bone meal Blood and offal Milk, buttermilk and dairy by-products (whey)
  • 24. Live protein Earthworms Insects (fly larvae, grasshoppers, crickets, termites, bees) Snails
  • 25. Cotton seed meal (Kharif) Manufactured from residue left after extracting oil from seeds. CP% 38-47 UDP% 11-45 Low in Lys, Met, Thr and try It should be fed fish meal or other feeds high in lysine Toxic principles are gossypol and gossypurpurine which can be destroyed by steam cooking the seeds. Gossypol free cotton seed varieties are now available Addition of Fe salts can alleviate the harmful effets of gossy pol Also contain cyclopropenoid fatty acids i.e malvalic acid and sterculic acid These fatty acids increase aflatoxin damages, alter liver metabolism and causes pink discoloration of yolk Use up to 8%
  • 26. Soybean meal (Kharif) Manufactured from residue left after extracting oil from seeds. CP% 45 hulled-50 dehulled High quality protein Deficient in minerals UDP% 28 Excellent source of Lys Good source of choline riboflavin and gly Low in Met and cys Over 90% digestible A.A. Raw soybeans contain soyin , appetite depressor and trypsin inhibitor both can be destroyed by heat During toasing process anti nutritional factors can be reduced or destroyed Over toasing may also be dterimental.
  • 27. Rapeseed meal (Rabi) By product from the production of rapeseeds Progoitrin CP%35 UDP% 23 Although erucic acid is converted in the bird to oleic acid, it tends to depress the growth rate and egg wt. Quality can be improved by oil extraction process Conditioning process can destroy the enzyme myrosinase which convert glucosinolate to goitrogenic substances Optimum temp. for conditioning ranges from 100 to 105 0 C for a duration of 15-20 minutes AA. contents are same as that of Soybean except that it is slightly lower in lys and high in Met Riboflavin contents are same as that of Soybean meal Rapeseed is much richer choline and nicotinic acid than Soybean meal Rich source of Selenium High level of sulfer may cause leg abnormalities and sinapine
  • 28. Canola meal (Rabi) Created from rapeseed meal through selection by Canadian botanist in 1970s More yellow in color than dark brown color Low in glucosinolate in meal and erucic acid in oil AA composition smilar to that of soybean Protein supplement for all class of L/S May be used at max. level of 20% High level of sulfer may cause leg abnormalities and sinapine
  • 29. Sunflower meal Sunflower seed is second most important source of vegetable oil Pericarp accounts about 40% of weight Good source of nicotinic acid but deficient in lys Expeller meal have higher energy contents than solvent extracted meal CP% 43 CF% over 20 UDP% 24 Low temp. processing is desirable to prevent denaturation of lys and other essential aa High in Met but low in Lys and Thr High level of chlorogenic acid May be ysed up to 15%
  • 30. Corn gluten meal (30%) Major by product of wet milling of corn to poduce starch and syrup Rich in carotene and xanthophyll Poor in Lys and Try Corn gluten meal (60%) Major by product of wet milling of corn to poduce starch and syrup Containing twice the CP contents of corn gluten feed Rich in carotene and xanthophyll Poor in Lys and Try
  • 31. Guar meal CP% 40-45 ME 2022-2270 K cal/Kg Richer in Lys Cys and Gly than groundnut comparable in Met contents Trypsin inhibitorfactor Residual guar gums up to 18%
  • 32. Animal protein sources Blood meal Dark chocolate color powder Extermely rich high quality protein source CP% 80 UDP% 76-82 Richest source of Lys Rich source of Arg, Met, Cys Leu but low in Ile and Gly Low biological value Low digestibility Reduce growth rate inclusion level 1%-3%
  • 33. • Feather meal • Rich source of fat and proteins • CP% 84 • Poor quqlity protein • Deficient in Met, Lys, His and Try • Rich in Leu and Cys
  • 34. Fish meal Rich in all essential a. a., Vit B12, choline, Ca and P Good source of riboflavin Cp% 55 -70 Fat % 2-12 Salt% 1.3-4 Unsaturated fats are susceptible to oxidation and produce toxic free radicals Oxidation causes heating Gizzersine and Histamine are formed during heat processingand cause Gizzard erosion and lesions Fishy taint in the meat Production of toxin due to over heating adversely affect the hatchability Fish meal should be limited to3%-4%
  • 35. Unconventional protein sources Beneficial microorganisms like certain bacteria, Fungi, yeast and algae Quality of protein is comparable to that of conventional protein sources Unknown growth factors
  • 36. Bacteria Either grow on plant material (glucose and cellulose) or culture media (Alcohols or petroleum derivatives) Highest quality SCP obtained by bacteria grow in methanol Pruteen is bacterial biomass obtainad by growing M. Methylotrophus in methanol 65-85% CP Use in the form of pellets
  • 37. Fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium strains Culture media used include corn, mollases, potatoand cellulytic by products Peziza audrinica can be grown on poultry litter and cattle feces Fungi rapidly multiply with in 2-3 hours over a wide range of pH, osmotic pressure and temperature CP% 30-60 Deficient in Met Biological value can be increased to about 95% by adding 0.2% Met
  • 38. Algae Chlorella and Scenedesmus species Low digestibility Can be improvedby geneticselection,, excessive hydrolysis or different culture media CP% 50-60 High level of carotene and xanthophyll
  • 39. Yeast Saccharomyces cervisae, Torulla utilis, C. Lypotilica and C. paraffinica CP%16-20 Rich in Ca, P, Vit B and glycogen. Hydrolyze the biomass to release nucleic acid then add Met and flavoring agents
  • 40. SCP are cheaper Pruteen can replace fish meal even at inclusion level of 10%-15% as it contain around 60% CP
  • 41. Drawbacks 13%-22% nucleic acid in bacterial protein and 6-41% in yeast protein Increased metabolic rate of purine in liver Uric acid problems SCP obtained by petroleum contain toxins May reduce digestibility up to 15% due to presence of mycopeptides and indigestible compounds Digestibility can be improved by heat treatment
  • 42. Rumen contents CP%28 High biological value Balanced A.A., fair in vit. B complex and rich in minerals High fiber contents Inclusion level 10%
  • 43. Poultry litter About 60% of litter protein is in form of NPN KOH treatment is used to improve utilization About 10% addition of treated poultry litter in layers improve egg production and egg quality Nitrate toxicity Processing problems
  • 44. Meal from Insects Cheaper Natural diet Include grasshoppers, crickets, termites, aphids, scale insects, beetles, caterpillars, pupa,flies, fleas, bees, wasps and ants etc CP% 40-75 Easily grown on waste material
  • 45. Meals from small animals Earth worm Highly palatable Cultivate for fishing Vermiculture are now well established Culture require; Food source Adequate moisture 50% Adequate Aeration 1Kg worm consume .5-1Kg wasts/day Top feeder 10-20 cm Up to 30000 worms/m2
  • 46. Snails Major garden pest in Africa Abundant in wet season Hydrocyanic acid Coocking
  • 47. Dried fish silage A way of turning waste fish into quality animal protein supplement; can completely replace fishmeal Limitation: requires drying Blood meal High protein content Limitations: extremely deficient in isoleucine, poor palatability; can be included at no more than 5% Hydrolysed feather meal High protein content Limitations: deficient in several essential amino acids, low availability of amino acids; can be included at no more than 5% Poultry by-product meal Feeding value similar to that of meat meal; recommended inclusion level of 5% Skimmed milk powder Reject milk powder; good-quality protein; can be included at up to 5% Novel sources: insects, fly larvae, earthworms, termites, bees, snails, etc Good protein sources; can replace 50% of fishmeal in formulations; useful supplements for family poultry Limitation: no commercial production and harvesting system