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Set up, maintain, and dismantle plant displays Hortykim Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Design Principles We have covered the  elements  of design in a previous lesson : (line, form, shape, size, texture, color and light). Today we will look at the  principles  of design in terms of unity, balance, proportion, scale, accent, contrast, repetition, sequence, rhythm and simplicity. “ Design elements and principles describe fundamental ideas about the practice of good visual design that are assumed to   be the basis of all intentional visual design strategies. The elements form the 'vocabulary' of the design, while the principles constitute the broader structural aspects of its composition.” from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_elements_and_principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Unity Unity is the term given to a plant display where the different objects and plants you have chosen relate to each other harmoniously to create one whole. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Unity Unity is obtained by the effective use of elements to express a main idea to the observer. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Unity Unity can be achieved by using mass plantings and repetition. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Balance Balance is a term given to a state of “visual comfort” where the observer is made to feel a plant display is attractive due to the equilibrium of a particular design. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Balance Symmetrical balance is achieved when one side of a display is the mirror image of the other side. So equal lines, forms, textures and colours are used to create this effect. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Balance Asymmetrical balance will employ different forms, colours and textures to create a visual attraction where the elements used will create a balance. For example, a horizontal linear dimension may be balanced with height. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Proportion The relationship between width, height and depth is integral in a plant display.  P roportion refers to the size of objects or plants in a display and how they work together in order to give the viewer a sense of the normal or in this case not so normal! Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Proportion We tend to judge what something may convey in terms of feeling comfortable with how it relates to, or differs from, the normal human scale or human proportion. Are the elements in your display in proportion to one another or puposefully out of proportion to convey a message or feel? Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Scale Scale refers to the size of objects or plants in relation to the surroundings. We often use the human form as a point of reference when ascertaining scale. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Scale Scale is the term used to descibe the size of a space or site. Large scale in design terms is associated with grandeur. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Scale Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009 Small scale refers to more intimate spaces.
Scale Deliberate manipulation of scale can be quite powerful and even humorous. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Scale Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Scale Size refers to definite measurements while scale describes the size relationship between adjacent objects or plants within a plant display. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Accent In order to emphasize a part of a design or plant display you may want to use an accent. What accents are used in this display? Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Accent Accents can be used to enhance a view. Accents may also be used to create bright spots in a design. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Accent Accents could also be a large mass of plants. An accent may also be a small group of plants. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Accent Accents may also include hard surfaces or objects. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Accent Using architectural plants such as sword-leaved plants amongst some type of ground cover creates an accent which draws the eye into the view. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Contrast Contrast is the tool that allows the viewer to distinguish the relative difference between things. Contrast  is the essential tool to achieve a successful accent.  The contrast should be sharp and bold. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Contrast For greatest contrast and greatest impact a design will have an extreme element imposed on something that is relatively normal. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Contrast Sudden contrasts can be very effective unless the forms or textures used are both extremes, and then they may out-show or cancel each other. A powerful effect can be created however, by placing two dominant features on either side of a neutral background. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Repetition Repetition refers to the repeated use of features like plants and objects that share an identical  shape, line, form, color and texture. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Repetition Using too much repetition may create a sense of monotony. If it is used well, repetition will give a sense of unity. Too much variety in a display will create a cluttered, busy feel which is not relaxing. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Sequence Sequence is the repetition of similar but not identical plants, surfaces, colour or objects used in a display. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Rhythm The repetition of objects, surfaces, colour or materials in a plant display will create  a sense of unity and continuity. Rhythm reduces confusion in a design. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Rhythm Rhythm is as important in a plant display as it is in one of your favorite songs. Rhythm can evoke a sense of motion as the observer’s eye is drawn through the design. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Rhythm As a creator of a plant display, you will be able to evoke a feeling of ordered rhythm and purpose when the same theme, feature or pattern is repeated in a design. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Simplicity Simplicity compliments repetition and is best achieved by getting rid of unnecessary detail. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Simplicity If a plant display contains too much detail or variety, then it will evoke a feeling of confusion. If a designer can reduce a display to a simple yet functional and attractive design, then the objective is fulfilled. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Design Principles Try to identify as many design elements and principles as you can from the following photos taken at the 2009 Ellerslie flower show. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
Resources and references Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009 Blake, James (1999) An Intro to Landscape Design and Construction Gower Publishing Limited Ingram, Dwayne L. (1991) Basic Principles of Landscape Design All photos by Kim Michele Thomas http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_elements_and_principles

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Principles Of Design For Plant Display

  • 1. Set up, maintain, and dismantle plant displays Hortykim Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 2. Design Principles We have covered the elements of design in a previous lesson : (line, form, shape, size, texture, color and light). Today we will look at the principles of design in terms of unity, balance, proportion, scale, accent, contrast, repetition, sequence, rhythm and simplicity. “ Design elements and principles describe fundamental ideas about the practice of good visual design that are assumed to be the basis of all intentional visual design strategies. The elements form the 'vocabulary' of the design, while the principles constitute the broader structural aspects of its composition.” from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_elements_and_principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 3. Unity Unity is the term given to a plant display where the different objects and plants you have chosen relate to each other harmoniously to create one whole. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 4. Unity Unity is obtained by the effective use of elements to express a main idea to the observer. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 5. Unity Unity can be achieved by using mass plantings and repetition. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 6. Balance Balance is a term given to a state of “visual comfort” where the observer is made to feel a plant display is attractive due to the equilibrium of a particular design. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 7. Balance Symmetrical balance is achieved when one side of a display is the mirror image of the other side. So equal lines, forms, textures and colours are used to create this effect. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 8. Balance Asymmetrical balance will employ different forms, colours and textures to create a visual attraction where the elements used will create a balance. For example, a horizontal linear dimension may be balanced with height. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 9. Proportion The relationship between width, height and depth is integral in a plant display. P roportion refers to the size of objects or plants in a display and how they work together in order to give the viewer a sense of the normal or in this case not so normal! Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 10. Proportion We tend to judge what something may convey in terms of feeling comfortable with how it relates to, or differs from, the normal human scale or human proportion. Are the elements in your display in proportion to one another or puposefully out of proportion to convey a message or feel? Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 11. Scale Scale refers to the size of objects or plants in relation to the surroundings. We often use the human form as a point of reference when ascertaining scale. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 12. Scale Scale is the term used to descibe the size of a space or site. Large scale in design terms is associated with grandeur. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 13. Scale Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009 Small scale refers to more intimate spaces.
  • 14. Scale Deliberate manipulation of scale can be quite powerful and even humorous. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 15. Scale Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 16. Scale Size refers to definite measurements while scale describes the size relationship between adjacent objects or plants within a plant display. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 17. Accent In order to emphasize a part of a design or plant display you may want to use an accent. What accents are used in this display? Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 18. Accent Accents can be used to enhance a view. Accents may also be used to create bright spots in a design. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 19. Accent Accents could also be a large mass of plants. An accent may also be a small group of plants. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 20. Accent Accents may also include hard surfaces or objects. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 21. Accent Using architectural plants such as sword-leaved plants amongst some type of ground cover creates an accent which draws the eye into the view. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 22. Contrast Contrast is the tool that allows the viewer to distinguish the relative difference between things. Contrast is the essential tool to achieve a successful accent. The contrast should be sharp and bold. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 23. Contrast For greatest contrast and greatest impact a design will have an extreme element imposed on something that is relatively normal. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 24. Contrast Sudden contrasts can be very effective unless the forms or textures used are both extremes, and then they may out-show or cancel each other. A powerful effect can be created however, by placing two dominant features on either side of a neutral background. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 25. Repetition Repetition refers to the repeated use of features like plants and objects that share an identical shape, line, form, color and texture. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 26. Repetition Using too much repetition may create a sense of monotony. If it is used well, repetition will give a sense of unity. Too much variety in a display will create a cluttered, busy feel which is not relaxing. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 27. Sequence Sequence is the repetition of similar but not identical plants, surfaces, colour or objects used in a display. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 28. Rhythm The repetition of objects, surfaces, colour or materials in a plant display will create a sense of unity and continuity. Rhythm reduces confusion in a design. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 29. Rhythm Rhythm is as important in a plant display as it is in one of your favorite songs. Rhythm can evoke a sense of motion as the observer’s eye is drawn through the design. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 30. Rhythm As a creator of a plant display, you will be able to evoke a feeling of ordered rhythm and purpose when the same theme, feature or pattern is repeated in a design. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 31. Simplicity Simplicity compliments repetition and is best achieved by getting rid of unnecessary detail. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 32. Simplicity If a plant display contains too much detail or variety, then it will evoke a feeling of confusion. If a designer can reduce a display to a simple yet functional and attractive design, then the objective is fulfilled. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 33. Design Principles Try to identify as many design elements and principles as you can from the following photos taken at the 2009 Ellerslie flower show. Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 34. Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 35. Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 36. Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 37. Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 38. Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 39. Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 40. Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 41. Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 42. Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 43. Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 44. Design Principles Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009
  • 45. Resources and references Hortykim, Otago Polytechnic 2009 Blake, James (1999) An Intro to Landscape Design and Construction Gower Publishing Limited Ingram, Dwayne L. (1991) Basic Principles of Landscape Design All photos by Kim Michele Thomas http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Design_elements_and_principles