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HAZARDOUS/ SCHEDULED WASTE
MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIA
INDUSTRIES
PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES
PREPARED BY:
SITI NADZIFAH BINTI GHAZALI
NORMALIA BINTI MOHAMAD
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONS) CHEMISTRY
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA, PAHANG
Since early 1990’s, the industry is developed
supported by Malaysian Government and Petroliam National Berhad
(PETRONAS)
Petrochemicals:
 Chemicals derived from petroleum or natural gas.
The chemicals the used to manufacture the products people use every day.
Building blocks for body armor and other high-tech materials.
INTRODUCTION
Raw materials that keep safe while driving the car,
communications and also viewing website.
Products made of: plastic, medicines and
medical services, cosmetic, furniture, appliance,
TVs, radio, computer, part used in transportation,
solar power panel and wind turbines.
 Organic chemicals derived from two feedstocks:
 Natural gas liquid (NGL): natural gas processing
 Oil refinery streams: Naphtha and light gas oil
Natural gas
liquid
Ethane, propane, butane: Cracked at
higher temperature to yield ethylene,
propylene, butylene and butadiene
Oil
Craking crude oil of higher
ratio of the ethylene co-
products propylene,
butylenes and butadiene,
aromatic products.
Raw materials and
feedstock
Primary petrochemicals
Petrochemicals
intermediate and
derivatives
Major end use
market
Diagram 1 The flow of petrochemical processes (Ophardt, 2003)
Production
(oil well)
Transportation
(pipeline or
boat)
Refining
(retails product)
Marketing
(terminal and
filling station)
Petrochemicals/
olefin
Figure 1 Sectors of
petrochemical industry
CATEGORY OF WASTES
The category of wastes and code in First Schedule (Regulation 2) cited
under Environmental Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulations 2005.
SW 3 Waste containing principally organic constituents who may
contain metals and inorganic materials
SW 308 Oil tanker sludges
SW 311 Waste of oil or oily sludge
SW 314 Oil or sludge from oil refinery plant maintenance operation
SW 315 Tar or tarry residues from oil refinery or petrochemical plant
SW 318 Waste, substances and articles containing or contaminated with
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) or polychlorinated triphenyls (PCT)
SW 319 Waste of phenols or phenol compounds including chlorophenol in the
form of liquids or sludges
SW 320 Waste containing formaldehyde
SW 321 Rubber or latex wastes or sludges containing organic solvents or
heavy metals
SW 325 Uncured resin waste containing organic solvents or heavy metals
including epoxy resin and phenolic resin
SW 4 Wastes which may contain either inorganic or organic constituents
SW 410 Rags, plastics, papers or filters contaminated with scheduled waste
SW 417 Waste of inks, paints, pigments, lacquer, dye or varnish
SW 425 Wastes from the production, formulation, trade or use of pesticides,
herbicides or biocides
SW 431 Waste from manufacturing or processing or use of explosives.
 Production polyvinyl chloride (PVC), resin
manufacture, ethylene glycol (polyester), styrene and
also vinyl acetate
 Oil sludge during oil tank cleaning operation and also
from
 Residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC).
 The catalyst like zeolite
ORIGIN OF THE WASTE
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Physical Properties Waste
PVC Resin
manufacture
Ethylene glycol Styrene Vinyl acetate
Boiling point (oC) N/A 537.778 197.6 145.2 72.2
Flash point (oC) 391 ≥ 321.11 111 31.1 -7.8
Melting point (oC) >250 N/A -13 -30.6 -93.2
Vapor density N/A Not applicable 2.14 3.59 3
Physical state Free flowing
powder
Tacky Solid Liquid (syrupy) Liquid
(clear viscous
liquid)
Liquid
Flammability of the
product
Non-flammable N/A May be
combustible at
high
temperature
Flammable Flammable
Solubility (in water) Insoluble in water Insoluble in water Soluble in cold
and hot water.
Very slightly
soluble in cold
water
Soluble in cold
water
RISKS
Production
of PVC
Eye
contact
Ingestion
Inhalation
Skin
contact
Resin
manufacture
irritating the
nose and
throat.
Low oral
toxicity
Irritation to
the eyes
irritation and
dermatitis
especially
the skin.
Ethylene
glycol
inhalation
ingestion
Skin
contact:
irritant and
permeator
Eye
contact:
irritant
Styrene
Eye contact:
irritant
Ingestion
Inhalation
Skin contact:
irritant and
permeator
Inflammation
of eye cause
redness,
watering and
itching
Vinyl
acetate
Skin contact:
irritant
Eye contact:
irritant
Inhalation:
lung irritant
Inflammation
of eyes:
redness,
watering,
itching
Inflammation
of skin:
itching,
scaling,
reddening
 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
 Control of odours
 Release of toxic chemicals
 VOC emission
 Generation of greenhouse gases
 Emission of contributors to acid rain
 Ozone depleting substances
 Land contamination
 Storage and handling minshap
Handling of petrochemical plant
scheduled waste.
o Hazardous waste from petrochemical plant should be separated, handled
and disposed of separately from the other waste produced.
o Labeling of hazardous waste should include the content, the date- when
the container was filled and sealed and also an appropriate hazard-
warning label.
o Worker or those who in charge to handle the petrochemical scheduled
waste should wear appropriate personal protective equipment such as
heavy duty gloves, dust mask, safety glasses and overalls.
o All the oil sludge, used oil and slop oils from wastewater and other
hazardous waste from petrochemical plant must be put in a suitable
drum and containers. These containers must be leaks proof.
Procedure in storage scheduled waste
of petrochemical plant
i. Fenced and located separately from the general waste storage
area with a clear warning sign;
ii. Accessible for authorized persons only and should be locked
when no access required.
iii. Well ventilated and well lit;
iv. Located on well-drained, impervious hard-standing.
Transportation at producer site
LABELING
• The container that containing scheduled waste
should be labeled by using a permanent marker
or paint and the labeling symbol from the third
scheduled under Environmental Quality
(scheduled wastes) regulations, 2005/1989.
• The label must include the following information
which is the words “scheduled or hazardous
waste”, a clear waste description and the
accumulation start date which is the first date of
waste was collected into a container,
LABELING
Recommended treatment
and recovery
The alternatives to recycling or reuses process of
petrochemical waste;
I. The fuel olis residues that are generated from
olefin plants could be reuse as a feed for carbon
black production.
II. The waste olis can be refined and reused by
further process.
III. The low quality polymer produced can be in
plastic industries.
IV. Regenerated and reused the spent adsorbent
and molecular sieve.
RECOMMENDED TREATMENT/
RECOVERY
• Eliminate the odors and VOCs
• A cleaner, greener world
Dolan’s Green Solution
(DGS)
• Clean up oil spillsBOCs (Bioorganic
Catalysts)
• Oil dispersant & bioremediation accelerant used
in a cost manner directly in a water and ground.NONTOX
• Reducing energy & infrastructure cost
Ecosystem PLUS
• Perform cleaning product
• Breakdown of harmful chemicals before they
reach to the drain.
MC501
DISPOSAL OF SCHEDULED WASTES
o The scheduled waste from petrochemical plant
usually disposed at KualitiAlamSdn. Bhd.
o There are five major facilities of treatment and
disposal scheduled waste which is incineration
plant, physical and chemical treatment plant,
solidification, secure landfill and leachate
treatment plant.
o The used oils commonly undergo chemical
treatment and the other petrochemical wastes
were usually disposed at secure landfills and
incinerators.
CONCLUSION
Suitable technique to treats and handle
hazardous waste from petrochemical plants was
required to protect public health and
environments. Thus, reduced the hazardous
waste production and handling cost.
REFERENCES
• H.M. Freeman, (1998). Standard Handbook Of Hazardous Waste
Treatment and Disposal. McGraw Hill
• Material Safety Data Sheet, Science Lab.com.
• M.R.Sulaiman, K.M. Ariff,.(2006). Hazardous waste management
with thw references to the Enviromental Quality Act, 1974.Upena.
• Orphardt, C.E., (2003). Oil to Petrochemicals. Virtual Chembook, El
humst College.
• (2010). 10ed. Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes)
Regulations 2005. Environmental Quality Act and Regulations, MDC
Publishers Sdn.Bhd, 135-156.

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petrochemical industry

  • 1. HAZARDOUS/ SCHEDULED WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIA INDUSTRIES PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES PREPARED BY: SITI NADZIFAH BINTI GHAZALI NORMALIA BINTI MOHAMAD BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONS) CHEMISTRY UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA, PAHANG
  • 2. Since early 1990’s, the industry is developed supported by Malaysian Government and Petroliam National Berhad (PETRONAS) Petrochemicals:  Chemicals derived from petroleum or natural gas. The chemicals the used to manufacture the products people use every day. Building blocks for body armor and other high-tech materials. INTRODUCTION
  • 3. Raw materials that keep safe while driving the car, communications and also viewing website. Products made of: plastic, medicines and medical services, cosmetic, furniture, appliance, TVs, radio, computer, part used in transportation, solar power panel and wind turbines.  Organic chemicals derived from two feedstocks:  Natural gas liquid (NGL): natural gas processing  Oil refinery streams: Naphtha and light gas oil
  • 4. Natural gas liquid Ethane, propane, butane: Cracked at higher temperature to yield ethylene, propylene, butylene and butadiene Oil Craking crude oil of higher ratio of the ethylene co- products propylene, butylenes and butadiene, aromatic products.
  • 5. Raw materials and feedstock Primary petrochemicals Petrochemicals intermediate and derivatives Major end use market Diagram 1 The flow of petrochemical processes (Ophardt, 2003)
  • 6.
  • 7. Production (oil well) Transportation (pipeline or boat) Refining (retails product) Marketing (terminal and filling station) Petrochemicals/ olefin Figure 1 Sectors of petrochemical industry
  • 8. CATEGORY OF WASTES The category of wastes and code in First Schedule (Regulation 2) cited under Environmental Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulations 2005. SW 3 Waste containing principally organic constituents who may contain metals and inorganic materials SW 308 Oil tanker sludges SW 311 Waste of oil or oily sludge SW 314 Oil or sludge from oil refinery plant maintenance operation SW 315 Tar or tarry residues from oil refinery or petrochemical plant SW 318 Waste, substances and articles containing or contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) or polychlorinated triphenyls (PCT)
  • 9. SW 319 Waste of phenols or phenol compounds including chlorophenol in the form of liquids or sludges SW 320 Waste containing formaldehyde SW 321 Rubber or latex wastes or sludges containing organic solvents or heavy metals SW 325 Uncured resin waste containing organic solvents or heavy metals including epoxy resin and phenolic resin SW 4 Wastes which may contain either inorganic or organic constituents SW 410 Rags, plastics, papers or filters contaminated with scheduled waste SW 417 Waste of inks, paints, pigments, lacquer, dye or varnish SW 425 Wastes from the production, formulation, trade or use of pesticides, herbicides or biocides SW 431 Waste from manufacturing or processing or use of explosives.
  • 10.  Production polyvinyl chloride (PVC), resin manufacture, ethylene glycol (polyester), styrene and also vinyl acetate  Oil sludge during oil tank cleaning operation and also from  Residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC).  The catalyst like zeolite ORIGIN OF THE WASTE
  • 11. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Physical Properties Waste PVC Resin manufacture Ethylene glycol Styrene Vinyl acetate Boiling point (oC) N/A 537.778 197.6 145.2 72.2 Flash point (oC) 391 ≥ 321.11 111 31.1 -7.8 Melting point (oC) >250 N/A -13 -30.6 -93.2 Vapor density N/A Not applicable 2.14 3.59 3 Physical state Free flowing powder Tacky Solid Liquid (syrupy) Liquid (clear viscous liquid) Liquid Flammability of the product Non-flammable N/A May be combustible at high temperature Flammable Flammable Solubility (in water) Insoluble in water Insoluble in water Soluble in cold and hot water. Very slightly soluble in cold water Soluble in cold water
  • 12. RISKS Production of PVC Eye contact Ingestion Inhalation Skin contact Resin manufacture irritating the nose and throat. Low oral toxicity Irritation to the eyes irritation and dermatitis especially the skin.
  • 14. Vinyl acetate Skin contact: irritant Eye contact: irritant Inhalation: lung irritant Inflammation of eyes: redness, watering, itching Inflammation of skin: itching, scaling, reddening
  • 15.  ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES  Control of odours  Release of toxic chemicals  VOC emission  Generation of greenhouse gases  Emission of contributors to acid rain  Ozone depleting substances  Land contamination  Storage and handling minshap
  • 16. Handling of petrochemical plant scheduled waste. o Hazardous waste from petrochemical plant should be separated, handled and disposed of separately from the other waste produced. o Labeling of hazardous waste should include the content, the date- when the container was filled and sealed and also an appropriate hazard- warning label. o Worker or those who in charge to handle the petrochemical scheduled waste should wear appropriate personal protective equipment such as heavy duty gloves, dust mask, safety glasses and overalls. o All the oil sludge, used oil and slop oils from wastewater and other hazardous waste from petrochemical plant must be put in a suitable drum and containers. These containers must be leaks proof.
  • 17. Procedure in storage scheduled waste of petrochemical plant i. Fenced and located separately from the general waste storage area with a clear warning sign; ii. Accessible for authorized persons only and should be locked when no access required. iii. Well ventilated and well lit; iv. Located on well-drained, impervious hard-standing.
  • 19. LABELING • The container that containing scheduled waste should be labeled by using a permanent marker or paint and the labeling symbol from the third scheduled under Environmental Quality (scheduled wastes) regulations, 2005/1989. • The label must include the following information which is the words “scheduled or hazardous waste”, a clear waste description and the accumulation start date which is the first date of waste was collected into a container,
  • 21.
  • 22. Recommended treatment and recovery The alternatives to recycling or reuses process of petrochemical waste; I. The fuel olis residues that are generated from olefin plants could be reuse as a feed for carbon black production. II. The waste olis can be refined and reused by further process. III. The low quality polymer produced can be in plastic industries. IV. Regenerated and reused the spent adsorbent and molecular sieve.
  • 23. RECOMMENDED TREATMENT/ RECOVERY • Eliminate the odors and VOCs • A cleaner, greener world Dolan’s Green Solution (DGS) • Clean up oil spillsBOCs (Bioorganic Catalysts) • Oil dispersant & bioremediation accelerant used in a cost manner directly in a water and ground.NONTOX • Reducing energy & infrastructure cost Ecosystem PLUS • Perform cleaning product • Breakdown of harmful chemicals before they reach to the drain. MC501
  • 24. DISPOSAL OF SCHEDULED WASTES o The scheduled waste from petrochemical plant usually disposed at KualitiAlamSdn. Bhd. o There are five major facilities of treatment and disposal scheduled waste which is incineration plant, physical and chemical treatment plant, solidification, secure landfill and leachate treatment plant. o The used oils commonly undergo chemical treatment and the other petrochemical wastes were usually disposed at secure landfills and incinerators.
  • 25. CONCLUSION Suitable technique to treats and handle hazardous waste from petrochemical plants was required to protect public health and environments. Thus, reduced the hazardous waste production and handling cost.
  • 26. REFERENCES • H.M. Freeman, (1998). Standard Handbook Of Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal. McGraw Hill • Material Safety Data Sheet, Science Lab.com. • M.R.Sulaiman, K.M. Ariff,.(2006). Hazardous waste management with thw references to the Enviromental Quality Act, 1974.Upena. • Orphardt, C.E., (2003). Oil to Petrochemicals. Virtual Chembook, El humst College. • (2010). 10ed. Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations 2005. Environmental Quality Act and Regulations, MDC Publishers Sdn.Bhd, 135-156.