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WASTE TO ENERGY CONVERSION
PRESENTATION DONE BY:
J.VIGNESH
B.TECH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
PAAVAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE
PLASTIC WASTE- TIME BOMB TICKING
FOR INDIA
• 150 million tons of plastic is produced world wide per year.
• India consumed 12.5 million tons of plastic products every
year.
• 70% of total plastic consumption is discarded as waste, thus
approximately 8.5 million tons per annum of plastic waste is
generated in country, which is about 15342 tons per day.
SOLTIONS FOR PLASTICS???
• Burning directly in atmosphere
• Landfilling (or) dumping
• Recycling
• Converting into energy
WHAT IS A WASTE???
WASTE
• Materials that are not prime products for a producer and have
no further use in the process as such and are required to be
discarded/ recovered.
PROPERTIES
1. Toxicity
2. Reactivity
3. Ignitability
4. Corrosivity
 All wastes are not possible for energy production.
 As the composition is different for various wastes, also a
single technique will not be convenient(suitable)..
IMPORTANT QUALITY PARAMETERS
Here we primarily concentrates on producing the energy from the waste
plastics. So the quality parameters of solid wastes have to be considered.
Usually, the solid wastes can be classified as(based on use) organics, inerts
and recyclables. Among these the organics and recyclables have a large
heating value and taken for WTE conversion. While the inerts is not
suitable as it have a low heating value.
SOLID LIQUID GAS/AIR
Elemental composition
(C,H)
BOD Hydrocarbons and other
fuel molecules
Heating Value COD NOX, SOX, CO
TOC
GOVERNMENT POLICIES
When some new concept is formed, many ministry have to approve
that concept and need to frame policies for that.
Some are listed below:
1. Ministry of external affairs
2. Ministry of forestry
3. Ministry of environment
4. Ministry of climate
5. Ministry of railways
6. Ministry of shipping
7. Ministry of roadways& highways
The central government needs these from the ministry of particular
state government from where the concept was proposed.
ROUTES OF ENERGY PRODUCTION
THERMAL CONVERSION
1. Incineration →hot flue gas →electricity, steam
2. Gasification → sin gas →electricity, hydrogen
3. PYROLYSIS →bio-oil
BIOLOGICAL CONVERSION
1. Anaerobic digestion →methonic gas
2. Fermentation(done with the help of microorganisms/ enzymes)
→alcohol, acids
CHEMICAL METHODS
1. Hydrolysis →breakdown the bigger to small →cellulose, hemi-
cellulose
ROUTES OF ENERGY CONVERSION
2. Transesterification →biodisel from sources like waste cooking
oil
3. Solvent extraction →bio-oil from oil seeds
PHYSICAL METHODS
1. Briquetting →densified solids of high mechanical strength
2. Distillation →product separation
3. Mechanical extraction →bio-oil production
 Thermal method is more suitable than all the other methods.
PYROLYSIS OF PLASTICS
• Pyro - heat
• Lysis -breakdown
• Thus pyrolysis is a thermal cracking reaction of the large
molecular weight polymer carbon chains under an oxygen free
environment and produces small molecular weight molecules.
PROCEDURE TO BE FOLLOWED
• The plastic wastes are to be collected in a closed metallic
chamber.
• It is closed in such a way that there is no availability of oxygen.
• The temperature is to be maintained at a range of 350-450
degree Celsius.
• After sometime, the polymer bond gets broken and the flue gas
has produced.
• These gases are collected and transported to a water bath through
a pipe of suitable length.
• Due to the reaction with the water in the water bath, the crude oil
will be produced there.
PRODUCTION OF BIO-OIL
• The produced crude oil have to be allowed for the fractional
distillation process.
• Thus, the petrol, diesel and kerosene will be obtained separately
at different temperatures.
• Then they are allowed for the purification.
• After the purification process, it is to be mixed with the normal
fuels in the ratio of 75:25 for a better efficiency.
• The aim is to convert the wastes into a useful source of energy
and thereby destroying that wastes also. But, there will be still
some particles available inside the pyrolysis chamber and we
found some ideas for converting them into an useful form.
PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON
• The way is to convert them as activated carbon.
• Primarily, the bottom product is to be heated in a furnace at 110
degree Celsius for about 10 minutes to remove the moisture.
• After removing the moisture, the furnace temperature is raised to
600 degree Celsius in a stepwise manner.
• The above process is stabilized by fusing the content with zeolite
and the supply of nitrogen gas at a rate of 100ml/hr.
• This procedure is continued for 3hrs and then the supply of
nitrogen is stopped and the temperature have to be reduced
slowly.
PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON
• After the above process, the contents are allowed for cooling.
• The activated carbon are mainly used in the areas of water
purification.
• So after the cooling process is completed, the contents are to
be doped with the silver nanoparticles for a effective
purification.
PRODUCTION OF BRIQUETTES
• It is a tightly compressed block of coal dust or the combustible
biomass such as charcoal, wood pieces, peat, etc…..
• Charcoal briquettes are very useful than others because of its
long last and virtually smokeless fire.
• To increase its burning efficiency, lignite or anthracite coal will
be added to it.
• The carbon black obtained from the process can replace this coal
in the manufacturing of briquettes.
• Now-a-days, briquettes are widely used in many places due to
lack of coal and firewood and also of its long stand burning
ability.
WTE TECHNOLOGIES
• Waste to energy technologies use municipal solid wastes or any
waste material containing huge amounts of renewable and
biological materials to generate heat, electricity and fuel through
several complex conversion methods.
• It is a new lease of life.
• China is working vigorously towards commercializing this
technique.
EUROPE
• Has 400 WTE plants in which nearly 33% of total MSW are
processed through incineration.
WTE TECHNOLOGIES
• By the above process nearly 88 billion W and 33 billion W of
heat and electricity are produced.
• For this nearly 96 million tons of fossil fuels are requiried and
thus are saved.
UNITED KINGDOM
• Has 2 effective WTE plants.
• 360900 tons of wastes are processed per annum.
• Daily 21.2MW and 21.0MW are produced from these two
plants respectively.
• Now an another 1 plant is under development while 2 are
planned further.
WTE IN INDIA
• The first WTE plant was installed in the year 2014-2015.
• 245MW is the installed capacity of that plant.
• Nearly 13% of renewable sources only are taken for the
processing while the remaining gets wasted without any
processing.
• Through wind, solar, bio-mass, waste and hydropower
sources, there has a capacity of 147615MW per annum but
only 21% are produced.
• So the government have to concentrate more about this
technique which is very much important and a necessary one.
Pyrolysis of plastics

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Pyrolysis of plastics

  • 1. WASTE TO ENERGY CONVERSION PRESENTATION DONE BY: J.VIGNESH B.TECH CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PAAVAI ENGINEERING COLLEGE
  • 2. PLASTIC WASTE- TIME BOMB TICKING FOR INDIA • 150 million tons of plastic is produced world wide per year. • India consumed 12.5 million tons of plastic products every year. • 70% of total plastic consumption is discarded as waste, thus approximately 8.5 million tons per annum of plastic waste is generated in country, which is about 15342 tons per day.
  • 3. SOLTIONS FOR PLASTICS??? • Burning directly in atmosphere • Landfilling (or) dumping • Recycling • Converting into energy
  • 4. WHAT IS A WASTE??? WASTE • Materials that are not prime products for a producer and have no further use in the process as such and are required to be discarded/ recovered. PROPERTIES 1. Toxicity 2. Reactivity 3. Ignitability 4. Corrosivity  All wastes are not possible for energy production.  As the composition is different for various wastes, also a single technique will not be convenient(suitable)..
  • 5. IMPORTANT QUALITY PARAMETERS Here we primarily concentrates on producing the energy from the waste plastics. So the quality parameters of solid wastes have to be considered. Usually, the solid wastes can be classified as(based on use) organics, inerts and recyclables. Among these the organics and recyclables have a large heating value and taken for WTE conversion. While the inerts is not suitable as it have a low heating value. SOLID LIQUID GAS/AIR Elemental composition (C,H) BOD Hydrocarbons and other fuel molecules Heating Value COD NOX, SOX, CO TOC
  • 6. GOVERNMENT POLICIES When some new concept is formed, many ministry have to approve that concept and need to frame policies for that. Some are listed below: 1. Ministry of external affairs 2. Ministry of forestry 3. Ministry of environment 4. Ministry of climate 5. Ministry of railways 6. Ministry of shipping 7. Ministry of roadways& highways The central government needs these from the ministry of particular state government from where the concept was proposed.
  • 7. ROUTES OF ENERGY PRODUCTION THERMAL CONVERSION 1. Incineration →hot flue gas →electricity, steam 2. Gasification → sin gas →electricity, hydrogen 3. PYROLYSIS →bio-oil BIOLOGICAL CONVERSION 1. Anaerobic digestion →methonic gas 2. Fermentation(done with the help of microorganisms/ enzymes) →alcohol, acids CHEMICAL METHODS 1. Hydrolysis →breakdown the bigger to small →cellulose, hemi- cellulose
  • 8. ROUTES OF ENERGY CONVERSION 2. Transesterification →biodisel from sources like waste cooking oil 3. Solvent extraction →bio-oil from oil seeds PHYSICAL METHODS 1. Briquetting →densified solids of high mechanical strength 2. Distillation →product separation 3. Mechanical extraction →bio-oil production  Thermal method is more suitable than all the other methods.
  • 9. PYROLYSIS OF PLASTICS • Pyro - heat • Lysis -breakdown • Thus pyrolysis is a thermal cracking reaction of the large molecular weight polymer carbon chains under an oxygen free environment and produces small molecular weight molecules.
  • 10. PROCEDURE TO BE FOLLOWED • The plastic wastes are to be collected in a closed metallic chamber. • It is closed in such a way that there is no availability of oxygen. • The temperature is to be maintained at a range of 350-450 degree Celsius. • After sometime, the polymer bond gets broken and the flue gas has produced. • These gases are collected and transported to a water bath through a pipe of suitable length. • Due to the reaction with the water in the water bath, the crude oil will be produced there.
  • 11. PRODUCTION OF BIO-OIL • The produced crude oil have to be allowed for the fractional distillation process. • Thus, the petrol, diesel and kerosene will be obtained separately at different temperatures. • Then they are allowed for the purification. • After the purification process, it is to be mixed with the normal fuels in the ratio of 75:25 for a better efficiency. • The aim is to convert the wastes into a useful source of energy and thereby destroying that wastes also. But, there will be still some particles available inside the pyrolysis chamber and we found some ideas for converting them into an useful form.
  • 12. PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON • The way is to convert them as activated carbon. • Primarily, the bottom product is to be heated in a furnace at 110 degree Celsius for about 10 minutes to remove the moisture. • After removing the moisture, the furnace temperature is raised to 600 degree Celsius in a stepwise manner. • The above process is stabilized by fusing the content with zeolite and the supply of nitrogen gas at a rate of 100ml/hr. • This procedure is continued for 3hrs and then the supply of nitrogen is stopped and the temperature have to be reduced slowly.
  • 13. PRODUCTION OF ACTIVATED CARBON • After the above process, the contents are allowed for cooling. • The activated carbon are mainly used in the areas of water purification. • So after the cooling process is completed, the contents are to be doped with the silver nanoparticles for a effective purification.
  • 14. PRODUCTION OF BRIQUETTES • It is a tightly compressed block of coal dust or the combustible biomass such as charcoal, wood pieces, peat, etc….. • Charcoal briquettes are very useful than others because of its long last and virtually smokeless fire. • To increase its burning efficiency, lignite or anthracite coal will be added to it. • The carbon black obtained from the process can replace this coal in the manufacturing of briquettes. • Now-a-days, briquettes are widely used in many places due to lack of coal and firewood and also of its long stand burning ability.
  • 15. WTE TECHNOLOGIES • Waste to energy technologies use municipal solid wastes or any waste material containing huge amounts of renewable and biological materials to generate heat, electricity and fuel through several complex conversion methods. • It is a new lease of life. • China is working vigorously towards commercializing this technique. EUROPE • Has 400 WTE plants in which nearly 33% of total MSW are processed through incineration.
  • 16. WTE TECHNOLOGIES • By the above process nearly 88 billion W and 33 billion W of heat and electricity are produced. • For this nearly 96 million tons of fossil fuels are requiried and thus are saved. UNITED KINGDOM • Has 2 effective WTE plants. • 360900 tons of wastes are processed per annum. • Daily 21.2MW and 21.0MW are produced from these two plants respectively. • Now an another 1 plant is under development while 2 are planned further.
  • 17. WTE IN INDIA • The first WTE plant was installed in the year 2014-2015. • 245MW is the installed capacity of that plant. • Nearly 13% of renewable sources only are taken for the processing while the remaining gets wasted without any processing. • Through wind, solar, bio-mass, waste and hydropower sources, there has a capacity of 147615MW per annum but only 21% are produced. • So the government have to concentrate more about this technique which is very much important and a necessary one.