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Subject- Water Resources Engineering
Unit -Hydrology
By
Dr.* Denish Jangid
Assistant Professor
Civil Engineering Department
Properties of Water
 Molecules of water: H2O
 2 Hydrogen atoms
 1 Oxygen atom
 Polar molecule
 One end slightly positive
 One end slightly negative
Properties of Water
 Hydrogen bonds that result from
water’s polarity responsible for many of
water’s properties
 High heat capacity
(Moderates climate)
 Universal solvent
The Importance of Water
 All living things need
water
 Composes majority of
the body of organisms
 Habitat for many
organisms
 Helps regulate climate
 Shapes earth’s surface
 Dilutes & degrades
wastes
Water on Earth
 About 97% Earth’s water is salty–less than 1%
of the planet’s water is available fresh H2O
 Fresh water is distributed unevenly
 2025: 1/3 human population will live in areas
lacking fresh water
Water, water, everywhere?
(NOT)
 Comparison of
population sizes and
shares of the world’s
freshwater among the
continents. (Only 7
countries account for
60% of global water
availability)
Water Wars
 Many countries in the
Middle East, which
has one of the world’s
highest population
growth rates, face
water shortages.
Water wars cont…
 Most water in this dry region comes
from the Nile, Jordan or Tigris rivers.
 Countries are in disagreement as to who
has water rights.
 Currently, there are no cooperative
agreements for use of 158 of the
world’s 263 water basins that are
shared by two or more countries.
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
The Hydrological
Cycle
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Infiltration - Process of water percolating
through the soil and into cracks and
permeable rocks.
Zone of Aeration -
Upper soil layers
that hold both air
and water.
Zone of Saturation
Lower soil layers
where all spaces are
filled with water.
Water Table -
Top of zone of
saturation
•Recharge Zone - Area where water infiltrates
into an aquifer.
-Recharge rate is often very slow.
-Presently, groundwater is being removed
faster than it can be replenished.
Definitions
 Infiltration: process by which water enters the
soil surface
 Infiltration capacity: maximum rate at which
water can enter the soil
 Soil Water: water held in soil pores
 Plant available water
Infiltration Capacity
 Diminishes over time during an infiltration
event
Pore size generally decreases with
depth
Decrease in matric potential
Air entrapment at depth
Darcy’s Law (1856)
 Experimental
findings using a soil
column
 Discharge rate (Q)
is proportional to
the cross-sectional
area and to the
hydraulic drop (ΔH)
 Q is inversely
proportional to the
length of the column
L
H
KAQ


Infiltration indices
An average constant value of infiltration is
called infiltration index.
Two types of infiltration indices are
commonly used.-index
1.  -index
2. w –index
There are extremely used for the analysis of
major floods when the soil is wet and the
infiltration rate becomes constant
-index
 The unshaded area below the horizontal line is assumed that all
losses are due to infiltration only.
 For determination of - index, a horizontal line is drawn on the
hyetograph such that the shaded area above that line is equal to
the volume of surface runoff.
 If the shaded area is not equal to the volume of measured surface
runoff, the horizontal line is shifted upwards or downwards till
this condition is satisfied.
 The value of f-index can be derived from the rainfall hyetograph
and the resulting surface runoff volume by trial and error.
W-index
w-index=(P-R-S)/tf
where P=total storm precipitation (cm)
R=total surface runoff (cm)
S=depression and interception losses (cm)
tf=time period (in hours)
The w-index is more accurate than the -index because
it excludes the interception and depression
Management Impacts
How to Measure Infiltration?
 Double-ring infiltrometer
 Inner = 30cm
 Outer = 50cm
 Measure the inner; maintain
a head
 Disc Permeameter and
Tension Infiltrometer
 Water held under tension
 Passes through disc at soil
surface; measure rate
Introduction of Evapotranspiration :-
 Evapotranspiration can be measured, at
a site which also measures rainfall, by
using a lysimeter which gives additional
information on soil water balance.
 The lysimeter, measuring potential
evapotranspiration, is an apparatus
which can be constructed from readily
available do-it-yourself (DIY) materials
for less than Rs. 2500
Potential Evapotranspiration:-
 What would be evaporated from a
surface if water was never a limiting
factor.
 PE can be calculated using empirical
formulae, from the simple needing only
temperature.
 PE = R + A – P
R:- Rainfall
A:- Additional water
P:- Percolated water
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Surface Water
 Streams, rivers, lakes, ponds,
reservoirs, wetlands
 Runoff replenishes surface water
 Watershed
 Area of land drained by a single river
 What watershed do we live in?
Groundwater
 Supply of fresh water found under
Earth’s surface--recharged when water
at surface infiltrates into the ground
 Stored in under
ground aquifers
 Discharged into
rivers, springs,
etc…
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
 Aquifers - Porous layers of sand, gravel,
or rock lying below the water table.
Changes in Surface Runoff
 Prior to 1970 about 10%
of stormwater became
runoff
 Now 55% of stormwater
is transported as runoff
as development exceeds
75% of the permeable
soil area
Human activities have contributed to flood
deaths and damages
Water Pollution
 Physical or chemical change in water
that adversely affects the health of
humans or other organisms
 Global problem
Groundwater Pollution Sources
Controlling Water Pollution
1. Source Reduction (Pollution Prevention)
 Cheapest and most effective way to
reduce pollution is to avoid producing
it or releasing it into the environment.
Design products that do not pollute
Soil Conservation
2.Ban release of pollutants
3.Reward purchasing environmentally
preferable products (e.g. rebates)
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Rainfall-Runoff Modeling
Hyetograph
Hydrograph
Method for Average Rainfall depth over an area
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM
 In drip system water is conveyed through
a system of flexible pipe lines
 Drip system reduces water requirement
of the plant by maintaining minimum soil
moisture.
86
87
Components of a Drip Irrigation
System
 EMISSION DEVICES :
 durable
 resistant to clogging
 Many shapes and styles
 Flow rate 0.5 – 10
gal./hr
 Pressure compensating
88
Components Continue…….
 Filters:
 used to remove organic and inorganic debris
 sand media filters,
 screen filters
 disk type filters
89
Advantages of Drip Irrigation
 INCREASED REVENUE FROM INCREASED
YIELDS
 EARLY MATURITY
 WATER SAVING
 FERTILIZER SAVING
 ENERGY SAVING
 LABOUR SAVING
90
Disadvantage DIS
 Drip irrigation depends on extremely
clean water
 The largest problem is that the drippers
get clogged
 Drip irrigation requires a lot of hoses and
they have to be moved every year if you
practice crop rotation
 Drip irrigation is expensive
 Because the surface isn’t watered so
certain degree of salting 91
Sprinkler Irrigation
Definition
 Sprinkler Irrigation is a method of applying
irrigation water which is similar to rainfall
 Pressurized irrigation through devices called
sprinklers
 Sprinklers are usually located on pipes called
laterals
Impact Sprinklers
Impact Arm
Spreader Nozzle
Range (Drive) Nozzle
Bearing
Two-nozzle, bronze impact sprinkler
Trajectory
Angle
Single Sprinkler
Sprinkler drop sizes
 As water sprays from a sprinkler it breaks up
into small drops between 0.5 and 4.0 mm in
size.
 Large drops can damage delicate crops and
soils and so in such conditions it is best to use
the smaller sprinklers.
 Drop size is also controlled by pressure and
nozzle size
Sprinkler System all over
world
 A total area under sprinkler irrigation in the
world was about 21.58 Million hac by 1990
 USA is the largest user of sprinkler irrigation
technology with area of 8.57 m.ha.
 In India, the area irrigated by sprinkler
irrigation is 0.25 Million ha.
Water Savings by sprinkler
system
 With regard to water savings, previous studies
have reported the savings in irrigation water
 29 to 56% in India
 An average saving of 50% means that irrigated
area could be increased to 1.5 times of the
existing area without any increase in water
allocation.
Sprinkler irrigation in india
 Sprinkler irrigatuin in 1985 -0.23 mha
 Sprinkler irrigatuin in 1998 - 0.67 mha
 UP state alone accounts for about 27.70
percent in the India’s total potential of
Sprinkler irrigation.
Traveling Volume Gun Sprinkler
Irrigating from Lagoon
Portable Solid-Set
Sprinkler System
Side-Roll Sprinkler Lateral in Peanuts
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
Comp. drip,sprinker,gravity
104
Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir
By
Dr.* Denish Jangid
Assistant Professor
Civil Engineering Department
Unit -Hydrology

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Hydrology by Denish Jangid sir

  • 1. Subject- Water Resources Engineering Unit -Hydrology By Dr.* Denish Jangid Assistant Professor Civil Engineering Department
  • 2. Properties of Water  Molecules of water: H2O  2 Hydrogen atoms  1 Oxygen atom  Polar molecule  One end slightly positive  One end slightly negative
  • 3. Properties of Water  Hydrogen bonds that result from water’s polarity responsible for many of water’s properties  High heat capacity (Moderates climate)  Universal solvent
  • 4. The Importance of Water  All living things need water  Composes majority of the body of organisms  Habitat for many organisms  Helps regulate climate  Shapes earth’s surface  Dilutes & degrades wastes
  • 5. Water on Earth  About 97% Earth’s water is salty–less than 1% of the planet’s water is available fresh H2O  Fresh water is distributed unevenly  2025: 1/3 human population will live in areas lacking fresh water
  • 6. Water, water, everywhere? (NOT)  Comparison of population sizes and shares of the world’s freshwater among the continents. (Only 7 countries account for 60% of global water availability)
  • 7. Water Wars  Many countries in the Middle East, which has one of the world’s highest population growth rates, face water shortages.
  • 8. Water wars cont…  Most water in this dry region comes from the Nile, Jordan or Tigris rivers.  Countries are in disagreement as to who has water rights.  Currently, there are no cooperative agreements for use of 158 of the world’s 263 water basins that are shared by two or more countries.
  • 15. Infiltration - Process of water percolating through the soil and into cracks and permeable rocks. Zone of Aeration - Upper soil layers that hold both air and water. Zone of Saturation Lower soil layers where all spaces are filled with water. Water Table - Top of zone of saturation
  • 16. •Recharge Zone - Area where water infiltrates into an aquifer. -Recharge rate is often very slow. -Presently, groundwater is being removed faster than it can be replenished.
  • 17. Definitions  Infiltration: process by which water enters the soil surface  Infiltration capacity: maximum rate at which water can enter the soil  Soil Water: water held in soil pores  Plant available water
  • 18. Infiltration Capacity  Diminishes over time during an infiltration event Pore size generally decreases with depth Decrease in matric potential Air entrapment at depth
  • 19. Darcy’s Law (1856)  Experimental findings using a soil column  Discharge rate (Q) is proportional to the cross-sectional area and to the hydraulic drop (ΔH)  Q is inversely proportional to the length of the column L H KAQ  
  • 20. Infiltration indices An average constant value of infiltration is called infiltration index. Two types of infiltration indices are commonly used.-index 1.  -index 2. w –index There are extremely used for the analysis of major floods when the soil is wet and the infiltration rate becomes constant
  • 21. -index  The unshaded area below the horizontal line is assumed that all losses are due to infiltration only.  For determination of - index, a horizontal line is drawn on the hyetograph such that the shaded area above that line is equal to the volume of surface runoff.  If the shaded area is not equal to the volume of measured surface runoff, the horizontal line is shifted upwards or downwards till this condition is satisfied.  The value of f-index can be derived from the rainfall hyetograph and the resulting surface runoff volume by trial and error.
  • 22. W-index w-index=(P-R-S)/tf where P=total storm precipitation (cm) R=total surface runoff (cm) S=depression and interception losses (cm) tf=time period (in hours) The w-index is more accurate than the -index because it excludes the interception and depression
  • 24. How to Measure Infiltration?  Double-ring infiltrometer  Inner = 30cm  Outer = 50cm  Measure the inner; maintain a head  Disc Permeameter and Tension Infiltrometer  Water held under tension  Passes through disc at soil surface; measure rate
  • 25. Introduction of Evapotranspiration :-  Evapotranspiration can be measured, at a site which also measures rainfall, by using a lysimeter which gives additional information on soil water balance.  The lysimeter, measuring potential evapotranspiration, is an apparatus which can be constructed from readily available do-it-yourself (DIY) materials for less than Rs. 2500
  • 26. Potential Evapotranspiration:-  What would be evaporated from a surface if water was never a limiting factor.  PE can be calculated using empirical formulae, from the simple needing only temperature.  PE = R + A – P R:- Rainfall A:- Additional water P:- Percolated water
  • 28. Surface Water  Streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, wetlands  Runoff replenishes surface water  Watershed  Area of land drained by a single river  What watershed do we live in?
  • 29. Groundwater  Supply of fresh water found under Earth’s surface--recharged when water at surface infiltrates into the ground  Stored in under ground aquifers  Discharged into rivers, springs, etc…
  • 35.  Aquifers - Porous layers of sand, gravel, or rock lying below the water table.
  • 36. Changes in Surface Runoff  Prior to 1970 about 10% of stormwater became runoff  Now 55% of stormwater is transported as runoff as development exceeds 75% of the permeable soil area
  • 37. Human activities have contributed to flood deaths and damages
  • 38. Water Pollution  Physical or chemical change in water that adversely affects the health of humans or other organisms  Global problem
  • 40. Controlling Water Pollution 1. Source Reduction (Pollution Prevention)  Cheapest and most effective way to reduce pollution is to avoid producing it or releasing it into the environment. Design products that do not pollute Soil Conservation 2.Ban release of pollutants 3.Reward purchasing environmentally preferable products (e.g. rebates)
  • 75. Method for Average Rainfall depth over an area
  • 86. DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM  In drip system water is conveyed through a system of flexible pipe lines  Drip system reduces water requirement of the plant by maintaining minimum soil moisture. 86
  • 87. 87
  • 88. Components of a Drip Irrigation System  EMISSION DEVICES :  durable  resistant to clogging  Many shapes and styles  Flow rate 0.5 – 10 gal./hr  Pressure compensating 88
  • 89. Components Continue…….  Filters:  used to remove organic and inorganic debris  sand media filters,  screen filters  disk type filters 89
  • 90. Advantages of Drip Irrigation  INCREASED REVENUE FROM INCREASED YIELDS  EARLY MATURITY  WATER SAVING  FERTILIZER SAVING  ENERGY SAVING  LABOUR SAVING 90
  • 91. Disadvantage DIS  Drip irrigation depends on extremely clean water  The largest problem is that the drippers get clogged  Drip irrigation requires a lot of hoses and they have to be moved every year if you practice crop rotation  Drip irrigation is expensive  Because the surface isn’t watered so certain degree of salting 91
  • 93. Definition  Sprinkler Irrigation is a method of applying irrigation water which is similar to rainfall  Pressurized irrigation through devices called sprinklers  Sprinklers are usually located on pipes called laterals
  • 94. Impact Sprinklers Impact Arm Spreader Nozzle Range (Drive) Nozzle Bearing Two-nozzle, bronze impact sprinkler Trajectory Angle
  • 96. Sprinkler drop sizes  As water sprays from a sprinkler it breaks up into small drops between 0.5 and 4.0 mm in size.  Large drops can damage delicate crops and soils and so in such conditions it is best to use the smaller sprinklers.  Drop size is also controlled by pressure and nozzle size
  • 97. Sprinkler System all over world  A total area under sprinkler irrigation in the world was about 21.58 Million hac by 1990  USA is the largest user of sprinkler irrigation technology with area of 8.57 m.ha.  In India, the area irrigated by sprinkler irrigation is 0.25 Million ha.
  • 98. Water Savings by sprinkler system  With regard to water savings, previous studies have reported the savings in irrigation water  29 to 56% in India  An average saving of 50% means that irrigated area could be increased to 1.5 times of the existing area without any increase in water allocation.
  • 99. Sprinkler irrigation in india  Sprinkler irrigatuin in 1985 -0.23 mha  Sprinkler irrigatuin in 1998 - 0.67 mha  UP state alone accounts for about 27.70 percent in the India’s total potential of Sprinkler irrigation.
  • 100. Traveling Volume Gun Sprinkler Irrigating from Lagoon
  • 106. By Dr.* Denish Jangid Assistant Professor Civil Engineering Department Unit -Hydrology