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From Paths To Sandboxes.@stephenanderson | #ias14
t
PSYCHOLOGY
&DESIGN
How we can use
to
more fun, engaging
(& effective) interactions
PSYCHOLOGY
&DESIGN
How we can use
to
more fun, engaging
(& effective) interactions
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
Three games I’ve been playing…
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
⟳
From Paths to Sandboxes
PATH SANDBOX
Paths
DIRECT
THE RIDER
(conscious thought)
MOTIVATE
THE ELEPHANT
(automatic systems)
SHAPE
THE PATH
(the environment)
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
Paths are designed to lead
people along,
for better or worse.
http://www.andeeknutson.com/studies/Shoppers%20and%20Products/11_AnExploratoryLookAtSupermarketShoppingPaths_2005.pdf
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
Paths are prevalent in
our work…
Customer Journey Maps, Service Blueprints, Scenarios…
From Paths to Sandboxes
Lockton, D., Harrison, D.J., Stanton, N.A. (2010). The Design with Intent Method: a design tool for influencing user behaviour. Applied Ergonomics, Vol.41 No.3, 382-392.
Behavioral Goals
(which should align w/ User Goals!)
Business Goals
Psychology
Behavioral Goals
(which should align w/ User Goals!)
Business Goals
Psychology
NEW SKILLS
assistindeveloping
HABITS
assistinestablishing
(orputtinganendto)
COMPLETION
nudgepeopletoward
Paths aren’t necessarily bad,
but…
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
PATHS
SHAPE BEHAVIOR
END IN AN EXCHANGE
HAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMES
ARE GAMES TO BE PLAYED
DESIGN EVERY DETAIL
ARE MEASURABLE
LEAD TO COMPLETION
LEAD PEOPLE ALONG
ARE CONSUMPTIVE
CREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS)
HAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSE
BEST FOR INSTRUCTION
Is there something more?
Sandboxes
Sandboxes
Why do so many people find these experiences
maddeningly addictive?Q:Q:
Why do so many people find these experiences
maddeningly addictive?Q:Q:
‣Pick one of these online experiences
‣List WHY you think people find them addictive (list as
many reasons as you can)
‣You have 90 seconds
‣GO!
Why do so many people find these experiences
maddeningly addictive?Q:Q:
‣Pick one of these online experiences
‣List WHY you think people find them addictive (list as
many reasons as you can)
‣You have 90 seconds
‣GO!
Set Completion
Sequencing
Appropriate Challenges
Status
Positive Mimicry
Self-Expression
Curiosity
Collecting
Autonomy
Visual Imagery
Pattern Recognition
Feedback Loops
Reputation
Competition
Achievements
Status-Quo Bias
Surprise
Variable Rewards
Scarcity
What do all these experiences
have in common?Q:Q:
2 OBSERVATIONS:
1. These are Platforms
You can make of them what you want.
There is no prescribed way to use these system.
The
WTF
Problem.
What’sThisFor?
The
WTF
Problem.
What’s This For?
2 OBSERVATIONS:
1. These are Platforms
You can make of them what you want.
There is no prescribed way to use these system.
2. These are Social Spaces
People learn from each other how to use the system.
Many of the psychological nudges that follow stem
from observing others.
While MineCraft is a place for
exploration and self-expression
(perhaps survival!), it’s watching
others that inspires new ideas and
creates personal challenges.
The hashtag in twitter was an
emergent element.
It wasn’t until I saw my wife pinning
decorating ideas that I saw
Pinterest as a visual bookmarking
system.
“A sandbox is a style of game in which minimal
character limitations are placed on the gamer,
allowing the gamer to roam and change a virtual
world at will. In contrast to a progression-style
game, a sandbox game emphasizes roaming and
allows a gamer to select tasks. Instead of
featuring segmented areas or numbered levels, a
sandbox game usually occurs in a “world” to
which the gamer has full access from start to
finish.
A sandbox game is also known as an open-world
or free-roaming game.
http://www.techopedia.com/definition/3952/sandbox-gaming
Sandboxes create open spaces for self-
directed play and creativity.
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
Children’s toys and organization:
Children’s toys and organization:
Architecture: “Adventure Playground”
“A castle, made of
carton, rocks and
old branches, by a
group of children
for themselves, is
worth a thousand
perfectly detailed,
exactly finished
castles, made for
them in a factory.”
And the proposed solution:
“Set up a playground for the children in each neighborhood. Not a
highly finished playground, with asfalt and swings, but a place with
raw materials of all kinds—nets, boxes, barrels, trees, ropes, simple
tools, frames, grass, and water—where children can create and re-
create playgrounds of their own.”
I am convinced that standardised playgrounds
are dangerous, just in another way: When the
distance between all the rungs in a climbing
net or a ladder is exactly the same, the child
has no need to concentrate on where he puts
his feet. Standardisation is dangerous because
play becomes simplified…
- Helle Nebelong
“
PATHS
SHAPE BEHAVIOR
END IN AN EXCHANGE
HAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMES
ARE GAMES TO BE PLAYED
DESIGN EVERY DETAIL
ARE MEASURABLE
LEAD TO COMPLETION
LEAD PEOPLE ALONG
ARE CONSUMPTIVE
CREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS)
HAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSE
BEST FOR INSTRUCTION
SANDBOXES
CREATE ENGAGEMENT
END IN LEARNING & DISCOVERY
HAVE UNKNOWN OUTCOMES
ARE SPACES IN WHICH TO PLAY
UNDERSPECIFY THE DESIGN
ARE OBSERVABLE
LEAD TO UNDERSTANDING
LET PEOPLE EXPLORE
ARE GENERATIVE
ENCOURAGE AUTONOMY
PURPOSE IS SELF-DETERMINED
BEST FOR PEFORMANCE
Education
The jockey offers a piece of sugar to his
horse before jumping into the saddle,
the coachman beats his horse that he
may respond to the signs given by the
reins; and, yet, neither of these runs so
superbly as the free horse of the plains.
–MARIA MONTESSORI
…we have prepared the
environment and the materials
–MARIA MONTESSORI
■ Mixed age classrooms
■ Specialized educational
materials
■ Student choice of activity from
within a prescribed range of
options
■ Uninterrupted blocks of work
time
■ A Constructivist or "discovery"
model, where students learn
concepts from working with
materials, rather than by direct
instruction
Playing is learning.
Google’s founders Larry Page
and Sergei Brin
Amazon’s Jeff Bezos
Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales
Julia Child
rapper Sean “P.Diddy” Combs
videogame pioneer Will Wright
Montessori taught me the joy of
discovery… It’s all about learning on
your terms, rather than a teacher
explaining stuff to you. SimCity
comes right out of Montessori…
videogame pioneer Will Wright
Amazon’s Jeff Bezos
Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales
Julia Child
rapper Sean “P.Diddy” Combs
Google’s founders Larry Page and
Sergei Brin
We both went to Montessori school,
and I think it was part of that training
of not following rules and orders, and
being self-motivated, questioning
what’s going on in the world, doing
things a little bit differently.
A “sandbox” education teaches
you to play at life.
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
Human beings have an inherent
tendency to seek out novelty and
challenges, to extend and exercise their
capacities, to explore, and to learn.
Edward Deci
psychologist
EQUATE TO INFORMAL
(NON-INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNING
VIEW STUDENTS AS
“VESSELS TO BE FILLED”
VIEW STUDENTS AS
“FIRES TO BE KINDLED”
SANDBOXESPATHS
EQUATE TO FORMAL (INSTITUTIONAL)
LEARNING
SPECIFY PERFORMANCE GOALS LEAD TO LEARNING CHALLENGES
Getting an A in French Learning to speak French
EQUATE TO INFORMAL
(NON-INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNING
VIEW STUDENTS AS
“VESSELS TO BE FILLED”
VIEW STUDENTS AS
“FIRES TO BE KINDLED”
SANDBOXESPATHS
EQUATE TO FORMAL (INSTITUTIONAL)
LEARNING
SPECIFY PERFORMANCE GOALS LEAD TO LEARNING CHALLENGES
Getting an A in French Learning to speak French
FALSEDICHOTOMY
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
! !
Normally, learning in CodeSpells is
encouraged by way of a series of quests
that must be completed with the use of
Java-based spell crafting…
[In our version], players could walk up
to in-game gnome-like characters who
would give various spells to the player,
along with simple explanations. Our
hope was that these spells would serve
as starting points for code exploration.
from “On the Nature of Fires and How to Spark Them When You’re Not There”
LEGO BRICKS
LEGO BRICKS
“…buthowis
thisuseful?”
Practical Takeaways
Underspecify features
Thank Kars Alfrink
for this one!
From Paths to Sandboxes
“As a user I want a way to flag interesting
tweets for reviewing later…”
or
“As a user I want a way to give kudos to
people for sharing something interesting….”
or
“As a user I want a way to save positive
tweets for later use as testimonials…”
or…?
“As a (user role), I want (function) so that (benefit)”
Practical Takeaways
Avoid long workflows.
(AKA Short Paths vs Long Paths)
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
Practical Takeaways
Build and consume your
own APIs
A SANDBOX, AT DIFFT LEVELS
SCRIPTING LAYER /
ABILITY ADD “MODS”
INTERFACE LAYER
API / DATA LAYER
OPEN SOURCE THE
CODE BASE
Practical Takeaways
Back off.
Let people make mistakes and
learn through trial and error.
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
Practical Takeaways
Direct Manipulation is best!
(AKA “No more wizards!!)
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
Practical Takeaways
Help people understand through
Playful Interactions
http://vimeo.com/36579366
Watch this!
From Paths to Sandboxes
“The approach to teaching without
words that I’m proposing makes
heavy use of interactivity and
instant informative feedback.”
http://www.creativitypost.com/education/teaching_without_words
STMath
SANDBOXESPATHS
SHAPE BEHAVIOR CREATE ENGAGEMENT
END IN AN EXCHANGE END IN LEARNING & DISCOVERY
HAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMES HAVE UNKNOWN OUTCOMES
ARE GAMES TO BE PLAYED ARE SPACES IN WHICH TO PLAY
DESIGN EVERY DETAIL UNDERSPECIFY THE DESIGN
ARE MEASURABLE ARE OBSERVABLE
LEAD TO COMPLETION LEAD TO UNDERSTANDING
LEAD PEOPLE ALONG LET PEOPLE EXPLORE
ARE CONSUMPTIVE ARE GENERATIVE
CREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS) ENCOURAGE AUTONOMY
HAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSE PURPOSE IS SELF-DETERMINED
BEST FOR INSTRUCTION BEST FOR PEFORMANCE
SANDBOXESPATHS
SHAPE BEHAVIOR CREATE ENGAGEMENT
END IN AN EXCHANGE END IN LEARNING & DISCOVERY
HAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMES HAVE UNKNOWN OUTCOMES
ARE GAMES TO BE PLAYED ARE SPACES IN WHICH TO PLAY
DESIGN EVERY DETAIL UNDERSPECIFY THE DESIGN
ARE MEASURABLE ARE OBSERVABLE
LEAD TO COMPLETION LEAD TO UNDERSTANDING
LEAD PEOPLE ALONG LET PEOPLE EXPLORE
ARE CONSUMPTIVE ARE GENERATIVE
CREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS) ENCOURAGE AUTONOMY
HAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSE PURPOSE IS SELF-DETERMINED
BEST FOR INSTRUCTION BEST FOR PEFORMANCE
To quote Kathy Sierra…
which of these will
“help users kick ass?”
The BIG Practical Takeaway:
One Last Practical Takeaway…
…we have prepared the
environment and the materials
–MARIA MONTESSORI
Environment
Objects
Rules
…we have prepared the
environment and the materials
–MARIA MONTESSORI
From Paths to Sandboxes
The idea for knowledge
games… [came] from watching
people at the cutting edges of
new disciplines; people who
are entrepreneurs, creators,
designers and innovators.
Watching them work,
watching them play, and
sometimes having difficulty
telling the difference.
– Dave Gray
PlayingatLife!
How do you approach LIFE?
Like a Path to follow, or a
Sandbox in which to play?
From Paths to Sandboxes
What we learned from that project
then allowed us to…”
–?? (WETA DOCUMENETARY)
“
Play is the answer to how
anything new comes about.
–JEAN PIAGET
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
From Paths to Sandboxes
My book proposal…
Yes, this was my book proposal!
Humanity has advanced, when it has
advanced, not because it has been
sober, responsible, and cautious, but
because it has been playful, rebellious,
and immature.”
–TOM ROBBINS QUOTES (AMERICAN NOVELIST. B.1936)
“
Q:Are you designing Paths or
Sandboxes?
Q:Are you designing Paths or
Sandboxes?
Are you following a path or
playing in a sandbox?
Thank you!
getmentalnotes.com
Design for
Understanding
Stephen P. Anderson
@stephenanderson
www.poetpainter.com | www.slideshare.net/stephenpa
http://leapfrog.nl/blog/archives/2008/11/17/a-playful-stance-my-game-design-london-2008-talk/
http://www.slideshare.net/dings/paideia-as-paidia-from-gamebased-learning-to-a-life-wellplayed
See also:
The cutting room floor:
http://www.dvice.com/archives/2012/10/ethiopian_kids.php
What happens if you give a thousand Motorola Zoom tablet PCs
to Ethiopian kids who have never even seen a printed word?
Within five months, they'll start teaching themselves English while
circumventing the security on your OS to customize settings and
activate disabled hardware. Whoa.
The One Laptop Per Child project started as a way of delivering
technology and resources to schools in countries with little or no
education infrastructure, using inexpensive computers to improve
traditional curricula. What the OLPC Project has realized over the
last five or six years, though, is that teaching kids stuff is really not
that valuable. Yes, knowing all your state capitols how to spell
"neighborhood" properly and whatnot isn't a bad thing, but
memorizing facts and procedures isn't going to inspire kids to go
out and learn by teaching themselves, which is the key to a good
education. Instead, OLPC is trying to figure out a way to teach
kids to learn, which is what this experiment is all about.
The mind, basically, is a
pattern-seeking
machine… We tend to
seek patterns… and then
we tell stories about
them. I think we’re
pretty much conditioned
to look for a pattern and
to try to interpret it in
terms of certain stories.
“… the native and unspoiled attitude of
childhood, marked by ardent curiosity, fertile
imagination, and love of experimental
inquiry, is near, very near to the attitude of the
scientific mind.”
-John Dewey
'Fun from games arises out of mastery.
It arises out of comprehension. It is the
act of solving puzzles that makes games
fun. With games, learning is the drug.'
-Raph Koster
x

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From Paths to Sandboxes

  • 1. From Paths To Sandboxes.@stephenanderson | #ias14 t
  • 2. PSYCHOLOGY &DESIGN How we can use to more fun, engaging (& effective) interactions
  • 3. PSYCHOLOGY &DESIGN How we can use to more fun, engaging (& effective) interactions
  • 6. Three games I’ve been playing…
  • 12.
  • 15. Paths
  • 16. DIRECT THE RIDER (conscious thought) MOTIVATE THE ELEPHANT (automatic systems) SHAPE THE PATH (the environment)
  • 23. Paths are designed to lead people along, for better or worse.
  • 27. Paths are prevalent in our work…
  • 28. Customer Journey Maps, Service Blueprints, Scenarios…
  • 30. Lockton, D., Harrison, D.J., Stanton, N.A. (2010). The Design with Intent Method: a design tool for influencing user behaviour. Applied Ergonomics, Vol.41 No.3, 382-392.
  • 31. Behavioral Goals (which should align w/ User Goals!) Business Goals Psychology
  • 32. Behavioral Goals (which should align w/ User Goals!) Business Goals Psychology NEW SKILLS assistindeveloping HABITS assistinestablishing (orputtinganendto) COMPLETION nudgepeopletoward
  • 37. PATHS SHAPE BEHAVIOR END IN AN EXCHANGE HAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMES ARE GAMES TO BE PLAYED DESIGN EVERY DETAIL ARE MEASURABLE LEAD TO COMPLETION LEAD PEOPLE ALONG ARE CONSUMPTIVE CREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS) HAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSE BEST FOR INSTRUCTION
  • 41. Why do so many people find these experiences maddeningly addictive?Q:Q:
  • 42. Why do so many people find these experiences maddeningly addictive?Q:Q: ‣Pick one of these online experiences ‣List WHY you think people find them addictive (list as many reasons as you can) ‣You have 90 seconds ‣GO!
  • 43. Why do so many people find these experiences maddeningly addictive?Q:Q: ‣Pick one of these online experiences ‣List WHY you think people find them addictive (list as many reasons as you can) ‣You have 90 seconds ‣GO! Set Completion Sequencing Appropriate Challenges Status Positive Mimicry Self-Expression Curiosity Collecting Autonomy Visual Imagery Pattern Recognition Feedback Loops Reputation Competition Achievements Status-Quo Bias Surprise Variable Rewards Scarcity
  • 44. What do all these experiences have in common?Q:Q:
  • 45. 2 OBSERVATIONS: 1. These are Platforms You can make of them what you want. There is no prescribed way to use these system.
  • 48. 2 OBSERVATIONS: 1. These are Platforms You can make of them what you want. There is no prescribed way to use these system. 2. These are Social Spaces People learn from each other how to use the system. Many of the psychological nudges that follow stem from observing others.
  • 49. While MineCraft is a place for exploration and self-expression (perhaps survival!), it’s watching others that inspires new ideas and creates personal challenges. The hashtag in twitter was an emergent element. It wasn’t until I saw my wife pinning decorating ideas that I saw Pinterest as a visual bookmarking system.
  • 50. “A sandbox is a style of game in which minimal character limitations are placed on the gamer, allowing the gamer to roam and change a virtual world at will. In contrast to a progression-style game, a sandbox game emphasizes roaming and allows a gamer to select tasks. Instead of featuring segmented areas or numbered levels, a sandbox game usually occurs in a “world” to which the gamer has full access from start to finish. A sandbox game is also known as an open-world or free-roaming game. http://www.techopedia.com/definition/3952/sandbox-gaming
  • 51. Sandboxes create open spaces for self- directed play and creativity.
  • 55. Children’s toys and organization:
  • 56. Children’s toys and organization:
  • 57. Architecture: “Adventure Playground” “A castle, made of carton, rocks and old branches, by a group of children for themselves, is worth a thousand perfectly detailed, exactly finished castles, made for them in a factory.” And the proposed solution: “Set up a playground for the children in each neighborhood. Not a highly finished playground, with asfalt and swings, but a place with raw materials of all kinds—nets, boxes, barrels, trees, ropes, simple tools, frames, grass, and water—where children can create and re- create playgrounds of their own.”
  • 58. I am convinced that standardised playgrounds are dangerous, just in another way: When the distance between all the rungs in a climbing net or a ladder is exactly the same, the child has no need to concentrate on where he puts his feet. Standardisation is dangerous because play becomes simplified… - Helle Nebelong “
  • 59. PATHS SHAPE BEHAVIOR END IN AN EXCHANGE HAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMES ARE GAMES TO BE PLAYED DESIGN EVERY DETAIL ARE MEASURABLE LEAD TO COMPLETION LEAD PEOPLE ALONG ARE CONSUMPTIVE CREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS) HAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSE BEST FOR INSTRUCTION SANDBOXES CREATE ENGAGEMENT END IN LEARNING & DISCOVERY HAVE UNKNOWN OUTCOMES ARE SPACES IN WHICH TO PLAY UNDERSPECIFY THE DESIGN ARE OBSERVABLE LEAD TO UNDERSTANDING LET PEOPLE EXPLORE ARE GENERATIVE ENCOURAGE AUTONOMY PURPOSE IS SELF-DETERMINED BEST FOR PEFORMANCE
  • 61. The jockey offers a piece of sugar to his horse before jumping into the saddle, the coachman beats his horse that he may respond to the signs given by the reins; and, yet, neither of these runs so superbly as the free horse of the plains. –MARIA MONTESSORI
  • 62. …we have prepared the environment and the materials –MARIA MONTESSORI
  • 63. ■ Mixed age classrooms ■ Specialized educational materials ■ Student choice of activity from within a prescribed range of options ■ Uninterrupted blocks of work time ■ A Constructivist or "discovery" model, where students learn concepts from working with materials, rather than by direct instruction
  • 65. Google’s founders Larry Page and Sergei Brin Amazon’s Jeff Bezos Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales Julia Child rapper Sean “P.Diddy” Combs videogame pioneer Will Wright Montessori taught me the joy of discovery… It’s all about learning on your terms, rather than a teacher explaining stuff to you. SimCity comes right out of Montessori…
  • 66. videogame pioneer Will Wright Amazon’s Jeff Bezos Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales Julia Child rapper Sean “P.Diddy” Combs Google’s founders Larry Page and Sergei Brin We both went to Montessori school, and I think it was part of that training of not following rules and orders, and being self-motivated, questioning what’s going on in the world, doing things a little bit differently.
  • 67. A “sandbox” education teaches you to play at life.
  • 70. Human beings have an inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise their capacities, to explore, and to learn. Edward Deci psychologist
  • 71. EQUATE TO INFORMAL (NON-INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNING VIEW STUDENTS AS “VESSELS TO BE FILLED” VIEW STUDENTS AS “FIRES TO BE KINDLED” SANDBOXESPATHS EQUATE TO FORMAL (INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNING SPECIFY PERFORMANCE GOALS LEAD TO LEARNING CHALLENGES Getting an A in French Learning to speak French
  • 72. EQUATE TO INFORMAL (NON-INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNING VIEW STUDENTS AS “VESSELS TO BE FILLED” VIEW STUDENTS AS “FIRES TO BE KINDLED” SANDBOXESPATHS EQUATE TO FORMAL (INSTITUTIONAL) LEARNING SPECIFY PERFORMANCE GOALS LEAD TO LEARNING CHALLENGES Getting an A in French Learning to speak French FALSEDICHOTOMY
  • 74. ! ! ! ! ! Normally, learning in CodeSpells is encouraged by way of a series of quests that must be completed with the use of Java-based spell crafting… [In our version], players could walk up to in-game gnome-like characters who would give various spells to the player, along with simple explanations. Our hope was that these spells would serve as starting points for code exploration. from “On the Nature of Fires and How to Spark Them When You’re Not There”
  • 80. “As a user I want a way to flag interesting tweets for reviewing later…” or “As a user I want a way to give kudos to people for sharing something interesting….” or “As a user I want a way to save positive tweets for later use as testimonials…” or…? “As a (user role), I want (function) so that (benefit)”
  • 81. Practical Takeaways Avoid long workflows. (AKA Short Paths vs Long Paths)
  • 86. Practical Takeaways Build and consume your own APIs
  • 87. A SANDBOX, AT DIFFT LEVELS SCRIPTING LAYER / ABILITY ADD “MODS” INTERFACE LAYER API / DATA LAYER OPEN SOURCE THE CODE BASE
  • 88. Practical Takeaways Back off. Let people make mistakes and learn through trial and error.
  • 91. Practical Takeaways Direct Manipulation is best! (AKA “No more wizards!!)
  • 96. Practical Takeaways Help people understand through Playful Interactions
  • 99. “The approach to teaching without words that I’m proposing makes heavy use of interactivity and instant informative feedback.” http://www.creativitypost.com/education/teaching_without_words STMath
  • 100. SANDBOXESPATHS SHAPE BEHAVIOR CREATE ENGAGEMENT END IN AN EXCHANGE END IN LEARNING & DISCOVERY HAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMES HAVE UNKNOWN OUTCOMES ARE GAMES TO BE PLAYED ARE SPACES IN WHICH TO PLAY DESIGN EVERY DETAIL UNDERSPECIFY THE DESIGN ARE MEASURABLE ARE OBSERVABLE LEAD TO COMPLETION LEAD TO UNDERSTANDING LEAD PEOPLE ALONG LET PEOPLE EXPLORE ARE CONSUMPTIVE ARE GENERATIVE CREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS) ENCOURAGE AUTONOMY HAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSE PURPOSE IS SELF-DETERMINED BEST FOR INSTRUCTION BEST FOR PEFORMANCE
  • 101. SANDBOXESPATHS SHAPE BEHAVIOR CREATE ENGAGEMENT END IN AN EXCHANGE END IN LEARNING & DISCOVERY HAVE PREDICTABLE OUTCOMES HAVE UNKNOWN OUTCOMES ARE GAMES TO BE PLAYED ARE SPACES IN WHICH TO PLAY DESIGN EVERY DETAIL UNDERSPECIFY THE DESIGN ARE MEASURABLE ARE OBSERVABLE LEAD TO COMPLETION LEAD TO UNDERSTANDING LEAD PEOPLE ALONG LET PEOPLE EXPLORE ARE CONSUMPTIVE ARE GENERATIVE CREATE DEPENDENCY (ON DIRECTIONS) ENCOURAGE AUTONOMY HAVE A CLEARLY DEFINED PURPOSE PURPOSE IS SELF-DETERMINED BEST FOR INSTRUCTION BEST FOR PEFORMANCE To quote Kathy Sierra… which of these will “help users kick ass?” The BIG Practical Takeaway:
  • 102. One Last Practical Takeaway…
  • 103. …we have prepared the environment and the materials –MARIA MONTESSORI
  • 104. Environment Objects Rules …we have prepared the environment and the materials –MARIA MONTESSORI
  • 106. The idea for knowledge games… [came] from watching people at the cutting edges of new disciplines; people who are entrepreneurs, creators, designers and innovators. Watching them work, watching them play, and sometimes having difficulty telling the difference. – Dave Gray
  • 108. How do you approach LIFE? Like a Path to follow, or a Sandbox in which to play?
  • 110. What we learned from that project then allowed us to…” –?? (WETA DOCUMENETARY) “
  • 111. Play is the answer to how anything new comes about. –JEAN PIAGET
  • 116. Yes, this was my book proposal!
  • 117. Humanity has advanced, when it has advanced, not because it has been sober, responsible, and cautious, but because it has been playful, rebellious, and immature.” –TOM ROBBINS QUOTES (AMERICAN NOVELIST. B.1936) “
  • 118. Q:Are you designing Paths or Sandboxes?
  • 119. Q:Are you designing Paths or Sandboxes? Are you following a path or playing in a sandbox?
  • 120. Thank you! getmentalnotes.com Design for Understanding Stephen P. Anderson @stephenanderson www.poetpainter.com | www.slideshare.net/stephenpa
  • 122. The cutting room floor:
  • 123. http://www.dvice.com/archives/2012/10/ethiopian_kids.php What happens if you give a thousand Motorola Zoom tablet PCs to Ethiopian kids who have never even seen a printed word? Within five months, they'll start teaching themselves English while circumventing the security on your OS to customize settings and activate disabled hardware. Whoa. The One Laptop Per Child project started as a way of delivering technology and resources to schools in countries with little or no education infrastructure, using inexpensive computers to improve traditional curricula. What the OLPC Project has realized over the last five or six years, though, is that teaching kids stuff is really not that valuable. Yes, knowing all your state capitols how to spell "neighborhood" properly and whatnot isn't a bad thing, but memorizing facts and procedures isn't going to inspire kids to go out and learn by teaching themselves, which is the key to a good education. Instead, OLPC is trying to figure out a way to teach kids to learn, which is what this experiment is all about.
  • 124. The mind, basically, is a pattern-seeking machine… We tend to seek patterns… and then we tell stories about them. I think we’re pretty much conditioned to look for a pattern and to try to interpret it in terms of certain stories.
  • 125. “… the native and unspoiled attitude of childhood, marked by ardent curiosity, fertile imagination, and love of experimental inquiry, is near, very near to the attitude of the scientific mind.” -John Dewey
  • 126. 'Fun from games arises out of mastery. It arises out of comprehension. It is the act of solving puzzles that makes games fun. With games, learning is the drug.' -Raph Koster x