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10
Most Common
Misconceptions About
User Experience Design

                       Whitney Hess
                       whitney@whitneyhess.com
                                  @whitneyhess
                         http://whitneyhess.com
1


User experience design is NOT


User interface design.


                       Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
“User experience isn't a layer
 or component of a product or
  service. It's really about the
 design of whole systems and
    their interconnections.”

Andrew Hinton
Senior information architect at Vanguard

                                   Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
http://www.jjg.net/elements/
2


User experience design is NOT


A step in the process.


                       Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
“User experience design
 isn't a checkbox. You don't
  do it and then move on. It
 needs to be integrated into
     everything you do.”

Liz Danzico
Chair, MFA in Interaction Design
School of Visual Arts in NYC

                                   Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
SOLUTIONS




                                                                                                                Future state
                                                                                                Current state
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Write user-centered
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   requirements specifications
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  It stands almost complete
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and finished in my mind so
 ABSTRACTION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  that I can survey it like a fine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Research user interface topics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  picture or a beautiful statue.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, from

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Create user interface style guides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Information Design, edited by Robert
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Jacobson


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Conceptual and detailed design
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CONCEPTUAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            An ounce of action is worth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of user interfaces
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  MODEL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            a ton of theory.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Friedrich Engels (1820 - 1895)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Review and test usability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Information architecture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   USE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CASES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           for large bodies of content
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  “An architect is defined as

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Write and edit documentation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  someone who forgets to put
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in the staircase.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Gustave Flaubert, French novelist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (1821-80), Dictionnaire des idées
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  reçues (1881).




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CONCEPTUAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DESIGN
                                                                                                                                                                              Dilbert: “Your user require-
                                                                                                                                                                              ments include four hundred
                                                                                                                                                                              features. Do you realize that
                                                                                                                                                                              no human would be able to
                                                                                                                                                                              use a product with that level
                                                                                                                                                                              of complexity?”
                     “Rules are sparse; we forget                                                                                                                             Feature Creep: “Good point.
                     them. Stories, being rich in                                                                                                                             I’d better add ‘easy to use’                                                                                                                               “If you want to know what
                     details, are multiply index-                                                                                                                             to the list.”                                                                                                                                              happens when you throw
                     able...Moreover, if a rule fails,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         a stone into a pond, it is infi-
                                                                                                                                                                              Dilbert as quoted in Paper
                     it can be reassessed only
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         nitely better to make a trial
                                                                                                                                                                              Prototyping, Carolyn Snyder
                     with great difficulty because
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         and film it than to attempt
                     rules hang in the air, unat-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to theorize about it.”
                     tached to experience. But if                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     “Igloo: an indigenous home
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         René Thom, Physicist
                     the lesson attached to a spe-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    constructed of local building
                     cific story fails, the events of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 materials. Bavarian castle:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         MOCK-UP
                     the story can be reassessed                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      a home constructed to impress
                     to figure out why the lesson                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the neighbours. Space station:
                     failed and what other lesson                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     a mobile home with a view.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SCENARIOS
                     might have been drawn.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Donald C. Gause & Gerald M. Weinberg,
                                                                                                                                                                              USER                                                               OF USE
                     Tell Me a Story, Roger C. Schank                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Exploring Requirements: Quality Before
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Design
                                                                                                                                                                      REQUIREMENTS                                                                  FUTURE STATE



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                USABILITY
                     I’m going to kill myself.
                     I should go to Paris and jump
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                TEST                                                                                                                                                                       “Just wait, Gretel, until the
                     off the Eiffel Tower. I’ll be
                                                                                                                                      CONTENT                                                                                                                “I write scripts to serve as                                                                                                                                                                                                                  moon rises, and then we shall
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                PROTOCOL
                     dead. You know, in fact, if
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             skeletons awaiting the flesh                                                                                                                                                                                                                  see the crumbs of bread
                                                                                                                                    INVENTORY
                     I get the Concorde, I could
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             and sinew of images.”                                                                                                                                                                                                                         which I have strewn about;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       TAXONOMY
                     be dead three hours earlier,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           they will show us our way
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ingmar Bergman, NY Times 22 Jan 78
                     which would be perfect. Or
                                                          SCENARIOS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 AND METADATA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           home again.”
                                                                                                                               “Our burgeoning digital cul-
                     wait a minute. It – with the
                                                                                                                               ture is heading for oblivion,
                                                             OF USE
                     time change, I could be alive                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Hansel and Gretel
                                                                                                                               and fast…future anthropolo-
                     for six hours in New York but
                                                          CURRENT STATE                                                        gists will find our pottery but
                     dead three hours in Paris.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         INFORMATION
                                                                                                                               not our e-mail.”
                     I could get things done, and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ARCHITECTURE
                     I could also be dead.                                                                                     James Gleick, Faster: the
                                                                                                                               Acceleration of Just about
                     Woody Allen (one of the greatest
                                                                                                                               Everything
                     personas of the 20th century… good
                     thing he didn’t take the plane to
                     Paris)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         USABILITY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             “Technical work needs                                                                              “Break it, stretch it, bend it,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           “Regulations [are] written for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             reviewing for the same                                                                             crush it, crack it, fold it.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the obedience of fools and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             TEST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             reason that pencils need
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the guidance of wise men.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Bruce Mau, Lifestyle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             erasers: to err is human.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Anonymous. Featured in the film
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Freedman and Weinberg, Handbook

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  EXPERT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Reach for the Sky (UK, 1956).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of Walkthroughs, Inspections and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    GRAPHIC
                     PERSONAS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Technical Reviews

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  REVIEW                                                                                                                                                                                                 STYLE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DESIGN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         GUIDE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                “Those things that hurt,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TEST                          instruct.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                REPORT                          Ben Franklin




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COMMUNICATION PLAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    “Sight, even though used by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    all of us so naturally, has not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    yet produced its civilization.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sight is swift, comprehensive,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    simultaneously analytic and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 RESEARCH                                                                                                                                                                               DETAILED
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    synthetic. It requires so little

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 REPORT                                                                                                                             energy to function, as it does,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        SPECIFICATION                                                                                     DOCUMENTATION
                            FIELD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    at the speed of light, that it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    permits our minds to receive

                            STUDIES                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 and hold an infinite number
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    of items of information in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    a fraction of a second. With
                     Observation                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The men of experiment are                                                                                                                                                               “First, the taking in of scat-           “He who every morning plans                        “To determine whether or not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    sight infinities are given at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             like the ant, they only collect                                                                                                                                                         tered particulars under one              the transaction of the day                         a spark is being delivered to
                     “A little manure on the boots
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    once; wealth is its description.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             and use; the reasoners                                                                                                                                                                  Idea, so that everyone                   and follows out that plan,                         the spark plug, hold a spark
                     may disturb city folks, but in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Caleb Gattegno, Toward a Visual
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             resemble spiders, who make                                                                                                                                                              understands what is being                carries a thread that will                         plug wire approximately 1/4
                     requirements work, you learn
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Culture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             cobwebs out of their own                                                                                                                                                                talked about…Second, the                 guide him through the maze                         inch away from the cylinder
                     not to mistake appearance
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             substance. But the bee takes                                                                                                                                                            separation of the Idea into              of the most busy life. But                         head as the engine is cranked
                     for value.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the middle course: it gathers                                                                                                                                                           parts, by dividing it at the             where no plan is laid, where                       with the starting motor…If a
                     Donald C. Gause & Gerald M.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             its material from the flowers                                                                                                                                                           joints, as nature directs,               the disposal of time is surren-                    spark is noted from each of
                     Weinberg, Exploring Requirements:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of the garden and field, but                                                                                                                                                            not breaking any limb in                 dered merely to the chance                         the wires, the trouble is not
                     Quality Before Design
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             transforms and digests it by                                                                                                                                                            half as a bad carver might.”             of incidence, chaos will soon                      likely to be with the ignition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             a power of its own. Not unlike                                                                                                                                                                                                   reign.”                                            system.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Plato, Phaedrus, 265D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             this is the true business of                                                                                                                                                                                                     Victor Hugo (1802 - 1885)                          from Ford’s 1941 Deluxe and Super
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             philosophy (science).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Deluxe Reference Book (Ford did not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 caution the reader against getting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Francis Bacon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 shocked or performing this quick-fix
                                                                                                                                                                       Current state




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 while standing in a puddle.).
                                                                                                                                                                                                Future state




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    hoto credits: Geert Allegaert, Joannes Vandermeulen and Karolien Taverniers - Thanks to Alain Schiffeleers and Andreea Chelaru
 http://www.namahn.com/resources/poster.htm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    TIME
COMMUNICATION PLAN                                         CONCEPTUAL MODEL                                                DETAILED SPECIFICATION                                      FIELD STUDIES                                                   INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE                                               PERSONAS                                                            STYLE GUIDE                                                            USABILITY TEST                                                      USE CASES
A document describing the scope and the                    The concepts that the design must communicate                   A detailed specification describes the compo-               Observing users in the environment in which                     Document describing the information architec-                          Personas are lively descriptions of typical users.                  A document describing the formal conventions                           A method by which users of a product are asked                      A use case defines a set of use-case instances
planning of the communication project: what                in order for the user to understand and operate                 nents and behaviour of the user experience                  they will work with the digital product that is                 ture of a digital product. In some cases, the                          They are based on patterns and findings                             to be followed within a family of digital prod-                        to perform tasks in an effort to measure the                        in which each instance is a sequence of actions
is to be communicated, for whom and how;                   the product. The conceptual model                               in sufficient detail for the developer, and may             being designed.                                                 information architecture specification offers                          gathered during field studies. Using personas                       ucts. Conventions can be lexical (what are the                         product’s ease-of-use, task time, and the user’s                    a system performs that yields an observable
where the challenges and opportunities lie.                differs from the technical model, which is the                  include the design rationale.                                                                                               two perspectives:                                                      prevents designers from drifting towards an                         codes, both visual and linguistic) and syntacti-                       perception of the product.                                          result of value to a particular actor, often a user.
                                                                                                                                                                                       GRAPHIC DESIGN
                                                           way the developer understands the product.                                                                                                                                                  • User’s side: what the user sees —the taxonomy                        idealized view of users that lacks nuance.                          cal (how the codes can be assembled to form
CONCEPTUAL DESIGN                                                                                                          DOCUMENTATION                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 USABILITY TEST PROTOCOL                                             USER REQUIREMENTS
                                                           It also differs from the mental model, which is                                                                             The design of the look and feel of the digital                  and structuring of the information on the pages.                                                                                           practical wholes).



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              RESEARCH REPORT
A set of sketches illustrating the main interaction        the concept that an individual user develops                    The final deliverables of a documentation                   product. The graphical design usually consists                  • Authoring/Storage side: describing the author-                                                                                                                                                                  The protocol describes scope, goals, settings,                      User requirements are a formal expression
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TAXONOMY AND METADATA
concept of a digital product. The conceptual               in order to understand the product.                             project. Usually the writing process of docu-               of a specification of standard colours, icons, the              ing and storage of the information, workflows,                         A document that expresses the findings of a                                                                                                instructions and tasks to be performed by                           of the desired functions and qualities of the
design starts with paper and pencil.                                                                                       mentation takes three iterations: draft version,            location of graphical elements and typography.                  metadata, topics and information types.                                research project. Creative and rational at the                      Design of the information structure, the labelling                     a test participant.                                                 future digital product. Not only product features,
                                                           CONTENT INVENTORY                                               pre-final version, and final version.                                                                                                                                                              same time, it provides insight into murky territory.                and the terminology that will be applied to the                                                                                            but also non-functional requirements, such
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       MOCK-UP
                                                           A structured list of all content (documents, digital                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   content of a digital product. The information                                                                                              as reliability and usability, are included.
                                                                                                                           EXPERT REVIEW                                                                                                                                                                                      SCENARIOS OF USE
                                                           assets, information chunks, etc.) that must be                                                                                                                                              A more or less realistic simulation of the user                                                                                            structure is usually a tree or a matrix (faceted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              [current state/future state]
                                                           considered for publication in a digital product.                During expert reviews, a number of experts                                                                                  interface that combines the scenarios of use                                                                                               classification).
“Most clients expect experience design to
   be a discrete activity, solving all their
     problems with a single functional
 specification or a single research study. It
  must be an ongoing effort, a process of
     continually learning about users,
responding to their behaviors, and evolving
          the product or service.”

Dan Brown
Co-founder and principal at EightShapes

                                   Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
3


User experience design is NOT


Just about technology.


                       Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
“User experience design is not
    limited to the confines of the
 computer. It doesn't even need a
  screen... User experience is any
 interaction with any product, any
        artifact, any system.”


Bill DeRouchey
Director of interaction design at Ziba Design

                                     Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
Carelman’s teapot

from Don Norman’s ﬔe Design of Everyday ﬔings

                                 Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
4


User experience design is NOT


 Just about usability.


                       Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
“While usability is important, its focus
on efficiency and effectiveness seems
 to blur the other important factors in
   UX, which include learnability and
   visceral and behavioral emotional
     responses to the products and
            services we use.”

David Malouf
Professor of interaction design
Savannah College of Art & Design

                                   Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
http://semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/000029.php



                                                Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
5


User experience design is NOT


 Just about the user.


                       Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
“We just can’t always do what is
best for the users. ﬔere are a set
  of business objectives that are
  needing to be met—and we’re
    designing to that, as well.”

Russ Unger
Director of Experience Planning, DraFCB

                                  Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
http://www.semanticstudios.com/publications/semantics/images/threecirclesbig.jpg




                                                               Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
http://idea-sandbox.com/blog_images/strategic_sweet_spot.png


                                                      Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
6


User experience design is NOT


       Expensive.


                       Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
“Sometimes a fully-fledged, formal UCD
process may not be the best thing to try first
 time. It’s extremely important–and totally
possible no matter where you’re working or
when you arrive on a project–to make small
 improvements to both the project and the
     product by introducing some user
      experience design techniques.”

Steve Baty
Principal and UX strategist, Meld Consulting

                                    Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
“People cling to things like personas,
 user research, drawing comics, etc. In
    reality the best designers have a
toolbox of options, picking and choosing
 methods for each project what makes
    sense for that particular project.”


Dan Saffer
Founder and principal, Kicker Studio

                                       Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
7


User experience design is NOT


           Easy.


                       Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
Cutting corners

All assumption, no validation
One-size-fits-all solutions
Feature creep
Design during development


                             Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
8


User experience design is NOT


ﬔe role of one person
  or department.

                       Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
“User experience isn’t just the responsibility
      of a department or a person. ﬔat
  compartmentalist view of UX is evidence
    that it is not part of the organizational
   culture and hints to teams not having a
 common goal or vision for the experience
       they should deliver collectively.”


Livia Labate
Principal, UX, Comcast Interactive Media

                                   Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
http://www.slideshare.net/jmspool/
journey-to-the-center-of-design
9


User experience design is NOT


  A single discipline.


                       Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
“User experience may not even be a
  community just yet. At best, it’s a common
 awareness, a thread that ties together people
from different disciplines who care about good
     design, and who realize that today’s
   increasingly complex design challenges
 require the synthesis of different varieties of
              design expertise.”


Lou Rosenfeld
UX book publisher at Rosenfeld Media

                                   Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
http://www.montparnas.com/
10


User experience design is NOT


        A choice.


                       Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
“ﬔe biggest misconception is
that companies have a choice to
invest in their user’s experience.
     To survive, they don’t.”

Joshua Porter
Principal at Bokardo Design


                              Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
Experiences happen,
 whether or not you plan them.

When not intentionally designed,
there’s a much higher likelihood
  of the experience being poor.


                        Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
User experience design is
NOT...

1. User interface design           It is the system
2. A step in the process           It is the process
3. Just about technology           It is about behavior
4. Just about usability            It is about value
5. Just about the user             It is about context
6. Expensive                       It is flexible
7. Easy                            It is a balancing act
8. ﬔe role of one person or dept   It is a culture
9. A single discipline             It is a collaboration
10. A choice                       It is a means of survival


                                              Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
ﬔank you.



            Whitney Hess
            whitney@whitneyhess.com
                       @whitneyhess
              http://whitneyhess.com

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10 Most Common Misconceptions About User Experience Design

  • 1. 10 Most Common Misconceptions About User Experience Design Whitney Hess whitney@whitneyhess.com @whitneyhess http://whitneyhess.com
  • 2.
  • 3. 1 User experience design is NOT User interface design. Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 4. “User experience isn't a layer or component of a product or service. It's really about the design of whole systems and their interconnections.” Andrew Hinton Senior information architect at Vanguard Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 6. 2 User experience design is NOT A step in the process. Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 7. “User experience design isn't a checkbox. You don't do it and then move on. It needs to be integrated into everything you do.” Liz Danzico Chair, MFA in Interaction Design School of Visual Arts in NYC Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 8.
  • 9. SOLUTIONS Future state Current state Write user-centered requirements specifications It stands almost complete and finished in my mind so ABSTRACTION that I can survey it like a fine Research user interface topics picture or a beautiful statue. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, from Create user interface style guides Information Design, edited by Robert Jacobson Conceptual and detailed design CONCEPTUAL An ounce of action is worth of user interfaces MODEL a ton of theory. Friedrich Engels (1820 - 1895) Review and test usability Information architecture USE CASES for large bodies of content “An architect is defined as Write and edit documentation someone who forgets to put in the staircase.” Gustave Flaubert, French novelist (1821-80), Dictionnaire des idées reçues (1881). CONCEPTUAL DESIGN Dilbert: “Your user require- ments include four hundred features. Do you realize that no human would be able to use a product with that level of complexity?” “Rules are sparse; we forget Feature Creep: “Good point. them. Stories, being rich in I’d better add ‘easy to use’ “If you want to know what details, are multiply index- to the list.” happens when you throw able...Moreover, if a rule fails, a stone into a pond, it is infi- Dilbert as quoted in Paper it can be reassessed only nitely better to make a trial Prototyping, Carolyn Snyder with great difficulty because and film it than to attempt rules hang in the air, unat- to theorize about it.” tached to experience. But if “Igloo: an indigenous home René Thom, Physicist the lesson attached to a spe- constructed of local building cific story fails, the events of materials. Bavarian castle: MOCK-UP the story can be reassessed a home constructed to impress to figure out why the lesson the neighbours. Space station: failed and what other lesson a mobile home with a view.” SCENARIOS might have been drawn.” Donald C. Gause & Gerald M. Weinberg, USER OF USE Tell Me a Story, Roger C. Schank Exploring Requirements: Quality Before Design REQUIREMENTS FUTURE STATE USABILITY I’m going to kill myself. I should go to Paris and jump TEST “Just wait, Gretel, until the off the Eiffel Tower. I’ll be CONTENT “I write scripts to serve as moon rises, and then we shall PROTOCOL dead. You know, in fact, if skeletons awaiting the flesh see the crumbs of bread INVENTORY I get the Concorde, I could and sinew of images.” which I have strewn about; TAXONOMY be dead three hours earlier, they will show us our way Ingmar Bergman, NY Times 22 Jan 78 which would be perfect. Or SCENARIOS AND METADATA home again.” “Our burgeoning digital cul- wait a minute. It – with the ture is heading for oblivion, OF USE time change, I could be alive Hansel and Gretel and fast…future anthropolo- for six hours in New York but CURRENT STATE gists will find our pottery but dead three hours in Paris. INFORMATION not our e-mail.” I could get things done, and ARCHITECTURE I could also be dead. James Gleick, Faster: the Acceleration of Just about Woody Allen (one of the greatest Everything personas of the 20th century… good thing he didn’t take the plane to Paris) USABILITY “Technical work needs “Break it, stretch it, bend it, “Regulations [are] written for reviewing for the same crush it, crack it, fold it.” the obedience of fools and TEST reason that pencils need the guidance of wise men.” Bruce Mau, Lifestyle erasers: to err is human.” Anonymous. Featured in the film Freedman and Weinberg, Handbook EXPERT Reach for the Sky (UK, 1956). of Walkthroughs, Inspections and GRAPHIC PERSONAS Technical Reviews REVIEW STYLE DESIGN GUIDE “Those things that hurt, TEST instruct.” REPORT Ben Franklin COMMUNICATION PLAN “Sight, even though used by all of us so naturally, has not yet produced its civilization. Sight is swift, comprehensive, simultaneously analytic and RESEARCH DETAILED synthetic. It requires so little REPORT energy to function, as it does, SPECIFICATION DOCUMENTATION FIELD at the speed of light, that it permits our minds to receive STUDIES and hold an infinite number of items of information in a fraction of a second. With Observation The men of experiment are “First, the taking in of scat- “He who every morning plans “To determine whether or not sight infinities are given at like the ant, they only collect tered particulars under one the transaction of the day a spark is being delivered to “A little manure on the boots once; wealth is its description.” and use; the reasoners Idea, so that everyone and follows out that plan, the spark plug, hold a spark may disturb city folks, but in Caleb Gattegno, Toward a Visual resemble spiders, who make understands what is being carries a thread that will plug wire approximately 1/4 requirements work, you learn Culture cobwebs out of their own talked about…Second, the guide him through the maze inch away from the cylinder not to mistake appearance substance. But the bee takes separation of the Idea into of the most busy life. But head as the engine is cranked for value.” the middle course: it gathers parts, by dividing it at the where no plan is laid, where with the starting motor…If a Donald C. Gause & Gerald M. its material from the flowers joints, as nature directs, the disposal of time is surren- spark is noted from each of Weinberg, Exploring Requirements: of the garden and field, but not breaking any limb in dered merely to the chance the wires, the trouble is not Quality Before Design transforms and digests it by half as a bad carver might.” of incidence, chaos will soon likely to be with the ignition a power of its own. Not unlike reign.” system.” Plato, Phaedrus, 265D this is the true business of Victor Hugo (1802 - 1885) from Ford’s 1941 Deluxe and Super philosophy (science). Deluxe Reference Book (Ford did not caution the reader against getting Francis Bacon shocked or performing this quick-fix Current state while standing in a puddle.). Future state hoto credits: Geert Allegaert, Joannes Vandermeulen and Karolien Taverniers - Thanks to Alain Schiffeleers and Andreea Chelaru http://www.namahn.com/resources/poster.htm TIME COMMUNICATION PLAN CONCEPTUAL MODEL DETAILED SPECIFICATION FIELD STUDIES INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE PERSONAS STYLE GUIDE USABILITY TEST USE CASES A document describing the scope and the The concepts that the design must communicate A detailed specification describes the compo- Observing users in the environment in which Document describing the information architec- Personas are lively descriptions of typical users. A document describing the formal conventions A method by which users of a product are asked A use case defines a set of use-case instances planning of the communication project: what in order for the user to understand and operate nents and behaviour of the user experience they will work with the digital product that is ture of a digital product. In some cases, the They are based on patterns and findings to be followed within a family of digital prod- to perform tasks in an effort to measure the in which each instance is a sequence of actions is to be communicated, for whom and how; the product. The conceptual model in sufficient detail for the developer, and may being designed. information architecture specification offers gathered during field studies. Using personas ucts. Conventions can be lexical (what are the product’s ease-of-use, task time, and the user’s a system performs that yields an observable where the challenges and opportunities lie. differs from the technical model, which is the include the design rationale. two perspectives: prevents designers from drifting towards an codes, both visual and linguistic) and syntacti- perception of the product. result of value to a particular actor, often a user. GRAPHIC DESIGN way the developer understands the product. • User’s side: what the user sees —the taxonomy idealized view of users that lacks nuance. cal (how the codes can be assembled to form CONCEPTUAL DESIGN DOCUMENTATION USABILITY TEST PROTOCOL USER REQUIREMENTS It also differs from the mental model, which is The design of the look and feel of the digital and structuring of the information on the pages. practical wholes). Whitney Hess @whitneyhess RESEARCH REPORT A set of sketches illustrating the main interaction the concept that an individual user develops The final deliverables of a documentation product. The graphical design usually consists • Authoring/Storage side: describing the author- The protocol describes scope, goals, settings, User requirements are a formal expression TAXONOMY AND METADATA concept of a digital product. The conceptual in order to understand the product. project. Usually the writing process of docu- of a specification of standard colours, icons, the ing and storage of the information, workflows, A document that expresses the findings of a instructions and tasks to be performed by of the desired functions and qualities of the design starts with paper and pencil. mentation takes three iterations: draft version, location of graphical elements and typography. metadata, topics and information types. research project. Creative and rational at the Design of the information structure, the labelling a test participant. future digital product. Not only product features, CONTENT INVENTORY pre-final version, and final version. same time, it provides insight into murky territory. and the terminology that will be applied to the but also non-functional requirements, such MOCK-UP A structured list of all content (documents, digital content of a digital product. The information as reliability and usability, are included. EXPERT REVIEW SCENARIOS OF USE assets, information chunks, etc.) that must be A more or less realistic simulation of the user structure is usually a tree or a matrix (faceted [current state/future state] considered for publication in a digital product. During expert reviews, a number of experts interface that combines the scenarios of use classification).
  • 10. “Most clients expect experience design to be a discrete activity, solving all their problems with a single functional specification or a single research study. It must be an ongoing effort, a process of continually learning about users, responding to their behaviors, and evolving the product or service.” Dan Brown Co-founder and principal at EightShapes Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 11.
  • 12. 3 User experience design is NOT Just about technology. Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 13. “User experience design is not limited to the confines of the computer. It doesn't even need a screen... User experience is any interaction with any product, any artifact, any system.” Bill DeRouchey Director of interaction design at Ziba Design Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 14. Carelman’s teapot from Don Norman’s ﬔe Design of Everyday ﬔings Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 15. 4 User experience design is NOT Just about usability. Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 16. “While usability is important, its focus on efficiency and effectiveness seems to blur the other important factors in UX, which include learnability and visceral and behavioral emotional responses to the products and services we use.” David Malouf Professor of interaction design Savannah College of Art & Design Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 18.
  • 19. 5 User experience design is NOT Just about the user. Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 20. “We just can’t always do what is best for the users. ﬔere are a set of business objectives that are needing to be met—and we’re designing to that, as well.” Russ Unger Director of Experience Planning, DraFCB Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 23. 6 User experience design is NOT Expensive. Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 24. “Sometimes a fully-fledged, formal UCD process may not be the best thing to try first time. It’s extremely important–and totally possible no matter where you’re working or when you arrive on a project–to make small improvements to both the project and the product by introducing some user experience design techniques.” Steve Baty Principal and UX strategist, Meld Consulting Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 26. “People cling to things like personas, user research, drawing comics, etc. In reality the best designers have a toolbox of options, picking and choosing methods for each project what makes sense for that particular project.” Dan Saffer Founder and principal, Kicker Studio Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 27. 7 User experience design is NOT Easy. Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 28.
  • 30. Cutting corners All assumption, no validation One-size-fits-all solutions Feature creep Design during development Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 31. 8 User experience design is NOT ﬔe role of one person or department. Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 32. “User experience isn’t just the responsibility of a department or a person. ﬔat compartmentalist view of UX is evidence that it is not part of the organizational culture and hints to teams not having a common goal or vision for the experience they should deliver collectively.” Livia Labate Principal, UX, Comcast Interactive Media Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 35. 9 User experience design is NOT A single discipline. Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 36. “User experience may not even be a community just yet. At best, it’s a common awareness, a thread that ties together people from different disciplines who care about good design, and who realize that today’s increasingly complex design challenges require the synthesis of different varieties of design expertise.” Lou Rosenfeld UX book publisher at Rosenfeld Media Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 39. 10 User experience design is NOT A choice. Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 40. “ﬔe biggest misconception is that companies have a choice to invest in their user’s experience. To survive, they don’t.” Joshua Porter Principal at Bokardo Design Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 41. Experiences happen, whether or not you plan them. When not intentionally designed, there’s a much higher likelihood of the experience being poor. Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 42. User experience design is NOT... 1. User interface design It is the system 2. A step in the process It is the process 3. Just about technology It is about behavior 4. Just about usability It is about value 5. Just about the user It is about context 6. Expensive It is flexible 7. Easy It is a balancing act 8. ﬔe role of one person or dept It is a culture 9. A single discipline It is a collaboration 10. A choice It is a means of survival Whitney Hess @whitneyhess
  • 43. ﬔank you. Whitney Hess whitney@whitneyhess.com @whitneyhess http://whitneyhess.com