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PRESENTATION
Presentation by:
Maria Ashraf
Presented To:
Dr.Shazia Zamir
THE ESSAY TEST
Definition
Essay test is a test that
requires the student to
compose
responses,
usually lengthy up to
several paragraphs.
Essay test measure Higher Level
Thinking
Questions that test
higher
level
processes such as






Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation
Creativity
Distinctive Feature of Essay
Test
The distinctive feature of essay type test is
the “freedom of response”. Pupils are free
to select, relate and present ideas in their
own words.
Uses of Essay Test
1.

2.

3.
4.

5.

Assess the ability to recall, organize, and
integrate ideas.
Assess the ability to express oneself in
writing.
Ability to supply information.
Assess student understanding of subject
matter.
Measure the knowledge of factual
information.
Form of Essay Test



Restricted Response/ Controlled Response.
Extended Response/Uncontrolled Response.

Restricted Response
Response

Extended
Restricted Response Essay
Questions
Restricted response usually limits both the
content and the response by restricting the
scope of the topic to be discussed.
Useful for measuring learning outcomes
requiring interpretation and application of data
in a specific area.
Example of Restricted
Response




Describe two situations that demonstrate the
application of the law of supply and demand.
Do not use those examples discussed in class.
State the main differences between the
Vietnam War and previous wars in which the
United States has participated.
Advantages of Restricted
Response Questions







Restricted response question is more
structured.
Measure specific learning outcomes.
Restricted response provide for more ease of
assessment.
Any outcomes measured by an objective
interpretive exercise can be measured by a
restricted response essay question.
Limitations of Restricted Response
Questions
Restricted response question restricts the
scope of the topic to be discussed and
indicating the nature of the desired response
which
limits
student
opportunity
to
demonstrate these behavior.
Extended Response Essay
Questions
Extended response question allows student to
select information that they think is pertinent,
to organize the answer in accordance with
their best judgment, and to integrate and
evaluate ideas as they think suitable.
They do not set limits on the length or exact
content to be discussed.
Examples of Extended Response
Essay Questions




Compare developments in international
relations in the administrations of President
William Clinton and President George W.
Bush. Cite examples when possible.
Imagine that you and a friend found a magic
wand. Write a story about an adventure that
you and your friend had with the magic wand.
Advantages of Extended Response
Questions




This type of essay item is mostly useful in
measuring learning outcomes at the higher
cognitive levels of educational objectives such
as analysis, synthesis and evaluation levels.
They expose the individual differences in
attitudes, values and creative ability.
Limitations of Extended Response
Questions




They are insufficient for measuring knowledge
of factual materials because they call for
extensive details in selected content area at a
time.
Scoring such type of responses is usually
difficult and unreliable since the examinees
have free will in the array of factual information
of varying degree of correctness, coherence
and expression.
Major Difference




Objective Interpretive- select
Restricted Response Essay- supply
Extended-Response Essay- write
Advantages Of Essay
Questions










The freedom of response allows the student to
express himself in his own words.
It measures complex learning outcomes that
cannot be measured by other means.
Essay tests promotes the development of prob
lem-solving skills.
It helps students to improve their writing skills
such as writing speed.
It encourages creativity by allowing their own
unique way.
Advantages Of Essay
Questions








It is easy and economical to administer.
It encourages good study habits in students.
Essay item is easy to construct and does not
take much time
It can be used to measure in-depth knowledge
especially in a restricted subject matter area.
It does not encourage guessing and cheating
during testing.
Disadvantages of Essay
Questions






Scoring is not reliable because different
examiners can grade the score answer
differently. In fact, the same examiner can
grade the same question differently at different
times.
Grading of essay tests is time-consuming.
Subjective scoring of essay questions.
Essay questions do not cover the course
content
and
the
objectives
as
comprehensively as possible.
Disadvantages of Essay
Questions


Evaluating essay questions without adequate
attention to the learning outcomes is just like
“three blind men appraising an elephant” .
One teacher stresses factual content, one
organization of ideas, and another writing skill.
Suggestions For Constructing
Essay Questions








Restrict the use of essay questions to those
learning outcomes that cannot be satisfactorily
measured by objective items.
State the question clearly and precisely and make
clear what information the answer should contain.
Indicate the approximate time limit for
each question.
Avoid the use of optional questions.
Suggestions For Constructing
Essay Questions
Construct question that will call forth the skills
specified
in the learning standards.


Example:
Write a two page statement defending the
importance of conserving our natural resources?
(Your answer will be evaluated in terms of its
organization, comprehensiveness, and relevance
of the arguments presented.)
Suggestion For Scoring Essay
Question


Chose either the analytical or holistic
(global-quality) method.

Analytical Scoring:
This scoring method requires that the
instructor develop an ideal response and
create a scoring key or guide. The scoring
key provides an absolute standard for
determining the total points awarded for a
response. Student responses are compared
to the scoring standard and not to the
responses of their classmates.
Suggestion For Scoring Essay
Question
Holistic Scoring:
The reader forms an impression of the overall
quality of a response and then transforms that
impression into a score or grade. The score
represents the quality of a response in relation
to a relative standard such as other students in
the class.
Suggestion For Scoring Essay
Question






Score the responses
question-by-question rather
than student-by-student.
Disassociate the identity of
students from their responses
during the grading process.
Determine in advance what
aspects of the response will or
will not be judged in scoring.
Bluffing-A Special scoring
Problem








It is possible for students to obtain higher scores
in essay questions than they deserve by the
mean of clever bluffing. This is usually a
combination of writing skill, general knowledge
and use of common tricks like;
Respond to every question.
Stressing importance of topic.
Agreeing with teachers opinion.
Name dropping.
Write on a related topic and “make it fit”.
Writing in general terms that fit many situation.
Suggestion for Constructing
Multiple Choice Items











The stem of the item should be meaningful by itself and should
present a definite problem.
The item stem should include as much of the item as possible and
should be free of irrelevant material.
Use a negatively stated stem only when significant learning
outcomes require it.
All the alternatives should be grammatically consistent with the
stem of the item.
An item should contain only one correct or clearly best answer.
Items used to measure understanding should contain some novelty,
but beware of too much.
Suggestion for Constructing
Multiple Choice Items








All distracters should be plausible. The purpose is to
distract the uninformed from the correct answer.
Verbal associations between the stem and the
correct answer should be avoided.
The relative length of the alternative should not
provide a clue to the answer.
The correct answer should appear in each of the
alternative positions an approximately equal number
of times but in random order.
Use sparingly “none of the above” or “all of the
above.”
Do not use multiple-choice items when other items
are more appropriate.

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Essay type test

  • 3. Definition Essay test is a test that requires the student to compose responses, usually lengthy up to several paragraphs.
  • 4. Essay test measure Higher Level Thinking Questions that test higher level processes such as     Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Creativity
  • 5. Distinctive Feature of Essay Test The distinctive feature of essay type test is the “freedom of response”. Pupils are free to select, relate and present ideas in their own words.
  • 6. Uses of Essay Test 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Assess the ability to recall, organize, and integrate ideas. Assess the ability to express oneself in writing. Ability to supply information. Assess student understanding of subject matter. Measure the knowledge of factual information.
  • 7. Form of Essay Test   Restricted Response/ Controlled Response. Extended Response/Uncontrolled Response. Restricted Response Response Extended
  • 8. Restricted Response Essay Questions Restricted response usually limits both the content and the response by restricting the scope of the topic to be discussed. Useful for measuring learning outcomes requiring interpretation and application of data in a specific area.
  • 9. Example of Restricted Response   Describe two situations that demonstrate the application of the law of supply and demand. Do not use those examples discussed in class. State the main differences between the Vietnam War and previous wars in which the United States has participated.
  • 10. Advantages of Restricted Response Questions     Restricted response question is more structured. Measure specific learning outcomes. Restricted response provide for more ease of assessment. Any outcomes measured by an objective interpretive exercise can be measured by a restricted response essay question.
  • 11. Limitations of Restricted Response Questions Restricted response question restricts the scope of the topic to be discussed and indicating the nature of the desired response which limits student opportunity to demonstrate these behavior.
  • 12. Extended Response Essay Questions Extended response question allows student to select information that they think is pertinent, to organize the answer in accordance with their best judgment, and to integrate and evaluate ideas as they think suitable. They do not set limits on the length or exact content to be discussed.
  • 13. Examples of Extended Response Essay Questions   Compare developments in international relations in the administrations of President William Clinton and President George W. Bush. Cite examples when possible. Imagine that you and a friend found a magic wand. Write a story about an adventure that you and your friend had with the magic wand.
  • 14. Advantages of Extended Response Questions   This type of essay item is mostly useful in measuring learning outcomes at the higher cognitive levels of educational objectives such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation levels. They expose the individual differences in attitudes, values and creative ability.
  • 15. Limitations of Extended Response Questions   They are insufficient for measuring knowledge of factual materials because they call for extensive details in selected content area at a time. Scoring such type of responses is usually difficult and unreliable since the examinees have free will in the array of factual information of varying degree of correctness, coherence and expression.
  • 16. Major Difference    Objective Interpretive- select Restricted Response Essay- supply Extended-Response Essay- write
  • 17. Advantages Of Essay Questions      The freedom of response allows the student to express himself in his own words. It measures complex learning outcomes that cannot be measured by other means. Essay tests promotes the development of prob lem-solving skills. It helps students to improve their writing skills such as writing speed. It encourages creativity by allowing their own unique way.
  • 18. Advantages Of Essay Questions      It is easy and economical to administer. It encourages good study habits in students. Essay item is easy to construct and does not take much time It can be used to measure in-depth knowledge especially in a restricted subject matter area. It does not encourage guessing and cheating during testing.
  • 19. Disadvantages of Essay Questions     Scoring is not reliable because different examiners can grade the score answer differently. In fact, the same examiner can grade the same question differently at different times. Grading of essay tests is time-consuming. Subjective scoring of essay questions. Essay questions do not cover the course content and the objectives as comprehensively as possible.
  • 20. Disadvantages of Essay Questions  Evaluating essay questions without adequate attention to the learning outcomes is just like “three blind men appraising an elephant” . One teacher stresses factual content, one organization of ideas, and another writing skill.
  • 21. Suggestions For Constructing Essay Questions     Restrict the use of essay questions to those learning outcomes that cannot be satisfactorily measured by objective items. State the question clearly and precisely and make clear what information the answer should contain. Indicate the approximate time limit for each question. Avoid the use of optional questions.
  • 22. Suggestions For Constructing Essay Questions Construct question that will call forth the skills specified in the learning standards.  Example: Write a two page statement defending the importance of conserving our natural resources? (Your answer will be evaluated in terms of its organization, comprehensiveness, and relevance of the arguments presented.)
  • 23. Suggestion For Scoring Essay Question  Chose either the analytical or holistic (global-quality) method. Analytical Scoring: This scoring method requires that the instructor develop an ideal response and create a scoring key or guide. The scoring key provides an absolute standard for determining the total points awarded for a response. Student responses are compared to the scoring standard and not to the responses of their classmates.
  • 24. Suggestion For Scoring Essay Question Holistic Scoring: The reader forms an impression of the overall quality of a response and then transforms that impression into a score or grade. The score represents the quality of a response in relation to a relative standard such as other students in the class.
  • 25. Suggestion For Scoring Essay Question    Score the responses question-by-question rather than student-by-student. Disassociate the identity of students from their responses during the grading process. Determine in advance what aspects of the response will or will not be judged in scoring.
  • 26. Bluffing-A Special scoring Problem       It is possible for students to obtain higher scores in essay questions than they deserve by the mean of clever bluffing. This is usually a combination of writing skill, general knowledge and use of common tricks like; Respond to every question. Stressing importance of topic. Agreeing with teachers opinion. Name dropping. Write on a related topic and “make it fit”. Writing in general terms that fit many situation.
  • 27. Suggestion for Constructing Multiple Choice Items       The stem of the item should be meaningful by itself and should present a definite problem. The item stem should include as much of the item as possible and should be free of irrelevant material. Use a negatively stated stem only when significant learning outcomes require it. All the alternatives should be grammatically consistent with the stem of the item. An item should contain only one correct or clearly best answer. Items used to measure understanding should contain some novelty, but beware of too much.
  • 28. Suggestion for Constructing Multiple Choice Items       All distracters should be plausible. The purpose is to distract the uninformed from the correct answer. Verbal associations between the stem and the correct answer should be avoided. The relative length of the alternative should not provide a clue to the answer. The correct answer should appear in each of the alternative positions an approximately equal number of times but in random order. Use sparingly “none of the above” or “all of the above.” Do not use multiple-choice items when other items are more appropriate.