SlideShare a Scribd company logo
AIR SAMPLING DEVICES
AIR SAMPLING DEVICES
PRELIMINARY CONCERNS FOR
CONDUCTING AIR SAMPLING
• Consider the possible characteristics and conditions of the aerosol,
including size range of particles, relative amount of inert material,
concentration of microorganisms, and environmental factors.
• Determine the type of sampling instruments, sampling time, and
duration of the sampling program.
• Determine the number of samples to be taken.
SLIT SAMPLER
• The Slit sampler was developed by Bourdillon (1941).
• In this a rotating petridish containing suitable nutrient agar media is placed under a slit
through which air is drawn.
• Sampling is done for short time to avoid the interference of growth of one colony with
another. Slit sampler is one of several sampling methods used for quantitation of biological
aerosols.
• In this method, particles from the air are impinged directly on a rotating agar plate, the plate is
incubated, and the colonies that develop from the bacteria-laden particles are counted.
• Highly efficient device and can collect upto 95% of the water droplet particles sprayed into
air.
• An inexpensive slit sampler for collecting microorganisms has been designed
which utilizes a 150 x 20 mm culture plate possessing 2.2 times the area of the
standard Petri dish.
• This increased area permits collection of a much greater number of organisms
with this type of sampler and prevents drying out of the media.
• A simple timing device is incorporated in the design of the sampler which
permits rotation at the rate of 1 revolution per hour, and renders an accurate
time concentration relationship.
SLIT SAMPLER
SLIT SAMPLER
SLIT SAMPLER
❖The slit opening may be set at various widths, by means of two recessed
screws which hold the two metal plates on the slit tube in place.
❖The sampling box is a cylindrical container housing the culture dish and the
agar plate holder.
❖The dish containing the impingement media is commercially available.
❖The agar plate holder is a metallic platform containing four clips which
hold the plate securely in position.
❖The drive shaft is ball bearing suspended and is mounted to the interval timer by
means of an adapter.
❖The function of the interval timer is to provide uniform rotation of the plate for a
period of 1 hour.
❖The housing for the interval timer is made gas-tight by means of an "O" ring placed in
a groove on the bottom exterior surface of the sampling box.
❖When the interval timer housing is screwed in position a gas-tight seal is secured. The
volume and rate of air flow are determined by a calibrated flowmeter.
SLIT SAMPLER
It draws in air from the environment at a fixed rate and causes the suspended particles to fall on the
surface of the agar plate.
USE OF SLIT SAMPLER FOR
AIR SURVEILLANCE
• Slit sampler is one of several
sampling methods used for
quantitation of biological aerosols.
• The particles from the air directly
settle on a rotating agar plate, the
plate is incubated, and the colonies
that develop from the bacteria-laden
particles are counted.
GRAVITY SLIDE
• The gravity slide was used by Blackley (1873).
• They are cheap, simple and can operate continuously.
• But they fail to estimate the airspora quantitatively and gives a distorted picture of airspora,
because they preferentially select the larger particles.
• To correct this distortion Scheppegrell (1922) tried to calculate the volumetric concentration
using a formula based on particle diameter which was later corrected by Cocke (1937) to
particle radius.
• But inspite of these defects it is widely used by aerobiologists and has contributed much
knowledge to the airspora.
• Air sampling cassette/ slide is designed for the rapid collection of a wide range of airborne aerosols including
mold spores, pollen, insect parts.
• It collects both viable and non-viable sample specimens.
• After sampling is completed, the cassettes are sent to a laboratory, where the slides are removed and direct
microscopic analysis can be immediately performed.
GRAVITY SLIDE
•Bioaerosols: mold spores, pollen, insect parts, skin cell fragments
•Fibers: asbestos, fiberglass, cellulose, clothing fibers, synthetics
•Inorganic Particulate: ceramic, fly ash, copy toner, oil droplets, paint
•Other Opaque Particulates: products of combustion, rust, salts
• Particulate laden air is accelerated as it is drawn through
the cassettes tapered inlet slit and directed towards a small
slide containing the collection media, where the particles
become impacted, and the air flow continues out the exit
orifice.
• The adhesive nature of the collection media prevents the
collected particulate from blurring or being washed off
during the laboratory staining process, and eliminates
sample loss from vibration during handling and shipment.
• After sampling is completed, the cassettes are sent to a
laboratory, where the slides are removed and direct
microscopic analysis can be immediately performed.
• The collection media is compatible with a wide range of
biological stains and refractive index oils, allowing direct
quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic particulate.
GRAVITY SLIDE
➢ This was first used by Rempe (1937) for trapping airborne pollen.
➢ It is a wind impaction sampler used for routine aerobiological survey and found to be very
inexpensive and effective for obtaining maximum information on the airborne microbiota.
➢ The vertical cylinder exposing unit consists of cylinder holder and a shelter which is a
modified design of the Durham type shelter.
➢ This has an "L" shaped steel angle with a cylinder holder device below and the unit is
covered on top by a circular aluminium plate which acts as a shield.
➢ The cylinder holding device is a 5 cm long iron tube which is provided with a screw on one
side near its upper end to hold the cylinder firmly in a vertical position.
➢ Sterile and clean glass rods of 13 cm length and 0.53 cm diameter were used in this study.
VERTICAL CYLINDER
VERTICAL CYLINDER
❖Spores counted in the area scanned can be then converted to number per square centimeter for
comparison with other catches on cylinder traps.
❖The vertical trap is convenient and cheap but the main drawback is that it catches a negligible
amount of spore in still air and small spores at ordinary wind speed and so changes in catch occurs
with alteration in wind speed.
VERTICAL CYLINDER
HIRST SPORE TRAP
• Hirst-type spore traps (HTST) is a volumetric impaction sampler which permit to have
results of the air fungal spore load quickly.
• With this device, both viable and nonviable spores are impacted on a silicon strip, then
microscopically read, but the spores are not cultured.
• Thus, this device may have an interest to monitor fungal loads in air as no growing time is
needed.
• The Hirst spore trap is the most widely used sampler in aerobiological surveys for
monitoring fungal propagules and pollen grains.
• Recent studies have taken advantage of this device to perform DNA-based studies for
pollen identification.
✓The Hirst spore trap was used for monitoring not only pollen but also fungal propagules
and airborne bacteria by high-throughput sequencing.
✓Detection, monitoring, and characterization of the wide diversity of biological entities
present in the air are difficult tasks that require time and expertise in different disciplines.
✓The Hirst spore trap (an instrument broadly employed in aerobiological studies), to detect
and identify these organisms by DNA-based analyses.
✓The results showed a consistent collection of DNA and a good concordance with traditional
methods for identification, suggesting that these devices can be used as a tool for
continuous monitoring of the airborne biodiversity, improving taxonomic resolution and
characterization together.
HIRST SPORE TRAP
• Hirst spore trap is an automatic volumetric spore trap to operate continuously
for 24 hr in the field.
• Later, a modified trap that would operate continuously for seven days.
• Samples are collected at a network of sites using volumetric spore traps that
are usually situated on flat rooftops away from obstructions and from local
sources of pollen.
• For work in plant pathology, traps are generally placed within or just
downwind of the crop to detect inoculum or to study the dispersal of plant
pathogens in the field.
• The choice of power supply is also a consideration.
• When the trap is run with a mains supply within reach, an armoured cable can
be used along with a waterproof and protected connection to the trap plug.
HIRST SPORE TRAP
Air sampling devices
Hirst spore trap
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b5bgHMEdzPw
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3_i2ldfYYmM
https://iul-instruments.com/product/spin-air-air-sampler/
AIR SAMPLING DEVICES
Dr. M. Sonia Angeline
Assistant Professor
Department of Life Sciences
KRISTU JAYANTI COLLEGE
• The rotorod sampler is a cheap, simple and portable air sampler.
• It consists of a U-shaped metal rod attached by a spindle to a battery-powered electric motor.
• The motor causes the upright arms of the metal rod to rotate at high speed.
• To use the sampler, the upright arms are covered with narrow strips of sticky tape, so that any spores in the air
will impact onto the tapes.
• Then the tapes are removed and examined microscopically to identify the spores and other particles such as
pollen grains in the air.
• This type of sampler is most effective for trapping relatively large particles (upwards of about 7 micrometres) such
as the larger fungal spores and pollen grains.
ROTOROD SAMPLER
• The Rotorod Sampler is a rotating-arm impactor that recovers airborne particles on two
rapidly moving plastic collector rods.
• The standard method for applying silicone grease to collector rods has been with one's
finger.
• A relatively high skill level is required, and significant intra preparer variability has been
observed.
• Collector rods were coated with silicone grease by dipping them into a solution consisting of
silicone grease and hexane.
• The Rotorod's collection efficiency appeared to be greatest at moderate windspeeds; lower
efficiencies occurred at both lower and higher windspeeds. Maximum changes in collection
efficiency ranged from 29% to 39% over the windspeeds employed.
ROTOROD SAMPLER
ROTOROD SAMPLER
• Models typically used have retracting rods
• Head rotates at 2400 rpm, leading edge of rod coated with silicon grease
• Pollen and spores impacted on greased surface
• Generally operated at 10% sampling time
• Efficient for pollen and spores >10 mm
ROTOROD
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qobfzn5sW3g
❖ Andersen (1958) developed a sampler similar in principle to slit sampler.
❖ The Anderson sampler is an ingenious device for selectively trapping different sizes of particles
according to their size (momentum).
❖ This sampler consists of a stack of 8 metal sections that fit together with ring seals to form an air-
tight cylinder.
❖ Each metal section has a perforated base, and the number of perforations is the same in each
section, but the size of these perforations is progressively reduced from the top of the column to the
bottom.
❖ To use this sampler, open agar plates are placed between each metal section, resting on three studs.
ANDERSON SAMPLER
✓ When fully assembled (with an open agar plate between each unit) an electric motor sucks air from the bottom of the unit,
causing spore-laden air to enter at the top and to pass down through the cylinder.
✓ Air sucked in at the top of the column travels at relatively low speed towards the first agar plate, and so only the largest
particles impact onto the agar surface.
✓ The air then travels round the edge of the agar plate and through the perforations to the second agar plate, and so on.
✓ As this process continues down the stack, the same volume of air is forced to travel through successively smaller
perforations, and so the air speed is progressively increased.
✓ The progressively increased air speed lower down the column raises the momentum of the air-borne particles, so that even
the very smallest particles (less than 3 micrometres diameter) can impact onto the lower agar plates.
✓ When the sampler has run for 5-15 minutes or more, the metal plates are separated and the Petri dishes are removed for
incubation to identify the colonies that develop.
ANDERSON SAMPLER
❖ Bioaerosol Sampler is a cost effective, multi-stage, multi-orifice cascade impactor that measures
concentration and particle size distribution of aerosol-type bacteria and fungi in the ambient air.
❖ Based on the inertial impaction principle, the six stage viable impactor collects all particles, regardless of
physical size, shape, or density.
❖ The particles are aerodynamically sized in which there is a direct relationship to the penetration of the
lung.
❖ The Andersen Six Stage Viable Impactor has an aluminium inlet cone, six aluminium jet stages, glass Petri
dishes, and an aluminium base plate held together by three spring clamps and sealed with o-ring gaskets.
❖ Each stage has 400 precision machined jet orifices.
❖ The Six Stage Impactor has a corrosion resistant body and operates at a flow rate of exactly 28.3 lpm (1
CFM).
❖ The Six Stage Sampler ensures ease of operation: calibration, sterilisation, and setup
ANDERSON SAMPLER
ANDERSON SAMPLER
ANDERSON SAMPLER
ANDERSON SAMPLER
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=thiKRrXzp6o
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SxLoqO8jL4I
The collection and assessment of aerosol samples is quite simple: Petri dishes containing an agar medium are
placed in the instrument and the sample of air is drawn in which the corresponding particulates are collected at
each stage on the agar medium. The Petri dishes are then removed, incubated and counted by an accepted
method.
APPLICATIONS
• Ambient Air Studies
• Indoor Air Studies
• Hospital & O.R. environments
• Virology investigations (including Influenza and SARS)
• Pharmaceutical production
• Filter and clean room efficiency studies
• Composting
• Wastewater treatment plants
➢ The Burkard Spore Trap (Burkard) is a volumetric air sampler that is one of the standard
devices for monitoring airborne pollen and spores.
➢ It is widely used by the allergy community and also the plant pathology community.
➢ The Burkard is a suction slit impactor used for pollen and spore sampling.
➢ The first sampler of this type was designed in 1952 by Dr. James Hirst a plant pathologist.
➢ As a result, samplers of this type are often referred to as a Hirst spore trap. In addition to
the Burkard, the Lanzoni sampler and others are also based on the Hirst design.
THE BURKARD SPORE TRAP
• In the Burkard, air is drawn into a 14 mm x 2 mm orifice at 10 liter per minute, and
any airborne particles with sufficient inertia are impacted on either a greased tape or a
greased microscope slide beneath the orifice.
• The impaction surface moves past the orifice at 2 mm per hour permitting time-
discriminate analysis.
• There is also a wind vane attached to the sampler head; since the head is able to rotate
the orifice is always oriented into the wind.
• The standard orifice on the Burkard sampler is efficient for particles down to 3.7 µm;
this means that all but the smallest spores will be efficiently trapped.
THE BURKARD SPORE TRAP
THE BURKARD SPORE TRAP
• The Burkard spore sampler acts on the same principle as the rotorod sampler, but is used
to give a continuous record of particles in the air over a period of 24 hours or up to 7
days.
• The apparatus consists of an air-sealed drum that contains a clockwork rotating disc
which makes a single revolution in 7 days.
• The surface of this disc is covered with adhesive tape, to trap spores that impact onto it.
• When the apparatus is assembled, air is sucked into the drum at high speed through a slit
orifice by means of a motor at the base of the apparatus.
❑ Any particles in the air impact onto the sticky tape near the slit orifice, giving a record of
the particles in the atmosphere at a specific time of day.
❑ At the end of a 7-day run, the tape is removed, cut into sections representing hourly or
daily periods, then examined microscopically for counting and identification of pollen and
spores.
❑ In this way, it is possible to distinguish clearly between night-released and day-released
spores or other particles, and also to relate the types of particle to different weather
conditions (e.g. humid or dry periods) while the apparatus was running.
❑ The Burkard spore trap is commonly used for continuous monitoring of spore or pollen
loads in the air.
THE BURKARD SPORE TRAP
THE BURKARD SPORE TRAP
❖ Impingers use a liquid medium for particle collection.
❖ Typically, sampled air is drawn by a suction pump through a narrow inlet tube into a small flask containing the collection
medium.
❖ This accelerates the air towards the surface of the collection medium and the flow rate is determined by the diameter of
the inlet tube.
❖ When the air hits the surface of the liquid, it changes direction abruptly and any suspended particles are impinged into the
collection liquid.
IMPINGERS
Once the sampling is complete the collection liquid can be cultured to enumerate viable microorganisms. Since the
sample volume can be calculated using the flow rate and sampling time, the result is quantitative.
• Glass Impingers have graduations in 5ml increments and available with a fritted nozzle to increase contact between
the air sample and the liquid.
• PFA impingers are unbreakable, inert to virtually all chemicals and perform well in high temperature and cryogenic
applications.
IMPINGERS
Glass Impingers PFA impingers
The sampling air bubbles through a nozzle plate into an
extraction liquid such as distilled water. The airborne
particles are transported into the liquid during the bubble
formation, release and rise.
• This is a means of sampling replacing the solid sorbent tube with a liquid.
• Impingers have a tapered outlet which allows particulate matter to exit at high velocity, hit the flask
bottom and be captured in solution.
• Bubblers are open or fritted to increase the surface area so the gases are absorbed into solution. This is a
preferred method.
• Impingers and bubblers can be positioned in an area, held or mounted in a holster.
Here is a typical sample train for an impinger/bubbler:
• After sampling the tubes or the sampled liquid are sealed and sent off to a laboratory for further analysis.
• The sorbent tubes are desorbed either chemically or thermally and for an impinger/bubbler, the sampled
liquid is analysed, generally by Gas chromatography.
ANALYSIS OF SAMPLE

More Related Content

What's hot

Secondary screening of industrial important microbes
Secondary screening of industrial important microbes   Secondary screening of industrial important microbes
Secondary screening of industrial important microbes
DhruviSuvagiya
 
Screening of industrial microorganisms
Screening of industrial microorganismsScreening of industrial microorganisms
Screening of industrial microorganisms
Dr NEETHU ASOKAN
 
Microbial interaction
Microbial interactionMicrobial interaction
Microbial interaction
Rachana Choudhary
 
bioaerasol and droplate nuclei.pptx
bioaerasol and droplate nuclei.pptxbioaerasol and droplate nuclei.pptx
bioaerasol and droplate nuclei.pptx
Muskan Ashi
 
Application of computer in fermentation
Application of computer in fermentationApplication of computer in fermentation
Application of computer in fermentation
sivaprakashsiva
 
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobioticsBiodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
gaurav raja
 
aero microbiology
aero microbiologyaero microbiology
aero microbiology
Microbiology
 
Biodegradation of petroleum
Biodegradation of petroleumBiodegradation of petroleum
Biodegradation of petroleum
Dr. sreeremya S
 
Biodeterioration of paper and leather ppt..
Biodeterioration of paper and leather ppt..Biodeterioration of paper and leather ppt..
Biodeterioration of paper and leather ppt..
ShaistaKhan60
 
Pesticide degradation
Pesticide degradationPesticide degradation
Pesticide degradation
abdulhaqmehran1
 
Culture Collection Center National and International
Culture Collection Center National and International Culture Collection Center National and International
Culture Collection Center National and International
RinuRolly
 
Microbial degradation of xenobiotics
Microbial degradation of xenobioticsMicrobial degradation of xenobiotics
Microbial degradation of xenobiotics
Shruthi Krishnaswamy
 
Media formulation
Media formulationMedia formulation
Media formulation
eswar1810
 
Industrial Microorganisms
Industrial MicroorganismsIndustrial Microorganisms
Industrial Microorganisms
M Rakibul Islam
 
Air Sanitation.pptx
Air Sanitation.pptxAir Sanitation.pptx
Air Sanitation.pptx
MicrobiologyMicro
 
Microbiology of air
Microbiology of airMicrobiology of air
Microbiology of air
Shivangi Somvanshi
 
Air microbiology ppt
Air microbiology pptAir microbiology ppt
Air microbiology ppt
University college
 
Bioleaching
Bioleaching Bioleaching
Bacteriological analysis of drinking water by MPN method.
Bacteriological analysis of drinking water by MPN method.Bacteriological analysis of drinking water by MPN method.
Bacteriological analysis of drinking water by MPN method.
prakashtu
 
Purification of viruses
Purification of virusesPurification of viruses

What's hot (20)

Secondary screening of industrial important microbes
Secondary screening of industrial important microbes   Secondary screening of industrial important microbes
Secondary screening of industrial important microbes
 
Screening of industrial microorganisms
Screening of industrial microorganismsScreening of industrial microorganisms
Screening of industrial microorganisms
 
Microbial interaction
Microbial interactionMicrobial interaction
Microbial interaction
 
bioaerasol and droplate nuclei.pptx
bioaerasol and droplate nuclei.pptxbioaerasol and droplate nuclei.pptx
bioaerasol and droplate nuclei.pptx
 
Application of computer in fermentation
Application of computer in fermentationApplication of computer in fermentation
Application of computer in fermentation
 
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobioticsBiodegradation of xenobiotics
Biodegradation of xenobiotics
 
aero microbiology
aero microbiologyaero microbiology
aero microbiology
 
Biodegradation of petroleum
Biodegradation of petroleumBiodegradation of petroleum
Biodegradation of petroleum
 
Biodeterioration of paper and leather ppt..
Biodeterioration of paper and leather ppt..Biodeterioration of paper and leather ppt..
Biodeterioration of paper and leather ppt..
 
Pesticide degradation
Pesticide degradationPesticide degradation
Pesticide degradation
 
Culture Collection Center National and International
Culture Collection Center National and International Culture Collection Center National and International
Culture Collection Center National and International
 
Microbial degradation of xenobiotics
Microbial degradation of xenobioticsMicrobial degradation of xenobiotics
Microbial degradation of xenobiotics
 
Media formulation
Media formulationMedia formulation
Media formulation
 
Industrial Microorganisms
Industrial MicroorganismsIndustrial Microorganisms
Industrial Microorganisms
 
Air Sanitation.pptx
Air Sanitation.pptxAir Sanitation.pptx
Air Sanitation.pptx
 
Microbiology of air
Microbiology of airMicrobiology of air
Microbiology of air
 
Air microbiology ppt
Air microbiology pptAir microbiology ppt
Air microbiology ppt
 
Bioleaching
Bioleaching Bioleaching
Bioleaching
 
Bacteriological analysis of drinking water by MPN method.
Bacteriological analysis of drinking water by MPN method.Bacteriological analysis of drinking water by MPN method.
Bacteriological analysis of drinking water by MPN method.
 
Purification of viruses
Purification of virusesPurification of viruses
Purification of viruses
 

Similar to Air sampling devices

STRUCTURE & APPLICATIONS OF A LABORATORY BIOREACTOR.pptx
STRUCTURE  & APPLICATIONS OF A LABORATORY BIOREACTOR.pptxSTRUCTURE  & APPLICATIONS OF A LABORATORY BIOREACTOR.pptx
STRUCTURE & APPLICATIONS OF A LABORATORY BIOREACTOR.pptx
TANISHKA RAJESH KUMAR
 
Microbial Assessment of Air Quality.pptx
Microbial Assessment of Air Quality.pptxMicrobial Assessment of Air Quality.pptx
Microbial Assessment of Air Quality.pptx
MicrobiologyMicro
 
Ap ms oe_l3
Ap ms oe_l3Ap ms oe_l3
Ap ms oe_l3
Kæsy Chaudhari
 
High volume air sampler
High volume air samplerHigh volume air sampler
Instrument.pptx
Instrument.pptxInstrument.pptx
Instrument.pptx
PRIYANKAMAJUMDAR11
 
L 35 final
L 35 finalL 35 final
AIR SAMPLING DEVICES.pptx
AIR SAMPLING DEVICES.pptxAIR SAMPLING DEVICES.pptx
AIR SAMPLING DEVICES.pptx
Kaviya Lakshmi
 
Sampling procedures part-3
Sampling procedures part-3Sampling procedures part-3
Sampling procedures part-3
Vipul Shankar
 
L 37 final
L 37 finalL 37 final
HIGH VOLUME SAMPLER ENVIROTECH APM 430.pptx
HIGH VOLUME SAMPLER ENVIROTECH APM 430.pptxHIGH VOLUME SAMPLER ENVIROTECH APM 430.pptx
HIGH VOLUME SAMPLER ENVIROTECH APM 430.pptx
DummyAccountRahulSin
 
Air sampling
Air samplingAir sampling
Air sampling
Andhe Venkatesh
 
aan ppt.pptx
aan ppt.pptxaan ppt.pptx
aan ppt.pptx
FazilatShahid
 
Pollen calendar
Pollen calendar Pollen calendar
Pollen calendar
Alok Kumar
 
Ultra safe brochure
Ultra safe brochureUltra safe brochure
Ultra safe brochure
Herman Halim
 
Uploaded 9 april 2016 mahesh joshi hazardous waste sampling techniques
Uploaded  9 april 2016 mahesh joshi hazardous waste sampling techniquesUploaded  9 april 2016 mahesh joshi hazardous waste sampling techniques
Uploaded 9 april 2016 mahesh joshi hazardous waste sampling techniques
Mahesh Joshi
 
INTERENSHIP REPORT
INTERENSHIP REPORTINTERENSHIP REPORT
INTERENSHIP REPORT
Ganesh Kumar
 
opthalmics.pptx
opthalmics.pptxopthalmics.pptx
opthalmics.pptx
TridevSastri1
 
Sampling of dust
Sampling of dustSampling of dust
Sampling of dust
Safdar Ali
 
spray dryer.pptx
spray dryer.pptxspray dryer.pptx
spray dryer.pptx
DIVYASINGH992260
 
USE AND HANDLING OF EQUIPMENTS.pptx
USE AND HANDLING OF EQUIPMENTS.pptxUSE AND HANDLING OF EQUIPMENTS.pptx
USE AND HANDLING OF EQUIPMENTS.pptx
BarathKumar163434
 

Similar to Air sampling devices (20)

STRUCTURE & APPLICATIONS OF A LABORATORY BIOREACTOR.pptx
STRUCTURE  & APPLICATIONS OF A LABORATORY BIOREACTOR.pptxSTRUCTURE  & APPLICATIONS OF A LABORATORY BIOREACTOR.pptx
STRUCTURE & APPLICATIONS OF A LABORATORY BIOREACTOR.pptx
 
Microbial Assessment of Air Quality.pptx
Microbial Assessment of Air Quality.pptxMicrobial Assessment of Air Quality.pptx
Microbial Assessment of Air Quality.pptx
 
Ap ms oe_l3
Ap ms oe_l3Ap ms oe_l3
Ap ms oe_l3
 
High volume air sampler
High volume air samplerHigh volume air sampler
High volume air sampler
 
Instrument.pptx
Instrument.pptxInstrument.pptx
Instrument.pptx
 
L 35 final
L 35 finalL 35 final
L 35 final
 
AIR SAMPLING DEVICES.pptx
AIR SAMPLING DEVICES.pptxAIR SAMPLING DEVICES.pptx
AIR SAMPLING DEVICES.pptx
 
Sampling procedures part-3
Sampling procedures part-3Sampling procedures part-3
Sampling procedures part-3
 
L 37 final
L 37 finalL 37 final
L 37 final
 
HIGH VOLUME SAMPLER ENVIROTECH APM 430.pptx
HIGH VOLUME SAMPLER ENVIROTECH APM 430.pptxHIGH VOLUME SAMPLER ENVIROTECH APM 430.pptx
HIGH VOLUME SAMPLER ENVIROTECH APM 430.pptx
 
Air sampling
Air samplingAir sampling
Air sampling
 
aan ppt.pptx
aan ppt.pptxaan ppt.pptx
aan ppt.pptx
 
Pollen calendar
Pollen calendar Pollen calendar
Pollen calendar
 
Ultra safe brochure
Ultra safe brochureUltra safe brochure
Ultra safe brochure
 
Uploaded 9 april 2016 mahesh joshi hazardous waste sampling techniques
Uploaded  9 april 2016 mahesh joshi hazardous waste sampling techniquesUploaded  9 april 2016 mahesh joshi hazardous waste sampling techniques
Uploaded 9 april 2016 mahesh joshi hazardous waste sampling techniques
 
INTERENSHIP REPORT
INTERENSHIP REPORTINTERENSHIP REPORT
INTERENSHIP REPORT
 
opthalmics.pptx
opthalmics.pptxopthalmics.pptx
opthalmics.pptx
 
Sampling of dust
Sampling of dustSampling of dust
Sampling of dust
 
spray dryer.pptx
spray dryer.pptxspray dryer.pptx
spray dryer.pptx
 
USE AND HANDLING OF EQUIPMENTS.pptx
USE AND HANDLING OF EQUIPMENTS.pptxUSE AND HANDLING OF EQUIPMENTS.pptx
USE AND HANDLING OF EQUIPMENTS.pptx
 

More from soniaangeline

Chemistry and Enzymology of Replication
Chemistry and Enzymology of  ReplicationChemistry and Enzymology of  Replication
Chemistry and Enzymology of Replication
soniaangeline
 
DNA Damage and DNA Repair- Dr. Sonia Angeline
DNA Damage and DNA Repair- Dr. Sonia AngelineDNA Damage and DNA Repair- Dr. Sonia Angeline
DNA Damage and DNA Repair- Dr. Sonia Angeline
soniaangeline
 
Enzymes involved in homologous recombination.pdf
Enzymes involved in homologous recombination.pdfEnzymes involved in homologous recombination.pdf
Enzymes involved in homologous recombination.pdf
soniaangeline
 
Recombination Models.pdf
Recombination Models.pdfRecombination Models.pdf
Recombination Models.pdf
soniaangeline
 
HUMAN GENOME PROJECT_Dr.Sonia.pdf
HUMAN GENOME PROJECT_Dr.Sonia.pdfHUMAN GENOME PROJECT_Dr.Sonia.pdf
HUMAN GENOME PROJECT_Dr.Sonia.pdf
soniaangeline
 
Human fetal sex determination – implications in India.pdf
Human fetal sex determination – implications in India.pdfHuman fetal sex determination – implications in India.pdf
Human fetal sex determination – implications in India.pdf
soniaangeline
 
CHROMOSOME BANDING PATTERN_Dr. Sonia.pdf
CHROMOSOME BANDING PATTERN_Dr. Sonia.pdfCHROMOSOME BANDING PATTERN_Dr. Sonia.pdf
CHROMOSOME BANDING PATTERN_Dr. Sonia.pdf
soniaangeline
 
DNA Methylation & C Value.pdf
DNA Methylation & C Value.pdfDNA Methylation & C Value.pdf
DNA Methylation & C Value.pdf
soniaangeline
 
Cot Curve_Dr. Sonia.pdf
Cot Curve_Dr. Sonia.pdfCot Curve_Dr. Sonia.pdf
Cot Curve_Dr. Sonia.pdf
soniaangeline
 
Hybridoma technology for production of monoclonal antibodies.pdf
Hybridoma technology for production of monoclonal antibodies.pdfHybridoma technology for production of monoclonal antibodies.pdf
Hybridoma technology for production of monoclonal antibodies.pdf
soniaangeline
 
Transgenic Animals.pdf
Transgenic Animals.pdfTransgenic Animals.pdf
Transgenic Animals.pdf
soniaangeline
 
Genome organization
Genome organizationGenome organization
Genome organization
soniaangeline
 
Gene transfer mechanisms
Gene transfer mechanismsGene transfer mechanisms
Gene transfer mechanisms
soniaangeline
 
X ray diffraction
X ray diffractionX ray diffraction
X ray diffraction
soniaangeline
 
Transmission electron microscope
Transmission electron microscopeTransmission electron microscope
Transmission electron microscope
soniaangeline
 
Growth factors
Growth factorsGrowth factors
Growth factors
soniaangeline
 
ABT Introduction
ABT IntroductionABT Introduction
ABT Introduction
soniaangeline
 
GC and HPLC
GC and HPLCGC and HPLC
GC and HPLC
soniaangeline
 
Electrophoresis
ElectrophoresisElectrophoresis
Electrophoresis
soniaangeline
 
Bio occupational hazards
Bio  occupational hazardsBio  occupational hazards
Bio occupational hazards
soniaangeline
 

More from soniaangeline (20)

Chemistry and Enzymology of Replication
Chemistry and Enzymology of  ReplicationChemistry and Enzymology of  Replication
Chemistry and Enzymology of Replication
 
DNA Damage and DNA Repair- Dr. Sonia Angeline
DNA Damage and DNA Repair- Dr. Sonia AngelineDNA Damage and DNA Repair- Dr. Sonia Angeline
DNA Damage and DNA Repair- Dr. Sonia Angeline
 
Enzymes involved in homologous recombination.pdf
Enzymes involved in homologous recombination.pdfEnzymes involved in homologous recombination.pdf
Enzymes involved in homologous recombination.pdf
 
Recombination Models.pdf
Recombination Models.pdfRecombination Models.pdf
Recombination Models.pdf
 
HUMAN GENOME PROJECT_Dr.Sonia.pdf
HUMAN GENOME PROJECT_Dr.Sonia.pdfHUMAN GENOME PROJECT_Dr.Sonia.pdf
HUMAN GENOME PROJECT_Dr.Sonia.pdf
 
Human fetal sex determination – implications in India.pdf
Human fetal sex determination – implications in India.pdfHuman fetal sex determination – implications in India.pdf
Human fetal sex determination – implications in India.pdf
 
CHROMOSOME BANDING PATTERN_Dr. Sonia.pdf
CHROMOSOME BANDING PATTERN_Dr. Sonia.pdfCHROMOSOME BANDING PATTERN_Dr. Sonia.pdf
CHROMOSOME BANDING PATTERN_Dr. Sonia.pdf
 
DNA Methylation & C Value.pdf
DNA Methylation & C Value.pdfDNA Methylation & C Value.pdf
DNA Methylation & C Value.pdf
 
Cot Curve_Dr. Sonia.pdf
Cot Curve_Dr. Sonia.pdfCot Curve_Dr. Sonia.pdf
Cot Curve_Dr. Sonia.pdf
 
Hybridoma technology for production of monoclonal antibodies.pdf
Hybridoma technology for production of monoclonal antibodies.pdfHybridoma technology for production of monoclonal antibodies.pdf
Hybridoma technology for production of monoclonal antibodies.pdf
 
Transgenic Animals.pdf
Transgenic Animals.pdfTransgenic Animals.pdf
Transgenic Animals.pdf
 
Genome organization
Genome organizationGenome organization
Genome organization
 
Gene transfer mechanisms
Gene transfer mechanismsGene transfer mechanisms
Gene transfer mechanisms
 
X ray diffraction
X ray diffractionX ray diffraction
X ray diffraction
 
Transmission electron microscope
Transmission electron microscopeTransmission electron microscope
Transmission electron microscope
 
Growth factors
Growth factorsGrowth factors
Growth factors
 
ABT Introduction
ABT IntroductionABT Introduction
ABT Introduction
 
GC and HPLC
GC and HPLCGC and HPLC
GC and HPLC
 
Electrophoresis
ElectrophoresisElectrophoresis
Electrophoresis
 
Bio occupational hazards
Bio  occupational hazardsBio  occupational hazards
Bio occupational hazards
 

Recently uploaded

A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
Sérgio Sacani
 
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpectiveGasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Recupera
 
A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...
A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...
A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...
Sérgio Sacani
 
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptxpoikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
muralinath2
 
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
University of Maribor
 
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptxpoikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
muralinath2
 
Gametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdf
Gametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdfGametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdf
Gametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdf
SELF-EXPLANATORY
 
Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)
Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)
Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)
Kashyap J
 
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopyA mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
Sérgio Sacani
 
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
Thane Heins
 
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptxBragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Lisandro Cunci
 
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Hossein Fani
 
2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...
2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...
2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...
khadija07kubra
 
Active and Passive Surveillance of pharmacovigillance
Active and Passive Surveillance of pharmacovigillanceActive and Passive Surveillance of pharmacovigillance
Active and Passive Surveillance of pharmacovigillance
SejalAgrawal43
 
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Sérgio Sacani
 
degree Certificate of Aston University
degree Certificate of Aston Universitydegree Certificate of Aston University
degree Certificate of Aston University
ebgyz
 
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptxSCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx
JoanaBanasen1
 
smallintestinedisorders-causessymptoms-240626051934-b669b27d.pptx
smallintestinedisorders-causessymptoms-240626051934-b669b27d.pptxsmallintestinedisorders-causessymptoms-240626051934-b669b27d.pptx
smallintestinedisorders-causessymptoms-240626051934-b669b27d.pptx
muralinath2
 
Computer aided biopharmaceutical characterization
Computer aided biopharmaceutical characterizationComputer aided biopharmaceutical characterization
Computer aided biopharmaceutical characterization
souravpaul769171
 
Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with PhytoremediationPhytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation
Gurjant Singh
 

Recently uploaded (20)

A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....
 
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpectiveGasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
Gasification and Pyrolyssis of plastic Waste under a Circular Economy perpective
 
A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...
A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...
A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...
 
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptxpoikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
poikilocytosis 237654378658585210854.pptx
 
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...
 
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptxpoikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
poikilocytosis 23765437865210857453257844.pptx
 
Gametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdf
Gametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdfGametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdf
Gametogenesis: Male gametes Formation Process / Spermatogenesis .pdf
 
Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)
Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)
Science-Technology Quiz (School Quiz 2024)
 
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopyA mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
A mature quasar at cosmic dawn revealed by JWST rest-frame infrared spectroscopy
 
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...
 
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptxBragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
Bragg Brentano Alignment for D4 with LynxEye Rev3.pptx
 
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...
 
2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...
2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...
2. Osmotic pressure, osmotic potential, turgor pressure, wall pressure, water...
 
Active and Passive Surveillance of pharmacovigillance
Active and Passive Surveillance of pharmacovigillanceActive and Passive Surveillance of pharmacovigillance
Active and Passive Surveillance of pharmacovigillance
 
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...
 
degree Certificate of Aston University
degree Certificate of Aston Universitydegree Certificate of Aston University
degree Certificate of Aston University
 
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptxSCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS – THE IMPORTANCE OF FAIR TESTING.pptx
 
smallintestinedisorders-causessymptoms-240626051934-b669b27d.pptx
smallintestinedisorders-causessymptoms-240626051934-b669b27d.pptxsmallintestinedisorders-causessymptoms-240626051934-b669b27d.pptx
smallintestinedisorders-causessymptoms-240626051934-b669b27d.pptx
 
Computer aided biopharmaceutical characterization
Computer aided biopharmaceutical characterizationComputer aided biopharmaceutical characterization
Computer aided biopharmaceutical characterization
 
Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with PhytoremediationPhytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation
 

Air sampling devices

  • 3. PRELIMINARY CONCERNS FOR CONDUCTING AIR SAMPLING • Consider the possible characteristics and conditions of the aerosol, including size range of particles, relative amount of inert material, concentration of microorganisms, and environmental factors. • Determine the type of sampling instruments, sampling time, and duration of the sampling program. • Determine the number of samples to be taken.
  • 4. SLIT SAMPLER • The Slit sampler was developed by Bourdillon (1941). • In this a rotating petridish containing suitable nutrient agar media is placed under a slit through which air is drawn. • Sampling is done for short time to avoid the interference of growth of one colony with another. Slit sampler is one of several sampling methods used for quantitation of biological aerosols. • In this method, particles from the air are impinged directly on a rotating agar plate, the plate is incubated, and the colonies that develop from the bacteria-laden particles are counted. • Highly efficient device and can collect upto 95% of the water droplet particles sprayed into air.
  • 5. • An inexpensive slit sampler for collecting microorganisms has been designed which utilizes a 150 x 20 mm culture plate possessing 2.2 times the area of the standard Petri dish. • This increased area permits collection of a much greater number of organisms with this type of sampler and prevents drying out of the media. • A simple timing device is incorporated in the design of the sampler which permits rotation at the rate of 1 revolution per hour, and renders an accurate time concentration relationship. SLIT SAMPLER
  • 7. SLIT SAMPLER ❖The slit opening may be set at various widths, by means of two recessed screws which hold the two metal plates on the slit tube in place. ❖The sampling box is a cylindrical container housing the culture dish and the agar plate holder. ❖The dish containing the impingement media is commercially available. ❖The agar plate holder is a metallic platform containing four clips which hold the plate securely in position.
  • 8. ❖The drive shaft is ball bearing suspended and is mounted to the interval timer by means of an adapter. ❖The function of the interval timer is to provide uniform rotation of the plate for a period of 1 hour. ❖The housing for the interval timer is made gas-tight by means of an "O" ring placed in a groove on the bottom exterior surface of the sampling box. ❖When the interval timer housing is screwed in position a gas-tight seal is secured. The volume and rate of air flow are determined by a calibrated flowmeter. SLIT SAMPLER
  • 9. It draws in air from the environment at a fixed rate and causes the suspended particles to fall on the surface of the agar plate.
  • 10. USE OF SLIT SAMPLER FOR AIR SURVEILLANCE • Slit sampler is one of several sampling methods used for quantitation of biological aerosols. • The particles from the air directly settle on a rotating agar plate, the plate is incubated, and the colonies that develop from the bacteria-laden particles are counted.
  • 11. GRAVITY SLIDE • The gravity slide was used by Blackley (1873). • They are cheap, simple and can operate continuously. • But they fail to estimate the airspora quantitatively and gives a distorted picture of airspora, because they preferentially select the larger particles. • To correct this distortion Scheppegrell (1922) tried to calculate the volumetric concentration using a formula based on particle diameter which was later corrected by Cocke (1937) to particle radius. • But inspite of these defects it is widely used by aerobiologists and has contributed much knowledge to the airspora.
  • 12. • Air sampling cassette/ slide is designed for the rapid collection of a wide range of airborne aerosols including mold spores, pollen, insect parts. • It collects both viable and non-viable sample specimens. • After sampling is completed, the cassettes are sent to a laboratory, where the slides are removed and direct microscopic analysis can be immediately performed. GRAVITY SLIDE •Bioaerosols: mold spores, pollen, insect parts, skin cell fragments •Fibers: asbestos, fiberglass, cellulose, clothing fibers, synthetics •Inorganic Particulate: ceramic, fly ash, copy toner, oil droplets, paint •Other Opaque Particulates: products of combustion, rust, salts
  • 13. • Particulate laden air is accelerated as it is drawn through the cassettes tapered inlet slit and directed towards a small slide containing the collection media, where the particles become impacted, and the air flow continues out the exit orifice. • The adhesive nature of the collection media prevents the collected particulate from blurring or being washed off during the laboratory staining process, and eliminates sample loss from vibration during handling and shipment. • After sampling is completed, the cassettes are sent to a laboratory, where the slides are removed and direct microscopic analysis can be immediately performed. • The collection media is compatible with a wide range of biological stains and refractive index oils, allowing direct quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic particulate. GRAVITY SLIDE
  • 14. ➢ This was first used by Rempe (1937) for trapping airborne pollen. ➢ It is a wind impaction sampler used for routine aerobiological survey and found to be very inexpensive and effective for obtaining maximum information on the airborne microbiota. ➢ The vertical cylinder exposing unit consists of cylinder holder and a shelter which is a modified design of the Durham type shelter. ➢ This has an "L" shaped steel angle with a cylinder holder device below and the unit is covered on top by a circular aluminium plate which acts as a shield. ➢ The cylinder holding device is a 5 cm long iron tube which is provided with a screw on one side near its upper end to hold the cylinder firmly in a vertical position. ➢ Sterile and clean glass rods of 13 cm length and 0.53 cm diameter were used in this study. VERTICAL CYLINDER
  • 16. ❖Spores counted in the area scanned can be then converted to number per square centimeter for comparison with other catches on cylinder traps. ❖The vertical trap is convenient and cheap but the main drawback is that it catches a negligible amount of spore in still air and small spores at ordinary wind speed and so changes in catch occurs with alteration in wind speed. VERTICAL CYLINDER
  • 17. HIRST SPORE TRAP • Hirst-type spore traps (HTST) is a volumetric impaction sampler which permit to have results of the air fungal spore load quickly. • With this device, both viable and nonviable spores are impacted on a silicon strip, then microscopically read, but the spores are not cultured. • Thus, this device may have an interest to monitor fungal loads in air as no growing time is needed. • The Hirst spore trap is the most widely used sampler in aerobiological surveys for monitoring fungal propagules and pollen grains. • Recent studies have taken advantage of this device to perform DNA-based studies for pollen identification.
  • 18. ✓The Hirst spore trap was used for monitoring not only pollen but also fungal propagules and airborne bacteria by high-throughput sequencing. ✓Detection, monitoring, and characterization of the wide diversity of biological entities present in the air are difficult tasks that require time and expertise in different disciplines. ✓The Hirst spore trap (an instrument broadly employed in aerobiological studies), to detect and identify these organisms by DNA-based analyses. ✓The results showed a consistent collection of DNA and a good concordance with traditional methods for identification, suggesting that these devices can be used as a tool for continuous monitoring of the airborne biodiversity, improving taxonomic resolution and characterization together. HIRST SPORE TRAP
  • 19. • Hirst spore trap is an automatic volumetric spore trap to operate continuously for 24 hr in the field. • Later, a modified trap that would operate continuously for seven days. • Samples are collected at a network of sites using volumetric spore traps that are usually situated on flat rooftops away from obstructions and from local sources of pollen. • For work in plant pathology, traps are generally placed within or just downwind of the crop to detect inoculum or to study the dispersal of plant pathogens in the field. • The choice of power supply is also a consideration. • When the trap is run with a mains supply within reach, an armoured cable can be used along with a waterproof and protected connection to the trap plug. HIRST SPORE TRAP
  • 22. AIR SAMPLING DEVICES Dr. M. Sonia Angeline Assistant Professor Department of Life Sciences KRISTU JAYANTI COLLEGE
  • 23. • The rotorod sampler is a cheap, simple and portable air sampler. • It consists of a U-shaped metal rod attached by a spindle to a battery-powered electric motor. • The motor causes the upright arms of the metal rod to rotate at high speed. • To use the sampler, the upright arms are covered with narrow strips of sticky tape, so that any spores in the air will impact onto the tapes. • Then the tapes are removed and examined microscopically to identify the spores and other particles such as pollen grains in the air. • This type of sampler is most effective for trapping relatively large particles (upwards of about 7 micrometres) such as the larger fungal spores and pollen grains. ROTOROD SAMPLER
  • 24. • The Rotorod Sampler is a rotating-arm impactor that recovers airborne particles on two rapidly moving plastic collector rods. • The standard method for applying silicone grease to collector rods has been with one's finger. • A relatively high skill level is required, and significant intra preparer variability has been observed. • Collector rods were coated with silicone grease by dipping them into a solution consisting of silicone grease and hexane. • The Rotorod's collection efficiency appeared to be greatest at moderate windspeeds; lower efficiencies occurred at both lower and higher windspeeds. Maximum changes in collection efficiency ranged from 29% to 39% over the windspeeds employed. ROTOROD SAMPLER
  • 25. ROTOROD SAMPLER • Models typically used have retracting rods • Head rotates at 2400 rpm, leading edge of rod coated with silicon grease • Pollen and spores impacted on greased surface • Generally operated at 10% sampling time • Efficient for pollen and spores >10 mm
  • 27. ❖ Andersen (1958) developed a sampler similar in principle to slit sampler. ❖ The Anderson sampler is an ingenious device for selectively trapping different sizes of particles according to their size (momentum). ❖ This sampler consists of a stack of 8 metal sections that fit together with ring seals to form an air- tight cylinder. ❖ Each metal section has a perforated base, and the number of perforations is the same in each section, but the size of these perforations is progressively reduced from the top of the column to the bottom. ❖ To use this sampler, open agar plates are placed between each metal section, resting on three studs. ANDERSON SAMPLER
  • 28. ✓ When fully assembled (with an open agar plate between each unit) an electric motor sucks air from the bottom of the unit, causing spore-laden air to enter at the top and to pass down through the cylinder. ✓ Air sucked in at the top of the column travels at relatively low speed towards the first agar plate, and so only the largest particles impact onto the agar surface. ✓ The air then travels round the edge of the agar plate and through the perforations to the second agar plate, and so on. ✓ As this process continues down the stack, the same volume of air is forced to travel through successively smaller perforations, and so the air speed is progressively increased. ✓ The progressively increased air speed lower down the column raises the momentum of the air-borne particles, so that even the very smallest particles (less than 3 micrometres diameter) can impact onto the lower agar plates. ✓ When the sampler has run for 5-15 minutes or more, the metal plates are separated and the Petri dishes are removed for incubation to identify the colonies that develop. ANDERSON SAMPLER
  • 29. ❖ Bioaerosol Sampler is a cost effective, multi-stage, multi-orifice cascade impactor that measures concentration and particle size distribution of aerosol-type bacteria and fungi in the ambient air. ❖ Based on the inertial impaction principle, the six stage viable impactor collects all particles, regardless of physical size, shape, or density. ❖ The particles are aerodynamically sized in which there is a direct relationship to the penetration of the lung. ❖ The Andersen Six Stage Viable Impactor has an aluminium inlet cone, six aluminium jet stages, glass Petri dishes, and an aluminium base plate held together by three spring clamps and sealed with o-ring gaskets. ❖ Each stage has 400 precision machined jet orifices. ❖ The Six Stage Impactor has a corrosion resistant body and operates at a flow rate of exactly 28.3 lpm (1 CFM). ❖ The Six Stage Sampler ensures ease of operation: calibration, sterilisation, and setup ANDERSON SAMPLER
  • 33. The collection and assessment of aerosol samples is quite simple: Petri dishes containing an agar medium are placed in the instrument and the sample of air is drawn in which the corresponding particulates are collected at each stage on the agar medium. The Petri dishes are then removed, incubated and counted by an accepted method. APPLICATIONS • Ambient Air Studies • Indoor Air Studies • Hospital & O.R. environments • Virology investigations (including Influenza and SARS) • Pharmaceutical production • Filter and clean room efficiency studies • Composting • Wastewater treatment plants
  • 34. ➢ The Burkard Spore Trap (Burkard) is a volumetric air sampler that is one of the standard devices for monitoring airborne pollen and spores. ➢ It is widely used by the allergy community and also the plant pathology community. ➢ The Burkard is a suction slit impactor used for pollen and spore sampling. ➢ The first sampler of this type was designed in 1952 by Dr. James Hirst a plant pathologist. ➢ As a result, samplers of this type are often referred to as a Hirst spore trap. In addition to the Burkard, the Lanzoni sampler and others are also based on the Hirst design. THE BURKARD SPORE TRAP
  • 35. • In the Burkard, air is drawn into a 14 mm x 2 mm orifice at 10 liter per minute, and any airborne particles with sufficient inertia are impacted on either a greased tape or a greased microscope slide beneath the orifice. • The impaction surface moves past the orifice at 2 mm per hour permitting time- discriminate analysis. • There is also a wind vane attached to the sampler head; since the head is able to rotate the orifice is always oriented into the wind. • The standard orifice on the Burkard sampler is efficient for particles down to 3.7 µm; this means that all but the smallest spores will be efficiently trapped. THE BURKARD SPORE TRAP
  • 36. THE BURKARD SPORE TRAP • The Burkard spore sampler acts on the same principle as the rotorod sampler, but is used to give a continuous record of particles in the air over a period of 24 hours or up to 7 days. • The apparatus consists of an air-sealed drum that contains a clockwork rotating disc which makes a single revolution in 7 days. • The surface of this disc is covered with adhesive tape, to trap spores that impact onto it. • When the apparatus is assembled, air is sucked into the drum at high speed through a slit orifice by means of a motor at the base of the apparatus.
  • 37. ❑ Any particles in the air impact onto the sticky tape near the slit orifice, giving a record of the particles in the atmosphere at a specific time of day. ❑ At the end of a 7-day run, the tape is removed, cut into sections representing hourly or daily periods, then examined microscopically for counting and identification of pollen and spores. ❑ In this way, it is possible to distinguish clearly between night-released and day-released spores or other particles, and also to relate the types of particle to different weather conditions (e.g. humid or dry periods) while the apparatus was running. ❑ The Burkard spore trap is commonly used for continuous monitoring of spore or pollen loads in the air. THE BURKARD SPORE TRAP
  • 39. ❖ Impingers use a liquid medium for particle collection. ❖ Typically, sampled air is drawn by a suction pump through a narrow inlet tube into a small flask containing the collection medium. ❖ This accelerates the air towards the surface of the collection medium and the flow rate is determined by the diameter of the inlet tube. ❖ When the air hits the surface of the liquid, it changes direction abruptly and any suspended particles are impinged into the collection liquid. IMPINGERS
  • 40. Once the sampling is complete the collection liquid can be cultured to enumerate viable microorganisms. Since the sample volume can be calculated using the flow rate and sampling time, the result is quantitative. • Glass Impingers have graduations in 5ml increments and available with a fritted nozzle to increase contact between the air sample and the liquid. • PFA impingers are unbreakable, inert to virtually all chemicals and perform well in high temperature and cryogenic applications. IMPINGERS Glass Impingers PFA impingers
  • 41. The sampling air bubbles through a nozzle plate into an extraction liquid such as distilled water. The airborne particles are transported into the liquid during the bubble formation, release and rise.
  • 42. • This is a means of sampling replacing the solid sorbent tube with a liquid. • Impingers have a tapered outlet which allows particulate matter to exit at high velocity, hit the flask bottom and be captured in solution. • Bubblers are open or fritted to increase the surface area so the gases are absorbed into solution. This is a preferred method. • Impingers and bubblers can be positioned in an area, held or mounted in a holster. Here is a typical sample train for an impinger/bubbler: • After sampling the tubes or the sampled liquid are sealed and sent off to a laboratory for further analysis. • The sorbent tubes are desorbed either chemically or thermally and for an impinger/bubbler, the sampled liquid is analysed, generally by Gas chromatography. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLE