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10
CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
3.1 Manufacturing of Particleboard
Figure 3.1: Manufacturing process of particleboard
Chipping and flaking
Blender material (resin+wood)
Cold press
Drying below 10%
Screening
Mat forming
Hot press
Oil palm plantation
Testing
Trimming into desired length
11
3.2 Preparation of Particleboard
3.2.1 Preparation of Raw Material
Plate 3.2.1: Pluck the oil palm fronds
The raw material in this research is oil palm frond that was obtained from Hutan
Simpan UiTM Cawangan Pahang. Through sickle the tree, 20 pieces of frond was
cut while the leaves and thorn were removed. The frond were cut into three parts;
middle, top and bottom.
12
3.2.2 Chipping and Flaking
Plate 3.2.2: Wood Chipper Machines
Plate 3.2.2.1: Wood Flaker Machine
The wood veneer is chipped using chipper machines and the chip is being reduced
to fine flakes by using the flaker machines to get the desired thickness and length.
This contributes to the optimum strength and smooth finish on the surfaces of the
boards.
13
3.2.3 Drying and Screening
Plate 3.2.3: The screening of the particles
Plate 3.2.3.1: Particle put into oven for reduce moisture content
The screening process is the dried flakers are screened to separate fine and coarse
particles. The wet flakes are dried in the oven at required moisture level. At
drying process, the flakes with the separate sizes, of the particles size 1.0 mm and
2.0 mm only, into oven dry, between 800
c and 850
c temperature for 24 hours with
moisture content below 10%. This process was done to avoid particleboard
structure ahead damaged problem.
14
3.2.4 Glue-Mixing & Blending
Plate 3.2.4: The conducting of particleboard mixer
This process is mixing all material (resin, wood material; oil palm frond particles,
phenol formaldehyde (PF)). The particles are weighed and after few minutes
rotating in particle mixing machine, the PF is put into the machine for about 10
minutes and followed by the mat forming process.
3.2.5 Mat Forming
Plate 3.2.5: Mat forming process
15
The particle mixture is weighed at desired amount. For one layer it was then put it
into the mould and pre-press for making mat forming. The mould dimension that
used is 350mm x 350mm. This process and mixing process is repeated three times
to make 3 boards differentiated by PF content. This process is to remove the air
bubbles between particles and to reduce the size of the mat.
3.2.6 Hot Pressing
Plate 3.2.6: Put particles into hot press
After pre-press section, the mat was bought to the hot press section. The
temperature for the hot process is 1700
c. There are three cyclic pressure with
different type (1800psi, 180 sec), (1200 psi, 120 sec), (800psi, 60 sec) and six
minutes. The Hot Press which operates automatically on Programmable Logic
Control compresses the mat under high pressure and controlled temperature to
form boards to precise thickness. In this section, it should not have the air inside
the mat, if it still rights there the low quality of production will produce. Beside
that it needs to achieve the required thickness (12mm).
16
3.2.7 Trimming
Plate 3.2.7: Trimming of the particleboard
Before the trimming process, the board must be kept cold that took 3-5 minutes to
cold. Then the finished boards were cut to desired length, width and to square the
edges, usually trimmer will consist of saws with tungsten carbide tips. Lastly the
finishing process of particleboard where, it includes drawing line on the board
based on the standard size of each test.
17
3.2.8 Testing
Figure 3.2.8: The cutoff of testing for particleboard
When the boards are trimmed, the boards are used for testing to get the properties
of the board. This study, we have three types of testing has been conducted:
bending, internal bond, and thickness swelling test.
MOE/MOR 1
MOE / MOR 2
IB1 TS1 IB2 TS2 IB3 TS3 IB4
MOE / MOR 3
TS4 IB5 TS5 IB6 TS6 IB7 TS7
MOE / MOR 4
18
3.3 Method of Testing
3.3.1 Bending Test
Plate 3.3.1: Bending testing
This testing is to measure the mechanical properties of the particle board. Such as
the measure the Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and Modulus of Elasticity (MOE).
From this testing the mode of failure from testing as well as for structural
application requiring strength and rigidity is identify. For this particleboard, the
testing for the sample is important to determine the characteristics for overall
samples.
3.3.1.1 Modulus Of Rupture (MOR) :
The index of the ultimate breaking strength when loaded as a simple beam. MOR
is important in applications such as shelving and desk tops. MOR is influenced
directly by the wood species used in the board, board density, particle geometry,
resin content, as a board thickness increase, a greater load is required to cause
failure.
3.3.1.2 Modulus Of Elasticity (MOE):
Value to measure the resistance to bending related to stiffness of a beam. The
load is applied at the middle of the specimen and it will deflect. At proportional
19
limit that cause by the deflection, by using the computer. MOE can be can be
calculated by using the beam size, span load and the deflection of the board.
3.3.2 Internal Bonding
Plate 3.3.2: During the internal bonding process
An overall measure of the board’s integrity that defines how well the core
material is bonded together. In the standard test for IB, dimension of 50mm x
50mm piece of particleboard is pulled apart with tension applied perpendicularly
to both faces. IB is influence directly by board density, resin content, particle
geometry and raw material type.
20
3.3.3 Thickness Swelling & Water Absorption
Plate 3.3.3: Preparation testing of Water Absorption and Thickness Swelling
These types of testing usually for measurement of the physical properties of
particleboard. The Thickness Swelling and Water Absorption test is done by
soaking the sample to the water. Before soaking the sample to the water the
weight for Water Absorption testing and the length and diameter for Thickness
Swelling testing is recorded.

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8. chapter 3

  • 1. 10 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Manufacturing of Particleboard Figure 3.1: Manufacturing process of particleboard Chipping and flaking Blender material (resin+wood) Cold press Drying below 10% Screening Mat forming Hot press Oil palm plantation Testing Trimming into desired length
  • 2. 11 3.2 Preparation of Particleboard 3.2.1 Preparation of Raw Material Plate 3.2.1: Pluck the oil palm fronds The raw material in this research is oil palm frond that was obtained from Hutan Simpan UiTM Cawangan Pahang. Through sickle the tree, 20 pieces of frond was cut while the leaves and thorn were removed. The frond were cut into three parts; middle, top and bottom.
  • 3. 12 3.2.2 Chipping and Flaking Plate 3.2.2: Wood Chipper Machines Plate 3.2.2.1: Wood Flaker Machine The wood veneer is chipped using chipper machines and the chip is being reduced to fine flakes by using the flaker machines to get the desired thickness and length. This contributes to the optimum strength and smooth finish on the surfaces of the boards.
  • 4. 13 3.2.3 Drying and Screening Plate 3.2.3: The screening of the particles Plate 3.2.3.1: Particle put into oven for reduce moisture content The screening process is the dried flakers are screened to separate fine and coarse particles. The wet flakes are dried in the oven at required moisture level. At drying process, the flakes with the separate sizes, of the particles size 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm only, into oven dry, between 800 c and 850 c temperature for 24 hours with moisture content below 10%. This process was done to avoid particleboard structure ahead damaged problem.
  • 5. 14 3.2.4 Glue-Mixing & Blending Plate 3.2.4: The conducting of particleboard mixer This process is mixing all material (resin, wood material; oil palm frond particles, phenol formaldehyde (PF)). The particles are weighed and after few minutes rotating in particle mixing machine, the PF is put into the machine for about 10 minutes and followed by the mat forming process. 3.2.5 Mat Forming Plate 3.2.5: Mat forming process
  • 6. 15 The particle mixture is weighed at desired amount. For one layer it was then put it into the mould and pre-press for making mat forming. The mould dimension that used is 350mm x 350mm. This process and mixing process is repeated three times to make 3 boards differentiated by PF content. This process is to remove the air bubbles between particles and to reduce the size of the mat. 3.2.6 Hot Pressing Plate 3.2.6: Put particles into hot press After pre-press section, the mat was bought to the hot press section. The temperature for the hot process is 1700 c. There are three cyclic pressure with different type (1800psi, 180 sec), (1200 psi, 120 sec), (800psi, 60 sec) and six minutes. The Hot Press which operates automatically on Programmable Logic Control compresses the mat under high pressure and controlled temperature to form boards to precise thickness. In this section, it should not have the air inside the mat, if it still rights there the low quality of production will produce. Beside that it needs to achieve the required thickness (12mm).
  • 7. 16 3.2.7 Trimming Plate 3.2.7: Trimming of the particleboard Before the trimming process, the board must be kept cold that took 3-5 minutes to cold. Then the finished boards were cut to desired length, width and to square the edges, usually trimmer will consist of saws with tungsten carbide tips. Lastly the finishing process of particleboard where, it includes drawing line on the board based on the standard size of each test.
  • 8. 17 3.2.8 Testing Figure 3.2.8: The cutoff of testing for particleboard When the boards are trimmed, the boards are used for testing to get the properties of the board. This study, we have three types of testing has been conducted: bending, internal bond, and thickness swelling test. MOE/MOR 1 MOE / MOR 2 IB1 TS1 IB2 TS2 IB3 TS3 IB4 MOE / MOR 3 TS4 IB5 TS5 IB6 TS6 IB7 TS7 MOE / MOR 4
  • 9. 18 3.3 Method of Testing 3.3.1 Bending Test Plate 3.3.1: Bending testing This testing is to measure the mechanical properties of the particle board. Such as the measure the Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and Modulus of Elasticity (MOE). From this testing the mode of failure from testing as well as for structural application requiring strength and rigidity is identify. For this particleboard, the testing for the sample is important to determine the characteristics for overall samples. 3.3.1.1 Modulus Of Rupture (MOR) : The index of the ultimate breaking strength when loaded as a simple beam. MOR is important in applications such as shelving and desk tops. MOR is influenced directly by the wood species used in the board, board density, particle geometry, resin content, as a board thickness increase, a greater load is required to cause failure. 3.3.1.2 Modulus Of Elasticity (MOE): Value to measure the resistance to bending related to stiffness of a beam. The load is applied at the middle of the specimen and it will deflect. At proportional
  • 10. 19 limit that cause by the deflection, by using the computer. MOE can be can be calculated by using the beam size, span load and the deflection of the board. 3.3.2 Internal Bonding Plate 3.3.2: During the internal bonding process An overall measure of the board’s integrity that defines how well the core material is bonded together. In the standard test for IB, dimension of 50mm x 50mm piece of particleboard is pulled apart with tension applied perpendicularly to both faces. IB is influence directly by board density, resin content, particle geometry and raw material type.
  • 11. 20 3.3.3 Thickness Swelling & Water Absorption Plate 3.3.3: Preparation testing of Water Absorption and Thickness Swelling These types of testing usually for measurement of the physical properties of particleboard. The Thickness Swelling and Water Absorption test is done by soaking the sample to the water. Before soaking the sample to the water the weight for Water Absorption testing and the length and diameter for Thickness Swelling testing is recorded.