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STANDARD PLANK FOR
WOOD LAMINATION ON
KHAYA IVORENSIS
IZZAH AZIMAH BINTI NOH
AS2476A
STANDARD PLANK
• A standard of machining practices
for the surface quality of plank.
• Influences of machining process
for the plank or sawn timber.
(Sources from T.Adam, 1975)
MACHINING PRACTICES
PLANE
• Reduce the thickness
• Trim or remove irregular surface
• Straighten the plank
RIP
• Straight cut into parallel grain
direction
• Trim excess wood
(Sources from Wagner, 1974)
• Khaya ivorensis
• Known as Lagos wood is one of the type
of Mahogany species.
• 580-690 kg/m3 with moderately durable
• Pinkish for the pith and heartwood light
pink to dark brown to reddish colour.
• Interlocked grain
• Lustre or sheen
(Sources: Lincoln 1989, Noor 1990, Vazquez 2003)
WOOD SPECIES
PROBLEM STATEMENT
• Increasing in consumption of timber
• Time management on producing wood material for manufacturing process.
• Wood waste handling problem
OBJECTIVES
• To investigate the suitability of machining practice such as plane
and rip on Khaya wood for lamination.
• To identify the mechanical properties of Khaya wood.
SCOPE & LIMITATION OF STUDY
SCOPE
• Machining practices
• Lamination process
LIMITATION
• Material handling
• The characteristic of Khaya wood
• Limited source of references
SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
System
• Sanding (S1)
• Without sanding (S2)
Lamination
• Plane and plane (P1)
• Rip and rip (P2)
• Plane and rip (P3)
METHODOLOGY
FLOWCHART
Raw material
preparation
Planing and
ripping
Sanding and
without
sanding
Glue
spreading
ClampingTrimming
Preparation
sample test
Testing
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
IN HOUSE METHOD TESTING
STATIC BENDING
• REFERENCE STANDARD: BS 373: 2008
• SIZE: (40 ×40×410) mm
• SPAN: 360 mm
• SPEED: 10mm/min
COMPRESSION SHEAR
• REFERENCE STANDARD: BS 373:
1957
• SIZE: : (40 ×40×40) mm
• SPEED: 10mm/min
DELAMINATION TEST
• REFERENCE STANDARD: JAS 1751 2008
• SIZE: (40 ×40×75) mm
RESULT AND
DISCUSSION
DENSITY, (MOR AND MOE) AND COMPRESSION SHEAR
OF 3 TYPE OF LAMINATION AND 2 TYPE OF SYSTEM
Note: Modulus of Rupture (MOR), Modulus of Elasticity (MOE)
Lamination
process
Density(ρ) MOR MOE
Compression
shear
P1 (S1) 561.35 58.37 5354.85 4.596
P2 (S2) 511.98 67.25 5725 7.34
P2 (S1) 627.52 58.49 6233.12 2.961
P2 (S2) 491.81 47.24 4590.02 4.51
P3 (S1) 605.69 45.47 5785.95 2.834
P3 (S2) 540.5 59.32 5696.67 5.54
SOV OF ANOVA
Standard of Variance (SOV) Degree of freedom
(Df)
MOR MOE Compression shear
System 1 1.298ns 3.571ns 154.227**
Lamination 2 4.099* 0.638ns 47.33**
System and lamination 1 5.32* 6.426* 4.832*
Note: ns for not significant (p>0.05), * for significant (p<0.05), ** for
highly significant (p<0.01)
Result of MOR on lamination
process for the sanding (S1) and
without sanding system (S2) 58.375 58.4983
45.4717
67.2567
47.24
59.32
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
P1 P2 P3
Modulus of Rupture (MOR)
S1 S2
Result of MOE for
lamination process with
sanding and without sanding
system
5354.8467
6233.1233
5785.955
5724.995
4590.0183
5696.6767
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
P1 P2 P3
Modulus of Elasticity (MOE)
S1 S2
Result of compression shear on
lamination process for sanding
and without sanding system
4.4817
3.0163 2.8317
7.1842
4.4953
5.5183
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
P1 P2 P3
Compression shear
S1 S2
Effect of the delamination
of the system and
lamination process
98.15%
94.53%
95.80%
93.50%
94.50%
95.00%
90.00%
91.00%
92.00%
93.00%
94.00%
95.00%
96.00%
97.00%
98.00%
99.00%
P1 P2 P3
Delamination
S1 S2
CONCLUSION AND
RECOMMENDATION
Standard plank
for wood
lamination on
Khaya ivorensis
System (S1 and
S2) for surface
roughness are
vice versa
Plane and plane (P1)
consider as the best
machining practices
for wood lamination
Recommendation
Grit number of
abrasive
Type of
abrasive
paper
Jointing
and
lamination
Glue
spreading
REFERENCES
• T.Adams, J., & Stieri, E. (1975). The Complete Workworking Handbook. New York: Arco Publishing Company, Inc.
• Wagner, W. H. (1974). Modern Woodworking. South Holland, Illinos: THE GOODHEART- WILLCOX COMPANY, INC.
• Vazquez-Cooz, I. A. (2003). Fundamental study on the development of fuzzy grain and its relationship to tension wood. (3084761 Ph.D.),
State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Ann Arbor. Retrieved from
http://search.proquest.com.ezaccess.library.uitm.edu.my/docview/305294914?accountid=42518 ProQuest Dissertations &
Theses Global database.
• Noor, H. M. (1990). Prestasi dan Potensi Khaya Ivorensis di Semenanjung Malaysia. Kepong: Forest Research Institute Malaysia.
• Milner, H. R. (2009). 8 - Sustainability of engineered wood products in construction. In J. M. Khatib (Ed.), Sustainability of
Construction Materials (pp. 184-212): Woodhead Publishing.
• Lincoln, W. A. (1986). World Woods in Color. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

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Standard plank for wood lamination on khaya ivorensis

  • 1. STANDARD PLANK FOR WOOD LAMINATION ON KHAYA IVORENSIS IZZAH AZIMAH BINTI NOH AS2476A
  • 2. STANDARD PLANK • A standard of machining practices for the surface quality of plank. • Influences of machining process for the plank or sawn timber. (Sources from T.Adam, 1975)
  • 3. MACHINING PRACTICES PLANE • Reduce the thickness • Trim or remove irregular surface • Straighten the plank RIP • Straight cut into parallel grain direction • Trim excess wood (Sources from Wagner, 1974)
  • 4. • Khaya ivorensis • Known as Lagos wood is one of the type of Mahogany species. • 580-690 kg/m3 with moderately durable • Pinkish for the pith and heartwood light pink to dark brown to reddish colour. • Interlocked grain • Lustre or sheen (Sources: Lincoln 1989, Noor 1990, Vazquez 2003) WOOD SPECIES
  • 5. PROBLEM STATEMENT • Increasing in consumption of timber • Time management on producing wood material for manufacturing process. • Wood waste handling problem
  • 6. OBJECTIVES • To investigate the suitability of machining practice such as plane and rip on Khaya wood for lamination. • To identify the mechanical properties of Khaya wood.
  • 7. SCOPE & LIMITATION OF STUDY SCOPE • Machining practices • Lamination process LIMITATION • Material handling • The characteristic of Khaya wood • Limited source of references
  • 8. SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY System • Sanding (S1) • Without sanding (S2) Lamination • Plane and plane (P1) • Rip and rip (P2) • Plane and rip (P3)
  • 10. FLOWCHART Raw material preparation Planing and ripping Sanding and without sanding Glue spreading ClampingTrimming Preparation sample test Testing
  • 12. IN HOUSE METHOD TESTING STATIC BENDING • REFERENCE STANDARD: BS 373: 2008 • SIZE: (40 ×40×410) mm • SPAN: 360 mm • SPEED: 10mm/min
  • 13. COMPRESSION SHEAR • REFERENCE STANDARD: BS 373: 1957 • SIZE: : (40 ×40×40) mm • SPEED: 10mm/min
  • 14. DELAMINATION TEST • REFERENCE STANDARD: JAS 1751 2008 • SIZE: (40 ×40×75) mm
  • 16. DENSITY, (MOR AND MOE) AND COMPRESSION SHEAR OF 3 TYPE OF LAMINATION AND 2 TYPE OF SYSTEM Note: Modulus of Rupture (MOR), Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) Lamination process Density(ρ) MOR MOE Compression shear P1 (S1) 561.35 58.37 5354.85 4.596 P2 (S2) 511.98 67.25 5725 7.34 P2 (S1) 627.52 58.49 6233.12 2.961 P2 (S2) 491.81 47.24 4590.02 4.51 P3 (S1) 605.69 45.47 5785.95 2.834 P3 (S2) 540.5 59.32 5696.67 5.54
  • 17. SOV OF ANOVA Standard of Variance (SOV) Degree of freedom (Df) MOR MOE Compression shear System 1 1.298ns 3.571ns 154.227** Lamination 2 4.099* 0.638ns 47.33** System and lamination 1 5.32* 6.426* 4.832* Note: ns for not significant (p>0.05), * for significant (p<0.05), ** for highly significant (p<0.01)
  • 18. Result of MOR on lamination process for the sanding (S1) and without sanding system (S2) 58.375 58.4983 45.4717 67.2567 47.24 59.32 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 P1 P2 P3 Modulus of Rupture (MOR) S1 S2
  • 19. Result of MOE for lamination process with sanding and without sanding system 5354.8467 6233.1233 5785.955 5724.995 4590.0183 5696.6767 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 P1 P2 P3 Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) S1 S2
  • 20. Result of compression shear on lamination process for sanding and without sanding system 4.4817 3.0163 2.8317 7.1842 4.4953 5.5183 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 P1 P2 P3 Compression shear S1 S2
  • 21. Effect of the delamination of the system and lamination process 98.15% 94.53% 95.80% 93.50% 94.50% 95.00% 90.00% 91.00% 92.00% 93.00% 94.00% 95.00% 96.00% 97.00% 98.00% 99.00% P1 P2 P3 Delamination S1 S2
  • 23. Standard plank for wood lamination on Khaya ivorensis System (S1 and S2) for surface roughness are vice versa Plane and plane (P1) consider as the best machining practices for wood lamination
  • 24. Recommendation Grit number of abrasive Type of abrasive paper Jointing and lamination Glue spreading
  • 25. REFERENCES • T.Adams, J., & Stieri, E. (1975). The Complete Workworking Handbook. New York: Arco Publishing Company, Inc. • Wagner, W. H. (1974). Modern Woodworking. South Holland, Illinos: THE GOODHEART- WILLCOX COMPANY, INC. • Vazquez-Cooz, I. A. (2003). Fundamental study on the development of fuzzy grain and its relationship to tension wood. (3084761 Ph.D.), State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Ann Arbor. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezaccess.library.uitm.edu.my/docview/305294914?accountid=42518 ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database. • Noor, H. M. (1990). Prestasi dan Potensi Khaya Ivorensis di Semenanjung Malaysia. Kepong: Forest Research Institute Malaysia. • Milner, H. R. (2009). 8 - Sustainability of engineered wood products in construction. In J. M. Khatib (Ed.), Sustainability of Construction Materials (pp. 184-212): Woodhead Publishing. • Lincoln, W. A. (1986). World Woods in Color. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.