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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Particle board is an engineered wood product manufactured from wood particles,
such as wood chips, sawmill shavings, or even saw dust, and a synthetic resin or
other suitable binder, which is pressed and extruded (Nemli et al.,2007).
Modern plywood as an alternative to natural wood was invented in the 19th
century, but by the end of the 1940s there was insufficient lumber to manufacture
plywood affordably. Particleboard was intended to be replacement for natural
wood and the inventor is Max Himmelheber of Germany. It used waste material
such as planer shavings, off cuts or sawdust, hammer milled into chips, and bound
together with a phenol resin. Hammer milling involves smashing material into
smaller and smaller pieces until they pass out through a screen. Most other early
particleboard manufacturers used similar processes, though often with slightly
different resins (Unknown, 2007)
The demand for particleboard has been growing. Currently the forest resource is
depleting, and the price of wood is increasing. The uses of different types of
agricultural waste as raw materials for particleboard thus have been investigated
due to their abundance, renewability, economy, and sustainability. Urea
formaldehyde (UF) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) are the most commonly used
adhesive for wood based composites such as particleboard. Phenol formaldehyde
adhesive is the widely used adhesive for exterior grade panels (Rokiah Hasyim,
2010). The particle board is widely used in furniture, table top, ceiling, wall
partition, and others industrial product.
2
1.2 Problem Statement
The increasing consumption of reconstituted boards brings to the alternative of
lignocelluloses raw material. Oil palm (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) frond is choosing
to use in making of particle boards. Oil palm frond is one of the alternative
resources in tropical country, are currently considered waste on palm oil
plantation where the frond is not well manage and not been using.
1.3 Justifications
- By using abundance of oil palm frond from waste then making a
particleboard.
- Reduce environment pollution by collecting the waste to be processed.
And increase the value of oil palm frond by produce profitability product
such as particleboard.
1.4 Objectives
The objectives of the manufacturing the particle boards are:
- To study the mechanical properties of particle board from oil palm frond
at different size of particle and different percent of resin (7, 9 and 11)
- To study the physical properties of particle board from oil palm frond at
different size of particle and different percent of resin (7, 9 and 11)

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6. chapter 1

  • 1. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Particle board is an engineered wood product manufactured from wood particles, such as wood chips, sawmill shavings, or even saw dust, and a synthetic resin or other suitable binder, which is pressed and extruded (Nemli et al.,2007). Modern plywood as an alternative to natural wood was invented in the 19th century, but by the end of the 1940s there was insufficient lumber to manufacture plywood affordably. Particleboard was intended to be replacement for natural wood and the inventor is Max Himmelheber of Germany. It used waste material such as planer shavings, off cuts or sawdust, hammer milled into chips, and bound together with a phenol resin. Hammer milling involves smashing material into smaller and smaller pieces until they pass out through a screen. Most other early particleboard manufacturers used similar processes, though often with slightly different resins (Unknown, 2007) The demand for particleboard has been growing. Currently the forest resource is depleting, and the price of wood is increasing. The uses of different types of agricultural waste as raw materials for particleboard thus have been investigated due to their abundance, renewability, economy, and sustainability. Urea formaldehyde (UF) and phenol formaldehyde (PF) are the most commonly used adhesive for wood based composites such as particleboard. Phenol formaldehyde adhesive is the widely used adhesive for exterior grade panels (Rokiah Hasyim, 2010). The particle board is widely used in furniture, table top, ceiling, wall partition, and others industrial product.
  • 2. 2 1.2 Problem Statement The increasing consumption of reconstituted boards brings to the alternative of lignocelluloses raw material. Oil palm (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq.) frond is choosing to use in making of particle boards. Oil palm frond is one of the alternative resources in tropical country, are currently considered waste on palm oil plantation where the frond is not well manage and not been using. 1.3 Justifications - By using abundance of oil palm frond from waste then making a particleboard. - Reduce environment pollution by collecting the waste to be processed. And increase the value of oil palm frond by produce profitability product such as particleboard. 1.4 Objectives The objectives of the manufacturing the particle boards are: - To study the mechanical properties of particle board from oil palm frond at different size of particle and different percent of resin (7, 9 and 11) - To study the physical properties of particle board from oil palm frond at different size of particle and different percent of resin (7, 9 and 11)