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Prof. Usha Mehta
usha.mehta@nirmauni.ac.in
usha.mehta@ieee.org
Acknowledgement
This presentation has been summarized from various
books, papers, websites and presentations and so on …. all
over the world. I couldn’t remember where these large pull
of hints and work come from. However, I’d like to thank all
professors and scientists who created such a good work on
this emerging field. Without those efforts in this very
emerging technology, these notes and slides can’t be
finished. I am thankful to them to make my teaching
process more effective.
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Testing Quality
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Economics of Testing
• Assumptions:
• Sooner is better
• Escapes are bad
• Fewer tests means more escapes
• Fixed budget so limited tests.
• Efficiency:
• Average tests per unit efforts
• Effectiveness
• Average Probability of detecting a bug per unit of effort
• Higher Testability
• More better tests, same cost
• Lower Testability
• Fewer / weaker tests, same cost 4
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Testability
• We can easily test the circuit if we can easily control and
observe the internal nodes.
• Testability = Controllability + Observability
• Controllability: The ability to apply inputs to circuit
under test and place it in specified test
• Obsevability: The ability to observe states and outputs
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
Design-for-Test
• Add controllability Observability to Circuit
• Ease the test process
• More support for test automation
• Test Cost Reduction
• DFT techniques are design efforts specifically employed
to ensure that a device in testable.
• Testers has to be engaged early in the product cycle
• The product must be open for design changes to meet
the testing requirements
• In general, DFT is achieved by employing extra H/W.
• Conflict between design engineers and test engineers.
• Balanced between amount of DFT and gain achieved.
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Testing is
complex, costly
and time
consuming
Add extra hardware in a
design to support
testing. testing of design
becomes easier
Extra Hardware
adds
Extra power, delay
and area
Overall chip
becomes costly,
complex.
Yield reduces
Further, how to test
the
Design-for Test
DFT……
Advantages:
• Fault coverage ↑
• Test generation
(development) time ↓
• Test length (hopefully)↓
• Test Memory (hopefully)↓
• Test application time ↓
• Support a test hierarchy
• Concurrent engineering
• Reduce life-cycle costs
In short
Drawbacks:
• Pin Overhead
• Area / Yield
• Performance degradation
• Design Time
⇒There is no free lunch !
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DrUshaMehta3December
2019
DFT Methods
• Digital DFT
• Ad-hoc methods
• Structured methods:
• Scan
• Partial Scan
• Built-in self-test
(BIST)
• Boundary scan
• Analog and Mixed Signal
DFT
• Analog test bus
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DrUshaMehta3December
2019
Digital DFT Techniques
• Ad hoc DFT Techniques
• Test points
• Initialization
• Monostable multivibrators (one shot)
• Oscillators and clocks
• Counter / Shift registers
• Partitioning large circuits
• Logic redundancy
• Break global feedback paths
• And many more……..
• Structured DFT Techniques
• Full scan.
• Partial scan.
• BIST
• Boundary Scan
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
Ad hoc DFT Techniques
• Good design practices which are learnt through
experience.
• Guidelines only. No clear/ firm rules.
• Automation is not easily possible
• Design reviews conducted by experts or design
auditing tools.
• Disadvantages of ad-hoc DFT methods:
• Experts and tools not always available.
• Test generation is often manual with no guarantee of
high fault coverage.
• Design iterations may be necessary.
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
Test Point Insertion….
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DrUshaMehta3December
2019
Block 1 Block 2
Block 1 is not observable,
Block 2 is not controllable
Block 1
Block 2
OR
CP1
Improving controllability:
Block 1 Block 2
Normal working mode:
CP1 = 0, CP2 = 1
Controlling Block 2 with 1:
CP1 = 1, CP2 = 1
Controlling Block 2 with 0:
CP2 = 0
MUX
CP1
AND
CP2
CP2
Normal working mode:
CP2 = 0
Controlling Block 2 with 1:
CP1 = 1, CP2 = 1
Controlling Block 2 with 0:
CP1 = 0, CP2 = 1
Method of Test Points:
Example of Control Point Insertion
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2019
Test Point Insertion…..
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2019
C1
C2
M C3
CP2
CP1
OP
CP3
CP4
.
.
. .
.
.
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DrUshaMehta3December
2019
Examples of good candidates for control points:
• control, address, and data bus lines on bus-structured designs
• enable/hold inputs of microprocessors
• enable and read/write inputs to memory devices
• clock and preset/clear inputs to memory devices (flip-flops,
counters, ...)
• data select inputs to multiplexers and demultiplexers
• control lines on tristate devices
Examples of good candidates for observation points:
• stem lines associated with signals having high fanout
• global feedback paths
• redundant signal lines
• outputs of logic devices having many inputs (multiplexers,
parity generators)
• outputs from state devices (flip-flops, counters, shift registers)
• address, control and data busses
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
Initializing
• For sequential circuits…
• To bring them in known state
• Design the circuits that are easily initializable
• Asynchronous preset/Clear inputs to the flipflop
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
Monostable Multivibrators and Clocks
• Disable internal one shot, OSC and clocks
• inserting CP and/or OP while disabling
these devices
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Logical redundancy:
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
Redundancy should be avoided:
• If a redundant fault occurs, it may
invalidate some test for nonredundant
faults
• Redundant faults cause difficulty in
calculating fault coverage
• Much test generation time can be spent in
trying to generate a test for a redundant
fault
Redundancy intentionally added:
• To eliminate hazards in combinational
circuits
• To achieve high reliability (using error
detecting circuits)
• Triple Modular Redundancy
1
&
&
&
1->0
1
0
1
0
1
1
Hazard control circuitry:
Redundant AND-gate
Fault  0 not testable
 0
Partitioning of registers (counters):
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DrUshaMehta3December
2019
C REG 1 REG 2
IN IN OUTOUT
CL CL
C
REG 1 REG 2
IN
IN OUT
OUT
CL
CL
&&
&&
CP: Tester Data
CP: Data Inhibit
CP: Clock Inhibit
&&
CP: Tester Data
CP: Data Inhibit
OP
16 bit counter divided into two 8-bit counters:
Instead of 216 = 65536 clocks, 2x28 = 512 clocks needed
If tested in parallel, only 256 clocks needed
Partitioning for Testability
• Testability is the
function of its depth.
Smaller ckts are easier
to test
• If large circuits are
broken down to add CP
and OP by adding some
extra hardware like
MUXs
• MUXs isolates each
segment and improve
the testability
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
Partitioning….
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
• MUXs are transparent during normal operation
Let’s try…..
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2019
• Two 2-to-1 MUXs are added to allow the β partition to
directly observable on Z2 ( s=0) or the α and γpartitioned to
be controlled to z1 and z2 (S=1)
• I is used to control the “off-path” input .
Pseudo-Exhaustive Method of Partitioning
proposed by McCluskey
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2019
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2019
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2019
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Global Feedback Path
• Break the global feedback path
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
Dos and Don’ts
• Avoid asynchronous feedback
• Avoid delay dependant logic
• Avoid parallal drives
• Avoid monostable and self resetting logic
• Avoid gated clock
• Avoid redundant logic
• Avoid high fanin fanout combinations
• Make flipflops initializable
• Separate digital and analog circuits
• Provide test controls to difficult to control
signals
• Buses can be useful and make life easier
• Consider ATE requirements ( tristate etc.)
32
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Structured DFT Techniques
Scan Chain –Scan Test
• For N input combination circuit, 2N input
patterns. For N inputs, M registers,
sequential circuit, 2(N+M) patterns.
• Complexity of testing sequential circuits
due to
• feedback loops
• placement of the circuit in a known state
• high chance for hazard, essential hazard
• Timing problems
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
Difficulties in Sequential ATPGs
• Poor initializability.
• Poor controllability/observability of state
variables.
• Gate count, number of flip-flops, and
sequential depth do not explain the
problem.
• Cycles are mainly responsible for
complexity
35
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Structured DFT
• Structured DFT involves adding extra
logic and signals dedicated for test
according to some procedure.
• The circuit has two modes, normal and
test mode.
• The most commonly used structured
methods are Scan and BIST.
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
Scan Based Designs
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DrUshaMehta3December
2019
• Scan proposed in ’73 by Williams and Angell.
• Main idea is to obtain control and observability for FFs.
• It reduces sequential TPG to combinational TPG.
• Scan-path design is to reduce test generation complexity for
circuit containing storage devices and feedback path with
combinational logic
• The philosophy is to divide & conquer with the purpose to :
• Set any internal state easily
• Observe any state through a distinguishing sequence
Scan System
• Circuit is designed using pre-specified design rules.
• Test structure (hardware) is added to the verified design:
• Add a test control (TC) primary input.
• Replace flip-flops by scan flip-flops (SFF) and connect to
form one or more shift registers in the test mode.
• Make input/output of each scan shift register
controllable/observable from PI/PO.
• Use combinational ATPG to obtain tests for all testable
faults in the combinational logic.
• Add shift register tests and convert ATPG tests into scan
sequences for use in manufacturing test.
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
Different Forms of Scan Design
• Full Serial Integrated Scan
• Multiple Scan
• Partial Scan
• Isolated Serial Scan
• NonSerial/Random Access Scan
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
Full Serial Integrated Scan
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2019
Scan Design Rules
• Only D-type master-slave FFs should be used. No
JK, toggle FFs or other forms of asynchronous
logic.
• At least on PI must be available for test. As shown
in previous circuit, the Scan-in and Scan-out pins
can be multiplexed (only one additional MUX is
needed at Scan-out). Therefore, the only required
extra pin is Scan-Enable, SE (or Test Control, TC).
• All FFs must be controlled from PIs. Simple circuit
transformations can be used to change FFs whose
Clk is"gated" by an internal logic signal.
• Clocks must not feed data inputs of the FFs. A
race condition can result in normal mode
otherwise.This is generally considered good design
practice anyway.
41
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Correcting
Scan
Violations…
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DrUshaMehta3December2019
Scan System
43
DrUshaMehta3December
2019
Combinational
Circuit
F/F
F/F
F/F
Primary
Outputs
Primary
Inputs
SCAN INSCAN OUT
MODE
MUX
Full Serial Integrated Scan
3 December 2019 Dr Usha Mehta 44
Scan-Path Design
Any sequential circuit may be modeled as:
45
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Multiplexed Data Flipflop
• Setting TE = 1
• Shifting the test patterns from SI into the flip-flops
• Setting TE = 0 and after a sufficient time for
combinational logic to settle, checking the output values
• Applying a clock signal CLK
• Setting TE = 1 and shifting out the flip-flop contents via
Q
46
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Scan Flip-Flop (SFF)
47
D
TC
SD
CK
Q
Q
MUX
D flip-flop
Master latch Slave latch
CK
TC Normal mode, D selected Scan mode, SD selected
Master open Slave open
t
t
Logic
overhead
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Level-sensitive Scan Design
• The latch works with
the 3 phases A, B and
C
• For normal operation,
clocks B and C
• For shift operation,
clocks B and A
• Two-port flip-flop
works with two non-
overlapping clocks
L1
(b)
L1
L2
C
D
A
B
SCAN-IN
L2
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Level-Sensitive Scan-Design Flip-Flop
(LSSD-SFF)
49
D
SD
MCK
Q
Q
D flip-flop
Master latch Slave latch
t
SCK
TCK
SCK
MCK
TCK
Normal
mode
MCK
TCK
Scan
mode
Logic
overhead
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Two Port Dual Clock Flipflop
• Sometimes it is useful to separate the normal clock from
scan clock
50
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Multiplexed Data Shift Register latch
• It is often desirable to insure race-free
operation by employing a two-phase non-
overlapping clock
51
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Scan Design Flow
• Complete HDL Design using scan design
rules
• Synthesize logic using the selected ASIC
library
• Convert regular FFs to scan FFs
• Use test synthesis program
• Connects the scan flipflops in a serial chain
and clocks
• Use test synthesis program
• Generate test patterns automatically 52
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Hierarchical Scan
• Scan flip-flops are chained within subnetworks before
chaining subnetworks.
• Advantages:
• Automatic scan insertion in netlist
• Circuit hierarchy preserved – helps in debugging and
design changes
• Disadvantage: Non-optimum chip layout.
53
SFF1
SFF2 SFF3
SFF4
SFF3SFF1
SFF2SFF4
Scanin Scanout
Scanin
Scanout
Hierarchical netlist Flat layout
DrUshaMehta3December2019
ATPG Example: S5378
54
Original
2,781
179
0
0.0%
4,603
35/49
70.0%
70.9%
5,533 s
414
414
Full-scan
2,781
0
179
15.66%
4,603
214/228
99.1%
100.0%
5 s
585
105,662
Number of combinational gates
Number of non-scan flip-flops (10 gates each)
Number of scan flip-flops (14 gates each)
Gate overhead
Number of faults
PI/PO for ATPG
Fault coverage
Fault efficiency
CPU time on SUN Ultra II, 200MHz processor
Number of ATPG vectors
Scan sequence length
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Automated Scan Design
Behavior, RTL, and logic
Design and verification
Gate-level
netlist
Scan design
rule audits
Combinational
ATPG
Scan hardware
insertion
Chip layout: Scan-
chain optimization,
timing verification
Scan sequence
and test program
generation
Design and test
data for
manufacturing
Rule
violations
Scan
netlist
Combinational
vectors
Scan chain order
Mask dataTest program
Develop DFT
Develop test
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Scan Overheads
• IO pins: One pin necessary.
• Area overhead:
• Gate overhead = [4 nsff/(ng+10nff)] x 100%
where ng = comb. gates; nff = flip-flops
• More accurate estimate must consider
scan wiring and layout area.
• Performance overhead:
• Multiplexer delay added in combinational
path; approx. two gate-delays.
• Flip-flop output loading due to one
additional fanout; approx. 5 - 6%. 56
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Optimum Scan Layout
57
IO
pad
Flip-
flop
cell
Interconnects
Routing
channels
SFF
cell
TC
SCANIN
SCAN
OUT
Y
X
X’
Y’
Active areas: XY and X’Y’
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Tests for Scan Circuits
Two phases:
• Shift test
• Set TC= 0, and shift toggle sequence
00110011... using Clk.
• The length is nsff + 4, where nsff are the
number of scan flops.
• This sequence produces all 4 transitions, 0-
>0, 0->1, 1->1 and 1->0,catches all/most SA
faults.
• The Shift test can be used in either single-
clock or two-clock designs.
• This creates a continuous path between SI
and SO for application of 0 and 1.
• Combinational logic test
• This phase allows the combination logic
circuit to be tested for SA faults.
• An ATPG algorithm is used where outputs of
Scan FFs are treated as pseudo-PIs
(completely controllable) and inputs are
treated as pseudo-POs.
58
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Scan Test Operation Loop
• Put the chip into scan mode
• Shift data into scan chain through Scan in
• While scanning in the next pattern through Scan in,
scanning out the results through Scan out of the
previous pattern
• Apply the functional clock to latch responses into scan
FFs
• Perform above 2 steps for each test pattern
59
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Scan Test Sequence
• Each vector contains two parts: ix and sx represent PIs and pseudo-PIs
(state variables), ox and nx represent POs and pseudo-POs (next state
variables).
• For given example, Faults at POs under 1st vector are detected after
10th Clk.
• However, faults captured in FFs for this vector are detected on 11th
through 19th Clk, during scanin of 2nd vector.
3 December 2019 Dr Usha Mehta 60
Test Time
61
DrUshaMehta3December2019
• The general formula for the length of the test (which
includes Shift test) is:
• For a circuit with 2,000 FFs and 500 vectors, 1,004,504
Clks needed.
Other Forms of Scan
62
DrUshaMehta3December
2019
Multiple Scan Chains and
Partial Scan
63
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Multiple Scan Chains
• Test application time is function of the numbers of ff
scanned.
• If more numbers of chain operated in parallel, test time
reduces.
• Instead of stringing all the flip-flops or the latches in one shift
register
• Partition them is several chains
• Scan flip-flops can be distributed among any number of shift
registers, each having a separate scanin and scanout pin.
• Test sequence length is determined by the longest scan shift
register.
• Just one test control (TC) pin is essential.
• The advantages are:
• compatible with multiple clock designs
• Shorten test application time
• Simplify the stitching of the flip-flops
• But, may require extra pins
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Partial Scan Chain
• To scan only a subset of the flip-flops
• Objectives:
 The circuit is easier to test by the sequential ATPG.
 The area overhead is minimized.
 The placement of the flip-flops is such that the
interconnects are minimized.
 The delays are shortened.
• Retains many advantages of full scan and reduces the cost
• Exclude certain flip-flops
• Fault coverage is a function of the number of scan FFs
• Main researches
• Flip-flop selection
• Test length reduction
• Retiming
• What do we lose in partial scan?
• Loss of fault coverage
• Difficult to automate in synthesis environments
• Used in conjunction with other schemes
65
DrUshaMehta3December2019
How to select this subset?
• It is an NP-complete problem
• Heuristics on graph model to select the
minimum feedback vertex set (MFVS) to
transform the FSM into an acyclic graph
• How to choose scan FFs and non-scan FFs?
• Testability Analysis
• Structural Analysis
• ATPG Based Analysis
• Used in conjunction with other schemes
• Main researches
• Flip-flop selection
• Test length reduction
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Isolated Serial Scan
67
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Full Isolated Scan
68
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Random Access Scan
• Treat each one of the latch
elements as a bit in memory
• Each bit in the memory has its
own unique address, and it has
a port which can load data into
the latches so that the contents
of the latch can be observed
• There is only one scan-in and
one scan-out
• Addressing scheme which
allows each latch to be uniquely
selected, so that it can be either
controlled or observed.
• Normal operation
• Scan clock is off
• Only one latch receives the scan
clock and that value is loaded
into the latch.
• High Area Overhead
• Concept of crosscheck
• Less Test Power
69
DrUshaMehta3December
2019
RAS Flipflop
70
DrUshaMehta3December2019
RAS Applications
• Logic test:
• reduced test length.
• Delay test:
• Easy to generate single-input-change (SIC)
delay tests.
• Advantage:
• RAS may be suitable for certain architecture,
e.g., where memory is implemented as a
RAM block.
• Disadvantages:
• Not suitable for random logic architecture
• High overhead – gates added to SFF,
address decoder, address register, extra
pins and routing
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Advantages of Scan
• Structured design is possible
• Can use combinational ATPG
• Significant reduction of test generation time
• High fault coverage, typically 99.5
• Ease of fault diagnosis
72
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Disadvantage of Scan
• Additional circuitry is added to FF
• SCAN flip-flop is more expensive
• Additional chip area
• Additional circuit pins
• Performance penalty
• Increased propagation time
• Test time increase
• Due to shift in and shift out
• Some designs are not easily realizable as scan designs
• Need to store Patterns
• Motivation for BIST
• Inability to test circuits at full speed
• Motivation for Delay Fault Testing
73
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Evolution of DFT
74
DrUshaMehta3December2019
Questions????
Thanks!

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Design-for-Test (Testing of VLSI Design)

  • 2. Acknowledgement This presentation has been summarized from various books, papers, websites and presentations and so on …. all over the world. I couldn’t remember where these large pull of hints and work come from. However, I’d like to thank all professors and scientists who created such a good work on this emerging field. Without those efforts in this very emerging technology, these notes and slides can’t be finished. I am thankful to them to make my teaching process more effective. 2 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 4. Economics of Testing • Assumptions: • Sooner is better • Escapes are bad • Fewer tests means more escapes • Fixed budget so limited tests. • Efficiency: • Average tests per unit efforts • Effectiveness • Average Probability of detecting a bug per unit of effort • Higher Testability • More better tests, same cost • Lower Testability • Fewer / weaker tests, same cost 4 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 5. Testability • We can easily test the circuit if we can easily control and observe the internal nodes. • Testability = Controllability + Observability • Controllability: The ability to apply inputs to circuit under test and place it in specified test • Obsevability: The ability to observe states and outputs 5 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 6. Design-for-Test • Add controllability Observability to Circuit • Ease the test process • More support for test automation • Test Cost Reduction • DFT techniques are design efforts specifically employed to ensure that a device in testable. • Testers has to be engaged early in the product cycle • The product must be open for design changes to meet the testing requirements • In general, DFT is achieved by employing extra H/W. • Conflict between design engineers and test engineers. • Balanced between amount of DFT and gain achieved. 6 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 7. 7 DrUshaMehta3December2019 Testing is complex, costly and time consuming Add extra hardware in a design to support testing. testing of design becomes easier Extra Hardware adds Extra power, delay and area Overall chip becomes costly, complex. Yield reduces Further, how to test the Design-for Test
  • 8. DFT…… Advantages: • Fault coverage ↑ • Test generation (development) time ↓ • Test length (hopefully)↓ • Test Memory (hopefully)↓ • Test application time ↓ • Support a test hierarchy • Concurrent engineering • Reduce life-cycle costs In short Drawbacks: • Pin Overhead • Area / Yield • Performance degradation • Design Time ⇒There is no free lunch ! 8 DrUshaMehta3December 2019
  • 9. DFT Methods • Digital DFT • Ad-hoc methods • Structured methods: • Scan • Partial Scan • Built-in self-test (BIST) • Boundary scan • Analog and Mixed Signal DFT • Analog test bus 9 DrUshaMehta3December 2019
  • 10. Digital DFT Techniques • Ad hoc DFT Techniques • Test points • Initialization • Monostable multivibrators (one shot) • Oscillators and clocks • Counter / Shift registers • Partitioning large circuits • Logic redundancy • Break global feedback paths • And many more…….. • Structured DFT Techniques • Full scan. • Partial scan. • BIST • Boundary Scan 10 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 11. Ad hoc DFT Techniques
  • 12. • Good design practices which are learnt through experience. • Guidelines only. No clear/ firm rules. • Automation is not easily possible • Design reviews conducted by experts or design auditing tools. • Disadvantages of ad-hoc DFT methods: • Experts and tools not always available. • Test generation is often manual with no guarantee of high fault coverage. • Design iterations may be necessary. 12 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 13. Test Point Insertion…. 13 DrUshaMehta3December 2019 Block 1 Block 2 Block 1 is not observable, Block 2 is not controllable Block 1 Block 2 OR CP1 Improving controllability: Block 1 Block 2 Normal working mode: CP1 = 0, CP2 = 1 Controlling Block 2 with 1: CP1 = 1, CP2 = 1 Controlling Block 2 with 0: CP2 = 0 MUX CP1 AND CP2 CP2 Normal working mode: CP2 = 0 Controlling Block 2 with 1: CP1 = 1, CP2 = 1 Controlling Block 2 with 0: CP1 = 0, CP2 = 1 Method of Test Points:
  • 14. Example of Control Point Insertion 14 DrUshaMehta3December 2019
  • 17. Examples of good candidates for control points: • control, address, and data bus lines on bus-structured designs • enable/hold inputs of microprocessors • enable and read/write inputs to memory devices • clock and preset/clear inputs to memory devices (flip-flops, counters, ...) • data select inputs to multiplexers and demultiplexers • control lines on tristate devices Examples of good candidates for observation points: • stem lines associated with signals having high fanout • global feedback paths • redundant signal lines • outputs of logic devices having many inputs (multiplexers, parity generators) • outputs from state devices (flip-flops, counters, shift registers) • address, control and data busses 17 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 18. Initializing • For sequential circuits… • To bring them in known state • Design the circuits that are easily initializable • Asynchronous preset/Clear inputs to the flipflop 18 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 19. Monostable Multivibrators and Clocks • Disable internal one shot, OSC and clocks • inserting CP and/or OP while disabling these devices 19 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 20. Logical redundancy: 20 DrUshaMehta3December2019 Redundancy should be avoided: • If a redundant fault occurs, it may invalidate some test for nonredundant faults • Redundant faults cause difficulty in calculating fault coverage • Much test generation time can be spent in trying to generate a test for a redundant fault Redundancy intentionally added: • To eliminate hazards in combinational circuits • To achieve high reliability (using error detecting circuits) • Triple Modular Redundancy 1 & & & 1->0 1 0 1 0 1 1 Hazard control circuitry: Redundant AND-gate Fault  0 not testable  0
  • 21. Partitioning of registers (counters): 21 DrUshaMehta3December 2019 C REG 1 REG 2 IN IN OUTOUT CL CL C REG 1 REG 2 IN IN OUT OUT CL CL && && CP: Tester Data CP: Data Inhibit CP: Clock Inhibit && CP: Tester Data CP: Data Inhibit OP 16 bit counter divided into two 8-bit counters: Instead of 216 = 65536 clocks, 2x28 = 512 clocks needed If tested in parallel, only 256 clocks needed
  • 22. Partitioning for Testability • Testability is the function of its depth. Smaller ckts are easier to test • If large circuits are broken down to add CP and OP by adding some extra hardware like MUXs • MUXs isolates each segment and improve the testability 22 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 23. Partitioning…. 23 DrUshaMehta3December2019 • MUXs are transparent during normal operation
  • 25. 25 DrUshaMehta3December 2019 • Two 2-to-1 MUXs are added to allow the β partition to directly observable on Z2 ( s=0) or the α and γpartitioned to be controlled to z1 and z2 (S=1) • I is used to control the “off-path” input .
  • 26. Pseudo-Exhaustive Method of Partitioning proposed by McCluskey 26 DrUshaMehta3December 2019
  • 31. Global Feedback Path • Break the global feedback path 31 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 32. Dos and Don’ts • Avoid asynchronous feedback • Avoid delay dependant logic • Avoid parallal drives • Avoid monostable and self resetting logic • Avoid gated clock • Avoid redundant logic • Avoid high fanin fanout combinations • Make flipflops initializable • Separate digital and analog circuits • Provide test controls to difficult to control signals • Buses can be useful and make life easier • Consider ATE requirements ( tristate etc.) 32 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 33. Structured DFT Techniques Scan Chain –Scan Test
  • 34. • For N input combination circuit, 2N input patterns. For N inputs, M registers, sequential circuit, 2(N+M) patterns. • Complexity of testing sequential circuits due to • feedback loops • placement of the circuit in a known state • high chance for hazard, essential hazard • Timing problems 34 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 35. Difficulties in Sequential ATPGs • Poor initializability. • Poor controllability/observability of state variables. • Gate count, number of flip-flops, and sequential depth do not explain the problem. • Cycles are mainly responsible for complexity 35 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 36. Structured DFT • Structured DFT involves adding extra logic and signals dedicated for test according to some procedure. • The circuit has two modes, normal and test mode. • The most commonly used structured methods are Scan and BIST. 36 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 37. Scan Based Designs 37 DrUshaMehta3December 2019 • Scan proposed in ’73 by Williams and Angell. • Main idea is to obtain control and observability for FFs. • It reduces sequential TPG to combinational TPG. • Scan-path design is to reduce test generation complexity for circuit containing storage devices and feedback path with combinational logic • The philosophy is to divide & conquer with the purpose to : • Set any internal state easily • Observe any state through a distinguishing sequence
  • 38. Scan System • Circuit is designed using pre-specified design rules. • Test structure (hardware) is added to the verified design: • Add a test control (TC) primary input. • Replace flip-flops by scan flip-flops (SFF) and connect to form one or more shift registers in the test mode. • Make input/output of each scan shift register controllable/observable from PI/PO. • Use combinational ATPG to obtain tests for all testable faults in the combinational logic. • Add shift register tests and convert ATPG tests into scan sequences for use in manufacturing test. 38 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 39. Different Forms of Scan Design • Full Serial Integrated Scan • Multiple Scan • Partial Scan • Isolated Serial Scan • NonSerial/Random Access Scan 39 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 40. Full Serial Integrated Scan 40 DrUshaMehta3December 2019
  • 41. Scan Design Rules • Only D-type master-slave FFs should be used. No JK, toggle FFs or other forms of asynchronous logic. • At least on PI must be available for test. As shown in previous circuit, the Scan-in and Scan-out pins can be multiplexed (only one additional MUX is needed at Scan-out). Therefore, the only required extra pin is Scan-Enable, SE (or Test Control, TC). • All FFs must be controlled from PIs. Simple circuit transformations can be used to change FFs whose Clk is"gated" by an internal logic signal. • Clocks must not feed data inputs of the FFs. A race condition can result in normal mode otherwise.This is generally considered good design practice anyway. 41 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 44. Full Serial Integrated Scan 3 December 2019 Dr Usha Mehta 44
  • 45. Scan-Path Design Any sequential circuit may be modeled as: 45 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 46. Multiplexed Data Flipflop • Setting TE = 1 • Shifting the test patterns from SI into the flip-flops • Setting TE = 0 and after a sufficient time for combinational logic to settle, checking the output values • Applying a clock signal CLK • Setting TE = 1 and shifting out the flip-flop contents via Q 46 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 47. Scan Flip-Flop (SFF) 47 D TC SD CK Q Q MUX D flip-flop Master latch Slave latch CK TC Normal mode, D selected Scan mode, SD selected Master open Slave open t t Logic overhead DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 48. Level-sensitive Scan Design • The latch works with the 3 phases A, B and C • For normal operation, clocks B and C • For shift operation, clocks B and A • Two-port flip-flop works with two non- overlapping clocks L1 (b) L1 L2 C D A B SCAN-IN L2 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 49. Level-Sensitive Scan-Design Flip-Flop (LSSD-SFF) 49 D SD MCK Q Q D flip-flop Master latch Slave latch t SCK TCK SCK MCK TCK Normal mode MCK TCK Scan mode Logic overhead DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 50. Two Port Dual Clock Flipflop • Sometimes it is useful to separate the normal clock from scan clock 50 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 51. Multiplexed Data Shift Register latch • It is often desirable to insure race-free operation by employing a two-phase non- overlapping clock 51 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 52. Scan Design Flow • Complete HDL Design using scan design rules • Synthesize logic using the selected ASIC library • Convert regular FFs to scan FFs • Use test synthesis program • Connects the scan flipflops in a serial chain and clocks • Use test synthesis program • Generate test patterns automatically 52 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 53. Hierarchical Scan • Scan flip-flops are chained within subnetworks before chaining subnetworks. • Advantages: • Automatic scan insertion in netlist • Circuit hierarchy preserved – helps in debugging and design changes • Disadvantage: Non-optimum chip layout. 53 SFF1 SFF2 SFF3 SFF4 SFF3SFF1 SFF2SFF4 Scanin Scanout Scanin Scanout Hierarchical netlist Flat layout DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 54. ATPG Example: S5378 54 Original 2,781 179 0 0.0% 4,603 35/49 70.0% 70.9% 5,533 s 414 414 Full-scan 2,781 0 179 15.66% 4,603 214/228 99.1% 100.0% 5 s 585 105,662 Number of combinational gates Number of non-scan flip-flops (10 gates each) Number of scan flip-flops (14 gates each) Gate overhead Number of faults PI/PO for ATPG Fault coverage Fault efficiency CPU time on SUN Ultra II, 200MHz processor Number of ATPG vectors Scan sequence length DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 55. Automated Scan Design Behavior, RTL, and logic Design and verification Gate-level netlist Scan design rule audits Combinational ATPG Scan hardware insertion Chip layout: Scan- chain optimization, timing verification Scan sequence and test program generation Design and test data for manufacturing Rule violations Scan netlist Combinational vectors Scan chain order Mask dataTest program Develop DFT Develop test DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 56. Scan Overheads • IO pins: One pin necessary. • Area overhead: • Gate overhead = [4 nsff/(ng+10nff)] x 100% where ng = comb. gates; nff = flip-flops • More accurate estimate must consider scan wiring and layout area. • Performance overhead: • Multiplexer delay added in combinational path; approx. two gate-delays. • Flip-flop output loading due to one additional fanout; approx. 5 - 6%. 56 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 58. Tests for Scan Circuits Two phases: • Shift test • Set TC= 0, and shift toggle sequence 00110011... using Clk. • The length is nsff + 4, where nsff are the number of scan flops. • This sequence produces all 4 transitions, 0- >0, 0->1, 1->1 and 1->0,catches all/most SA faults. • The Shift test can be used in either single- clock or two-clock designs. • This creates a continuous path between SI and SO for application of 0 and 1. • Combinational logic test • This phase allows the combination logic circuit to be tested for SA faults. • An ATPG algorithm is used where outputs of Scan FFs are treated as pseudo-PIs (completely controllable) and inputs are treated as pseudo-POs. 58 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 59. Scan Test Operation Loop • Put the chip into scan mode • Shift data into scan chain through Scan in • While scanning in the next pattern through Scan in, scanning out the results through Scan out of the previous pattern • Apply the functional clock to latch responses into scan FFs • Perform above 2 steps for each test pattern 59 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 60. Scan Test Sequence • Each vector contains two parts: ix and sx represent PIs and pseudo-PIs (state variables), ox and nx represent POs and pseudo-POs (next state variables). • For given example, Faults at POs under 1st vector are detected after 10th Clk. • However, faults captured in FFs for this vector are detected on 11th through 19th Clk, during scanin of 2nd vector. 3 December 2019 Dr Usha Mehta 60
  • 61. Test Time 61 DrUshaMehta3December2019 • The general formula for the length of the test (which includes Shift test) is: • For a circuit with 2,000 FFs and 500 vectors, 1,004,504 Clks needed.
  • 62. Other Forms of Scan 62 DrUshaMehta3December 2019
  • 63. Multiple Scan Chains and Partial Scan 63 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 64. Multiple Scan Chains • Test application time is function of the numbers of ff scanned. • If more numbers of chain operated in parallel, test time reduces. • Instead of stringing all the flip-flops or the latches in one shift register • Partition them is several chains • Scan flip-flops can be distributed among any number of shift registers, each having a separate scanin and scanout pin. • Test sequence length is determined by the longest scan shift register. • Just one test control (TC) pin is essential. • The advantages are: • compatible with multiple clock designs • Shorten test application time • Simplify the stitching of the flip-flops • But, may require extra pins DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 65. Partial Scan Chain • To scan only a subset of the flip-flops • Objectives:  The circuit is easier to test by the sequential ATPG.  The area overhead is minimized.  The placement of the flip-flops is such that the interconnects are minimized.  The delays are shortened. • Retains many advantages of full scan and reduces the cost • Exclude certain flip-flops • Fault coverage is a function of the number of scan FFs • Main researches • Flip-flop selection • Test length reduction • Retiming • What do we lose in partial scan? • Loss of fault coverage • Difficult to automate in synthesis environments • Used in conjunction with other schemes 65 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 66. How to select this subset? • It is an NP-complete problem • Heuristics on graph model to select the minimum feedback vertex set (MFVS) to transform the FSM into an acyclic graph • How to choose scan FFs and non-scan FFs? • Testability Analysis • Structural Analysis • ATPG Based Analysis • Used in conjunction with other schemes • Main researches • Flip-flop selection • Test length reduction DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 69. Random Access Scan • Treat each one of the latch elements as a bit in memory • Each bit in the memory has its own unique address, and it has a port which can load data into the latches so that the contents of the latch can be observed • There is only one scan-in and one scan-out • Addressing scheme which allows each latch to be uniquely selected, so that it can be either controlled or observed. • Normal operation • Scan clock is off • Only one latch receives the scan clock and that value is loaded into the latch. • High Area Overhead • Concept of crosscheck • Less Test Power 69 DrUshaMehta3December 2019
  • 71. RAS Applications • Logic test: • reduced test length. • Delay test: • Easy to generate single-input-change (SIC) delay tests. • Advantage: • RAS may be suitable for certain architecture, e.g., where memory is implemented as a RAM block. • Disadvantages: • Not suitable for random logic architecture • High overhead – gates added to SFF, address decoder, address register, extra pins and routing DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 72. Advantages of Scan • Structured design is possible • Can use combinational ATPG • Significant reduction of test generation time • High fault coverage, typically 99.5 • Ease of fault diagnosis 72 DrUshaMehta3December2019
  • 73. Disadvantage of Scan • Additional circuitry is added to FF • SCAN flip-flop is more expensive • Additional chip area • Additional circuit pins • Performance penalty • Increased propagation time • Test time increase • Due to shift in and shift out • Some designs are not easily realizable as scan designs • Need to store Patterns • Motivation for BIST • Inability to test circuits at full speed • Motivation for Delay Fault Testing 73 DrUshaMehta3December2019