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Gyromat in tunnelling practice

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The presentation will Show you how a gyroscope is working and why it is very useful to use a gyro in tunnelling. Several examples from practice will explain this.

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Gyromat in tunnelling practice

  1. 1. Geosystems at HxGN LIVE Increasing accuracy in high precision survey with DMT GYROMAT 5000 in combination with LEICA high-end total station Volker Schäpe, Volker Schultheiß, Norbert Benecke Version Date: 04.06.14 Please insert a picture (Insert, Picture, from file). Size according to grey field (10 cm x 25.4 cm). Scale picture: highlight, pull corner point Cut picture: highlight, choose the cutting icon from the picture tool bar, click on a side point and cut
  2. 2. DMT GmbH & Co. KG Company profile DMT is an international technology service provider in the fields of natural resources, safety and infrastructure  DMT was founded in 1990 as a merger of 3 companies founded in 1864  In the year 2007 DMT joint the TÜV NORD Group  TÜV Nord Group  Headquarters in Hannover, Germany  ~1.056 Mio. € annual turnover in 2013  ~9.925 Employees in 70 countries  DMT Group  Headquarters in Essen, Germany  ~113 Mio. € annual turnover in 2013  ~720 employees  Development department for geo-instruments like GYROMAT 5000  Service department for surveying tasks
  3. 3. 1. Introduction of GYROMAT 5000 2. Application for GYROMAT 5000: high accuracy tunnel survey 3. Examples and case studies Content DMT GYROMAT 5000 + LEICA total station High precision north finding gyroscope
  4. 4. 1. Introduction of GYROMAT 5000 2. Application for GYROMAT 5000: high accuracy tunnel survey 3. Examples and case studies Content DMT GYROMAT 5000 + LEICA total station High precision north finding gyroscope
  5. 5. DIN 18723 Teil 7 (1990) (German Standard for Industry 18723 Part 7 from 1990) A gyroscope (northseeking gyro) is a pendulous suspended, electronic driven gyro, which spin vector is influenced by gravity and earth rotation. It will directed to astronomic north. Implementation of gyro into the GYROMAT Gyro axis Suspension tape ω Introduction of GYROMAT 5000 Principle of a gyroscope
  6. 6.  Highest measuring accuracy.. 0,8 mgon (= 1,2 cm / 1 km)  Short measuring time ………. 6 – 9 minutes  Weight without total station …11,5 kg  Fully automatic measuring sequence  Preorientation-free measuring method  Individual theodolite equipping with LEICA high-end total stations like TPS1100, TPS1200, TS11, TS15, TS30, TM30 TS50, MS50, TM6100A and others with accuracy better than 1” GYROMAT 5000 The most accurate precision-surveying gyroscope in the world
  7. 7. 1. Introduction of GYROMAT 5000 2. Application for GYROMAT 5000: high accuracy tunnel survey 3. Examples and case studies Content DMT GYROMAT 5000 + LEICA total station High precision north finding gyroscope
  8. 8. Requirements on accuracy of tunnel/roadway position depend on:  Used tunneling method (e.g. TBM or blasting )  Use of the tunnel in operation (e.g. high speed railway tunnel / roadway tunnel) Examples for challenging requirements in accuracy:  Predefined demounting construction position with 5 cm variance for the TBM  Required alignment accuracy better than 5 cm at each tunnel position for high speed railway tunnels  Required accuracy of 10 cm for cut-through of two underground roadways High accuracy tunnel survey Requirements on position measurement in tunnels
  9. 9.  Establishment of an efficient Survey System including:  Surface network, created e.g. by GNSS  Transfer of surface network into the tunnel via open traverse lines:  Survey point distances in the tunnel range between 50 m and > 200 m  Survey points are mostly located at flanks, rarely in the middle of the tunnel  Deviations and errors propagate with every survey point  Failures in positioning increase with tunnel length Deviations are unavoidable! In particular:  refraction error  plumbing error  error propagation will lead into lateral deviation High accuracy tunnel survey Surveying and directions in tunneling, some considerations
  10. 10. Target building Plumbing Error α β1 β2 β3 q B S QL Real direction with plumbing error q Theoretical direction without plumbing error Tunnel length [m] Lateral deflection Plumb error: 1 mm Base length: 10 m Lateral deflection Plumb error: 1,5 mm Base length: 8 m 300 4,2 cm 8,0 cm 1.000 14,1 cm 26,5 cm 10.000 141,4 cm 265,2 cm β1 β2 β3 Start shaft High accuracy tunnel survey Improvement of accuracy by the use of GYROMAT 5000
  11. 11. Refraction in a tunnel Theoretical straight-lined beam Real tunnel situation: different layers of temperatures between the tunnel walls and tunnel centre lead into refraction In reality: curved beam Disregard of refraction leads into position error QR Start shaft Influence of refraction Theoretical position QR A1 A2 A‘2A‘1 Δ Δ North North Solution: GYROMAT 5000 delivers the absolute north direction for every point. The refraction can be identified High accuracy tunnel survey Improvement of accuracy by the use of GYROMAT 5000
  12. 12. Gyro supported traverse line in the tunnel Error propagation Survey points Traverse line Gyro surveyed polygon side 50 – 200 m 500 – 1.000 m High accuracy tunnel survey Improvement of accuracy by the use of GYROMAT 5000
  13. 13. 1. Introduction of GYROMAT 5000 2. Application for GYROMAT 5000: high accuracy tunnel survey 3. Examples and case studies Content DMT GYROMAT 5000 + LEICA total station High precision north finding gyroscope
  14. 14. Water supply tunnel for a 420 MW hydropower plant Length: 25,8 km, diameter: 7 – 8 m Driven by two TBM from two sites: intake and outlet  1 Gyro campaign 1 km before planned cut-through  Driving status while survey: intake tunnel: 7,5 km outlet tunnel:17,5 km  Extreme environmental conditions while survey: temperature up to 42 О C; air humidity: 99%  Result: determination of significant lateral deviation in both tunnels of up to 2,5 m at calculated cut-through position By the way: in consideration of the environmental conditions, 2,5 m lateral deviation is good result for open traverses over these large distances. Gilgel Gibe II tunnel in Ethiopia Case study: water supply tunnel
  15. 15. Achieved lateral deviation: < 5 cm Scenario without correction: Lateral deviation of > 2,5 m which corresponds to a third of total tunnel width Possible consequence of scenario above: Additional construction efforts to correct the direction which would had exceeded multiple the costs and time for gyro campaign Result of cut-through after correction of driving direction: Gilgel Gibe II tunnel in Ethiopia Case study: water supply tunnel
  16. 16. 690 MW hydropower plant, supplied by two different water reservoirs in the sub-arctic east part of Island mountain region.  Total tunnel length: 72 km  Driving with 3 TBM from different starting points  Allowance of horizontal deviation at cut-through positions: < 20 cm  Allowance of deviation from the target direction for every section of 100 m: < 15 cm Kárahnjúkar Hydro-Electric Project (Island) Case study: water supply tunnel
  17. 17. Challenges for this survey  Extreme length of single tunnel sections  Complex geometry with curves and branches leads to sightings close to the tunnel wall  Extreme environmental conditions: - Outside temperatures below -20 О C - Inside temperature range from 0О C to > 40О C  High variation of air temperature at tunnel entrances or ventilation holes  Air humidity nearly 100 %  Partly water suddenly flows in with temperatures up to 51О C  Facing considerable, unpredictable and unavoidable refractions at the traverse Kárahnjúkar Hydro-Electric Project (Island) Case study: water supply tunnel
  18. 18. Challenges in surveying and alignment Kárahnjúkar Hydro-Electric Project (Island) Case study: water supply tunnel
  19. 19. Kárahnjúkar Hydro-Electric Project (Island) Case study: water supply tunnel Challenges in surveying and alignment
  20. 20. Kárahnjúkar Hydro-Electric Project (Island) Case study: water supply tunnel Challenges in surveying and alignment
  21. 21. Kárahnjúkar Hydro-Electric Project (Island) Case study: water supply tunnel Challenges in surveying and alignment
  22. 22.  Faultless operation of GYROMAT 3000 and Leica total stations TCA1800 and TS30 even with the extreme weather conditions  Keeping the required accuracy for all cut-through so that extensive rework could be avoided. 20 cm was allowed, 5 cm was achieved Results: Kárahnjúkar Hydro-Electric Project (Island) Case study: water supply tunnel
  23. 23. Challenges for this survey  Extreme total length of 57 km  High demands on accuracy of max. 10 cm lateral deviation at every point  Tunnel work with TBMs from 5 access points. Entrance Sedrun via 800 m deep shaft Gotthard Basistunnel (Switzerland) High speed railway tunnel
  24. 24. Quelle: R. Stengele (Swissphoto AG) Gyro campaign in the driving Bodio (15,7 km)  8 Gyro campaigns in December 2003 and August 2006 with GYROMAT  624 single azimuth surveys in total with only 22 outliers; 3,5% which were eliminated  Determination of 44 reference azimuths on the surface network and 38 azimuths in the underground network with 602 single survey results Gotthard Basistunnel (Switzerland) High speed railway tunnel
  25. 25. Gotthard Basistunnel (Switzerland) High speed railway tunnel
  26. 26. Gotthard Basistunnel (Switzerland) High speed railway tunnel
  27. 27. Gotthard Basistunnel (Switzerland) High speed railway tunnel
  28. 28. Cut-through Bodio – Faido on 26.10.2006 Gotthard Basistunnel (Switzerland) High speed railway tunnel
  29. 29. Achieved deviation at cut-through Bodio – Faido (15,7 km) Lateral: 9,1 cm Vertical: 2,3 cm Cut-through Bodio – Faido on 26.10.2006 Different voices about the result: Building engineering: This deviation can be compensated by optimizing the interior work Railway engineering: This deviation can be compensated by minimal track moving over 300 m Surveyor: Considerable result Insurance: Risks remain under control Gotthard Basistunnel (Switzerland) High speed railway tunnel
  30. 30.  Sewer tunnel project of the City of Portland (Oregon/USA) constructed by TBM (Herrenknecht)  Length of 5,5 km with no remarkable incline or curves, diameter: 5 m  After the short distance of only 500 m tunneling two different survey campaigns  one by contractor’s surveyor  one by client’s surveyor showed lateral differences of more than 25 cm Combined Sewer Overflows Tunnel, Portland, USA West side CSO tunnel project
  31. 31.  Problem:  Tunneling starts from a haulage shaft of 50 m depth and 18 m diameter  Start-up baseline for survey of only 11 m length  Plumbing error of only 2 mm causes large lateral errors  Feared result without measurements: breakthrough disaster  Measurements:  Turning the traverse into right orientation by only two GYROMAT campaigns  Reached result: successful breakthrough with an accuracy of a few millimeters Combined Sewer Overflows Tunnel, Protland, USA West side CSO tunnel project
  32. 32. Guidance system for TBM Source: VMT GmbH Tunnel survey System Efficient survey system Resume  Every tunneling project signifies an investment of several million Euro/Dollars  Tunnel survey take place under difficult environmental conditions  Small errors have a great impact on the technical and economical success of the project  The nightmare of a tunnel driver can be avoided by three steps: High accuracy tunnel construction QR Gyro control survey as insurance α β1 β2 β3 q QL β1 β2 β3
  33. 33. DMT GmbH & Co. KG Exploration & Geosurvey Contact: Norbert Benecke Am Technologiepark 1 45307 Essen, Germany Phone: +49 201 172 2012 Fax: +49 201 172 1791 E-mail: norbert.benecke@dmt.de Internet: www.dmt.de Thank you for your attention

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