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Brown, L., Drew, O., Kramer, I., Maranzu, V. and Rouse, C.
Terrestrial Laser Scanning for 3D Building Modelling
Output &
Validation
Data
Processing
Registration
Noise removal
Data
Collection
Leica C10
Site selection
3D Mapping
Available
methods
TLS
The Proposed Work
Available Methods
• Increasing demand for 3D building models
• Range of techniques available (Arayici, 2007; Mill et al., 2013):
• Traditional survey
• Tape measure
• Surveyor’s wheel
• Electronic distance meter
• Total station
• Close range photogrammetry
Terrestrial Laser Scanning
Definition:
“a ground-based, active imaging method that rapidly
acquires accurate, dense 3D point clouds of object
surfaces by laser range-finding” (Lichti, 2015)
Terrestrial Laser Scanning
Three types:
1. Triangulation-based
2. Pulse-based
3. Phase-based
• Over 1,000,000 pps
• Max. range 80m
• Comparable
accuracy
• 10,000-100,000 pps
• Max. range 300m
• 4-10mm accuracy
Terrestrial Laser Scanning
• Rapid acquisition
• Non-invasive
• Day or night operation
Source: rudi.net/files/paper/illustrations/composite.jpg
C10
Pulse-based
Green wavelength: 532nm
Point density: 50,000
Positional accuracy: 4mm
Range: 300m @ 90%
Source: http://hds.leica-geosystems.com
Data Collection
Resolution: 2cm at 20m
Max distance: 4m
Time: 7 minutes per scan
Points collected:
~21 million
Field-of-View:
270° (vertical)
360°(horizontal)
ProcessingRegistrationDatabase
Processing in Cyclone 9.0
Raw Data
• Noise Removal
• 3D Model
• Cloud-to-Cloud
• Add Constraints
Constraints (Control points)
Scan 1 Scan 2
Registered Point-clouds
People
Objects
Shadow
Outside
capture
Errors
Noise Removal
Registered Cleaned
3D Modelling
Output
Output
Object TLS (cm) Observed (cm) Error (cm)
Height
Poster frame 120.0 119.4 -0.6
Wall A 273.0 274.7 1.7
Double door 203.5 203.1 -0.4
Step 16.5 16.6 0.1
Wall B 279.0 278.3 -0.7
Width
Single door 83.5 83.4 -0.1
Double door 161.5 160.6 -0.9
Flower pot 39.5 38.4 -1.1
Step 118.0 117.4 -0.6
Chair 43.5 42.5 -1.0
RMSE 1.0
Validation
Improved Data Collection
• Full coverage
• Additional corridor
• Additional stairs
• Three stations
• Quicker
• Less accurate
• Difficult registration
• Leica P40 Scanner
• Combination of phase-based and pulse-based
• Spatial resolution: 1.2mm
• 1,000,000 pps
• Positional accuracy: 3mm
• Integrated approach
• Multiple scans of varying resolutions
• High-definition targets
• Undertake in morning/at night
• Additional software (SketchUp, AutoCAD)
Future Work
http://www.comptonmoving.com/http://hds.leica-geosystems.com/Bastonero et al., 2014http://www.coroflot.com/
Summary
References
• Arayici, Y., 2007. An approach for real world data modelling with the 3D terrestrial laser scanner for built environment, Automation in
Construction, 16, 816-829.
• Bastonero, P., et al., 2014. Fusion of 3D models derived from TLS and image-based techniques for CH enhanced documentation, ISPRS
Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume 2, ISPRS Technical Commission V
Symposium.
• El-Hakim et al., 1997. System for Indoor 3-D Mapping and Virtual Environments, SPIE, 3174, 21-35.
• Feng, Q., 2012. Advantages By Phase-based 3D Laser Scanning Techniques to Underground Construction, International Society for Rock
Mechanics.
• Lee, S.Y., et al., 2013. 3D Data Acquisition for Indoor Assets Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry,
Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume 2, ISPRS 8th 3DGeoInfo Conference & WG II/2 Workshop, 27-29.
• Lichti, D., 2015. Special Issue "Terrestrial Laser Scanning“, Remote Sensing.
• MENSI, 2012. Technical specifications. Available from: http://mensi.free.fr/english/specsoi.htm
• Mill, T., et al., 2013. Combined 3D building surveying techniques – terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and total station surveying for BIM data
management purposes, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 19, 1, S23-S32.
• Ordonez, C., et al., 2010. Measuring building facades with a low-cost closerange photogrammetry system, Automation in Construction,
19, 6, 742749.
• Williams, K.E., et al., 2012. Accuracy Assessment Of Geo-referencing Methodologies For Terrestrial Laser Scan Site Surveys, ASPRS
Annual Conference, Sacramento, California.

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Terrestrial laser scanning

  • 1. Brown, L., Drew, O., Kramer, I., Maranzu, V. and Rouse, C. Terrestrial Laser Scanning for 3D Building Modelling
  • 2. Output & Validation Data Processing Registration Noise removal Data Collection Leica C10 Site selection 3D Mapping Available methods TLS The Proposed Work
  • 3. Available Methods • Increasing demand for 3D building models • Range of techniques available (Arayici, 2007; Mill et al., 2013): • Traditional survey • Tape measure • Surveyor’s wheel • Electronic distance meter • Total station • Close range photogrammetry
  • 4. Terrestrial Laser Scanning Definition: “a ground-based, active imaging method that rapidly acquires accurate, dense 3D point clouds of object surfaces by laser range-finding” (Lichti, 2015)
  • 5. Terrestrial Laser Scanning Three types: 1. Triangulation-based 2. Pulse-based 3. Phase-based • Over 1,000,000 pps • Max. range 80m • Comparable accuracy • 10,000-100,000 pps • Max. range 300m • 4-10mm accuracy
  • 6. Terrestrial Laser Scanning • Rapid acquisition • Non-invasive • Day or night operation Source: rudi.net/files/paper/illustrations/composite.jpg
  • 7. C10 Pulse-based Green wavelength: 532nm Point density: 50,000 Positional accuracy: 4mm Range: 300m @ 90% Source: http://hds.leica-geosystems.com
  • 8. Data Collection Resolution: 2cm at 20m Max distance: 4m Time: 7 minutes per scan Points collected: ~21 million Field-of-View: 270° (vertical) 360°(horizontal)
  • 9. ProcessingRegistrationDatabase Processing in Cyclone 9.0 Raw Data • Noise Removal • 3D Model • Cloud-to-Cloud • Add Constraints
  • 16. Object TLS (cm) Observed (cm) Error (cm) Height Poster frame 120.0 119.4 -0.6 Wall A 273.0 274.7 1.7 Double door 203.5 203.1 -0.4 Step 16.5 16.6 0.1 Wall B 279.0 278.3 -0.7 Width Single door 83.5 83.4 -0.1 Double door 161.5 160.6 -0.9 Flower pot 39.5 38.4 -1.1 Step 118.0 117.4 -0.6 Chair 43.5 42.5 -1.0 RMSE 1.0 Validation
  • 17. Improved Data Collection • Full coverage • Additional corridor • Additional stairs • Three stations • Quicker • Less accurate • Difficult registration
  • 18. • Leica P40 Scanner • Combination of phase-based and pulse-based • Spatial resolution: 1.2mm • 1,000,000 pps • Positional accuracy: 3mm • Integrated approach • Multiple scans of varying resolutions • High-definition targets • Undertake in morning/at night • Additional software (SketchUp, AutoCAD) Future Work http://www.comptonmoving.com/http://hds.leica-geosystems.com/Bastonero et al., 2014http://www.coroflot.com/
  • 20. References • Arayici, Y., 2007. An approach for real world data modelling with the 3D terrestrial laser scanner for built environment, Automation in Construction, 16, 816-829. • Bastonero, P., et al., 2014. Fusion of 3D models derived from TLS and image-based techniques for CH enhanced documentation, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume 2, ISPRS Technical Commission V Symposium. • El-Hakim et al., 1997. System for Indoor 3-D Mapping and Virtual Environments, SPIE, 3174, 21-35. • Feng, Q., 2012. Advantages By Phase-based 3D Laser Scanning Techniques to Underground Construction, International Society for Rock Mechanics. • Lee, S.Y., et al., 2013. 3D Data Acquisition for Indoor Assets Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume 2, ISPRS 8th 3DGeoInfo Conference & WG II/2 Workshop, 27-29. • Lichti, D., 2015. Special Issue "Terrestrial Laser Scanning“, Remote Sensing. • MENSI, 2012. Technical specifications. Available from: http://mensi.free.fr/english/specsoi.htm • Mill, T., et al., 2013. Combined 3D building surveying techniques – terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and total station surveying for BIM data management purposes, Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 19, 1, S23-S32. • Ordonez, C., et al., 2010. Measuring building facades with a low-cost closerange photogrammetry system, Automation in Construction, 19, 6, 742749. • Williams, K.E., et al., 2012. Accuracy Assessment Of Geo-referencing Methodologies For Terrestrial Laser Scan Site Surveys, ASPRS Annual Conference, Sacramento, California.

Editor's Notes

  1. Removed all the areas where the laser saw through the window and the blue areas are where patching has occured