An introduction to biodiversity conservation

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Habitat fragmentation and loss, air pollution, urbanization, epidemics, nature protection, Yellowstone, national parks, some recent studies of the correlation between human population and biodiversity,

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An introduction to biodiversity conservation

  1. 1. Biodiversity Conservation London Metropolitan Univ. - 2010 Marco Pautasso (marpauta(at)gmail.com)
  2. 2. Global biodiversity patterns: vascular plantsfrom Barthlott et al. (2007) Erdkunde
  3. 3. Global human population density patternsfrom Small & Cohen (2004) Current Anthropology
  4. 4. Human impacts on biodiversityHabitat fragmentation, degradation and loss Water, air and soil pollution Species introductions Climate change Trade, travel, transportation and tourism
  5. 5. Habitat fragmentation and loss in Amazonia (2000) Source: NASA Earth Observatory
  6. 6. Habitat fragmentation and loss in Amazonia (2005) Source: NASA Earth Observatory
  7. 7. Habitat fragmentation and loss in Amazonia (2009) Source: NASA Earth Observatory
  8. 8. [1015 mol/cm2; Jan 2003- Jun 2004]Air pollution due to urbanization: NO2 source: http://esamultimedia.esa.int/
  9. 9. Pollution effects on biodiversity: DDTNewton (1986) The Sparrowhawk.
  10. 10. Species movements in a globalized world passengersFrom: Hufnagel et al. (2005) PNAS (air) & Kaluza et al. (2010) Interface (sea)
  11. 11. Fire blight epidemic development in Switzerland 1995 1999 2003 2007From: Holdenrieder et al. (2008) ICPP, Turin, Italy
  12. 12. Climate change and plant distribution shiftsFrom: Denis Loustau (2006) Climate change impacts on extensivelymanaged forest: a modelling approach, Wilton Park Conference
  13. 13. Pautasso et al. (2010) Biological Reviews
  14. 14. Nature protection in the USASource: Map Collection of the Library of the University of Texas at Austin, USA
  15. 15. Nature protection in the USA: the NorthwestSource: Map Collection of the Library of the University of Texas at Austin, USA
  16. 16. Yellowstone (1987)Source: NASA Earth Observatory
  17. 17. Yellowstone (1988)Source: NASA Earth Observatory
  18. 18. Yellowstone (1990)Source: NASA Earth Observatory
  19. 19. Yellowstone (1995)Source: NASA Earth Observatory
  20. 20. Yellowstone (2000)Source: NASA Earth Observatory
  21. 21. Yellowstone (2008)Source: NASA Earth Observatory
  22. 22. Nature protection in the USA: the SouthwestSource: Map Collection of the Library of the University of Texas at Austin, USA
  23. 23. Nature protection in the USA: AlaskaSource: Map Collection of the Library of the University of Texas at Austin, USA
  24. 24. Nature protection in the USA: the MidwestSource: Map Collection of the Library of the University of Texas at Austin, USA
  25. 25. Nature protection in the USA: the EastSource: Map Collection of the Library of the University of Texas at Austin, USA
  26. 26. National Park Sites in the USA* Tend to be larger in the West * Are important for tourism and a source of jobs * Biodiversity conservation is only one of their aims * What will happen to them when climate changes?
  27. 27. Jobs at National Park Sites in the USABy middle 1950s, the primary employee of the Service was the Park Ranger and they dideverything that was needed in the parks, e.g.:Trash cleaners, heavy equipment operators, fire fighters, traffic managers, trail and road clearing, visitor information, museum managers, rescues, aircraft maintenance, crime investigation
  28. 28. Jobs at National Park Sites in the USA Today, there are many more career paths in the service: * Park Manager (Superintendent/Deputy) * United States Park Police * First Responders (EMT’s, medics, rescue specialist) * Dispatchers* Maintenance Workers (including carpenters, plumbers, masons, laborers, auto mechanics, motor vehicle operators, electricians) * Park Planners, Architects, Engineers, and Landscape architects * Resource Managers (biology, soil, water, etc.) * Historians (curators, historians, historic architects, archivists)* Fire Management (weather specialist, firefighters, engine chiefs)* Public Affairs and Administrators (human resources, finance, accountants, information technology, budgeting)
  29. 29. Nature protection in Europe
  30. 30. Nature protection in Europe
  31. 31. Nature protection in Europe Source: RSPB
  32. 32. Natura 2000 * EU-wide ecological network of nature protection areas (1992) * around 25,000 sites, covering ~ 17% of the EU territory * two types: Special Areas of Conservation(habitats) and Special Protection Areas (birds)* not a system of strict nature reserves where most human activities are excluded
  33. 33. UK National Parks Source: UK National Parks
  34. 34. UK National Parks •Most parks established in the 1950s, four new ones since 2000* They cover ~ 9% of the UK, but less than 1% of the human population lives within them * About 61 million visitors per year, with ~ 3.6 billion £ spent/yr by visitors Source: UK National Parks
  35. 35. 12visitors per year (million) y = -0.00x + 4.79 10 R2 = 0.00, n.s. 8 6 4 2 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 UK national park area (km2) Data source: UK National Parks
  36. 36. 140000human population size (n) 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 UK national park area (km2) Data source: UK National Parks
  37. 37. 700money spent by visitors y = 26x + 147 600 2 (million pounds) R = 0.20; p < 0.01 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 visitors per year (million) Data source: UK National Parks
  38. 38. Jobs in biodiversity conservation
  39. 39. Jobs in biodiversity conservation
  40. 40. Jobs in biodiversity conservation: jobs.ac.uk
  41. 41. Jobs in biodiversity conservation: jobs.ac.uk
  42. 42. Jobs in biodiversity conservation: the Guardian
  43. 43. fromthe Guardian
  44. 44. fromthe Guardian
  45. 45. Source:Greater London Authority
  46. 46. A key biodiversity pattern :the species-area relationship ants in European countries from: Schlick-Steiner et al. (2008) J Biogeography
  47. 47. Species-people correlation in Europe plants birdsfrom Araujo (2003) sppGlobal Ecology &Biogeography people
  48. 48. Some recent studies of the spp-people correlation Araujo (2003) McKinney GEB (2003) Moreno- Biol Cons Rueda & Ding et al. Pizarro (2008) (2006) J Ecol Res Vazquez Hunter Biogeog & Gaston (2006) & Jonzon Biodiv & Cons (1993) CB Balmford et al. (2001) Science Real et al. Chown et al. Luck (2007) (2003) J Diniz-Filho et al. (2003) Ecol Appl J Biogeog Biogeog (2006) Acta Oecol.World wilderness map from: UNEP-WCMC World Atlas of Biodiversity, GIS analysisby R. Lesslie (ANU), method developed for the Australian Heritage Commission
  49. 49. Both species and people correlate with productivity Altitude Plant species richness in Trentino, Italyfrom: Marini et al. (2009) J Biogeography
  50. 50. Locally, the spp-people correlation tends to be negative birds in Florencefrom: Chiari et al. (2010) J Animal Ecology
  51. 51. [1015 mol/cm2; Jan 2003- Jun 2004]Air pollution due to urbanization: NO2source: http://esamultimedia.esa.int/images/EarthObservation/pollution_europe_hires.jpg
  52. 52. Air pollution, lichen biodiversity and lung cancer Cislaghi & Nimis (1987) Nature
  53. 53. Random sample of 100 papers per year on ‘species richness’ in WOS (1991-2004)from: Lonsdale et al. (2008) European Journal of Forest Research
  54. 54. ReferencesBarbosa AM, Fontaneto D, Marini L & Pautasso M (2010) Positive regional species–people correlations: a sampling artefact or a key issue forsustainable development? Animal Conservation 13: 446-447Cantarello E, Steck CE, Fontana P, Fontaneto D, Marini L & Pautasso M (2010) A multi-scale study of Orthoptera species richness and humanpopulation size controlling for sampling effort. Naturwissenschaften 97: 265-271Golding J, Güsewell S, Kreft H, Kuzevanov VY, Lehvävirta S, Parmentier I & Pautasso M (2010) Species-richness patterns of the living collectionsof the worlds botanic gardens: a matter of socio-economics? Annals of Botany 105: 689-696Pautasso M (2009) Geographical genetics and the conservation of forest trees. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Systematics & Evolution 11: 157-189Pautasso M & Chiarucci A (2008) A test of the scale-dependence of the species abundance-people correlation for veteran trees in Italy. Annals ofBotany 101: 709-715Pautasso M & Dinetti M (2009) Avian species richness, human population and protected areas across Italy’s regions. Environmental Conservation36: 22-31Pautasso M & Fontaneto D (2008) A test of the species-people correlation for stream macro-invertebrates in European countries. EcologicalApplications 18: 1842-1849Pautasso M & Parmentier I (2007) Are the living collections of the world’s botanical gardens following species-richness patterns observed in naturalecosystems? Botanica Helvetica 117: 15-28Pautasso M & Powell G (2009) Aphid biodiversity is correlated with human population in European countries. Oecologia 160: 839-846Pautasso M & Weisberg PJ (2008) Density-area relationships: the importance of the zeros. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17: 203-210Pautasso M & Zotti M (2009) Macrofungal taxa and human population in Italys regions. Biodiversity & Conservation 18: 473-485Pautasso M et al (2010) Plant health and global change – some implications for landscape management. Biological Reviews 85: 729-755Pautasso M et al (2011) Global macroecology of bird assemblages in urbanized and semi-natural ecosystems. Global Ecology & Biogeography 20:426-436Pecher C, Fritz S, Marini L, Fontaneto D & Pautasso M (2010) Scale-dependence of the correlation between human population and the speciesrichness of stream macroinvertebrates. Basic Applied Ecology 11: 272-280Schlick-Steiner B, Steiner F & Pautasso M (2008) Ants and people: a test of two mechanisms behind the large-scale human-biodiversity correlationfor Formicidae in Europe. Journal of Biogeography 35: 2195-2206Steck CE & Pautasso M (2008) Human population, grasshopper and plant species richness in European countries. Acta Oecologica 34: 303-310

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