Definition: Biodiversity is the “totality of genes, species and ecosystems in a region.”
Ensure your students understand that genes are transferred from a parent to offspring and code for particular traits, such as eye colour, fur colour, personality traits.
A night genetic diversity increase the survival potential by having a increased no. of different alleles in gene pool and increased chance of adaptation to change/threat
Ask your students what the name of the offspring is?
Get your students to compare the species richness and species diversity of sample 1 and sample 2
Students should have a clear understanding of the difference between population, community and ecosystem.
Stress to your students that the definition of ecosystem is “A groups of living things (biotic) and non-living things (biotic) interacting together in a community.” Students get confused between the definitions of environment, ecosystems, community, population and habitat.
Get your students to identify from the list of ecosystem parts the abiotic and biotic factors.Abiotic: Soil, atmosphere, water, sunlightBiotic: Kangaroo, cactus, bacteriaThe abiotic and biotic factors rely on each other.
Get students to research why the Yellow-Eyed Penguin is ‘Endangered’. Answer: The reasons for its decline may include habitat loss, predation by introduced species, human interference and disease. Local conservation groups and the New Zealand government are working to recover this lovely little species, to restore its habitats, and to protect it from new and existing threats.
Ask students to find out the difference between Critically Endangered and Endangered! Answer: an observed population decline over the last 10 years or three generations of at least 80%, occurrence is estimated to be less than 100km2, the population is estimated to be fewer than mature individuals, probability of extinction is at least 50% within 5 years.For factsheets see: http://coolaustralia.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Sumatran-Orangutan-11.pdf
Cool australia biodiversity 9 & 10 presentation
Biodiversity Year 9 & 10
Biodiversity is not simplythe variety of plants and animals on Earth…
Biodiversity is…..The total of all living organisms found on Earth: plants, animals, microorganisms and the genes they contain and the ecosystems they are a part of.
There are three levels of biodiversity1. Genetic diversity2. Species diversity3. Ecosystem diversity
1. Genetic diversityGenes are the basic units of heredity!High genetic diverse means there is a greatvariety of genes that are present in thepopulation. This maximizes the adaptivepotential for a species and reduces it vulnerablyto change.
1. Genetic diversity continued…Although a species may look the same, geneticdiversity in a population is essential for survival.High genetic diversity maximises survival potentialof a species by: -increasing the number of different alleles in the gene pool -increasing the chance of adaptation to change/threat
2. Species diversityA species is a group of organisms capable ofinterbreeding and producing fertile offspring.For example: A donkey and a horse are fromdifferent species because their offspring isinfertile.
2. Species Diversity continued…Two types:• Species richness: thenumber of differentspecies in a particulararea• Species abundance: theamount (abundance) ofindividual species in aparticular area
Compare Species Richness and Species Diversity in these two samplesSample 1 Sample 2
3. Ecosystem DiversityDifferent species depend on a variety ofecosystems.Common ecosystems include:Forests, Rainforest, Woodlands, Shrublands,Marine, Freshwater, Estuarine, Heath, Grassland, Tundra, Alpine, Desert, Riparian, Wetlands
Let’s reflect…What is an ecosystem?A community of organisms that depend upon andinteract with each other and the abiotic factorssurrounding them.What is a community?A number of populations of different speciesinteracting within a particular region.What is a population?Groups of organisms belonging to the one speciesand living together in an area
EcosystemsAny group of living (biotic) and non-living(abiotic) things that are connected together in aself-sustaining way are called ecosystems.An ecosystem can be as large as a desert orlake, or as small as a tree or puddle!
What are the major parts of an ecosystem?All non-living components of an ecosystem areABIOTIC. For example, a rock or humidity.All living parts of an ecosystem are known as BIOTIC.For example, a bush or lizard.Sort the following ecosystem parts into abiotic andbiotic components: Soil, kangaroo, atmosphere, cactus, sunlight, water, bacteria
Did you know…Earth has existed for 4.5 billion years.Life has existed on Earth for 3.5 billion years.Life today is therefore a result of evolution that hastaken place over those 3.5 billion years.Modern humans have only existed for only 100,000years but we are having negative effects onbiodiversity!
Threats to BiodiversityHumans have been damaging our biosphereand ecosystems, which is affecting ourbiodiversity!What has happened in these pictures below?
The Sixth Mass Extinction• Many scientists believe that that we are in a period of mass extinction caused by humans.• Globally, humans have caused the extinction of a total of 86 flora and 723 fauna.
Why conserve biodiversity?1. Ecosystem Services2. Biological Resources3. Social Benefits
1. Ecosystem services• Clean drinking water• Soil formation and protection• Nutrient storage and cycling• Pollution breakdown and absorption• Contribution to climate stability• Maintenance of ecosystems• Pollination of crops
2. Biological Resources• Food• Medicines• Resources use• Ornamental plants• Breeding stocks and population reservoirs
3. Social Benefits• Education• Recreation and research• Cultural• Aesthetic
Conservation We need high levels of biodiversity for clean air, food, fresh water, clothes, energy and medicine. Without biodiversity, life for humans would be both dull and dangerous. So we must conserve it.
Conservation Categories The International Union for Conservation of Nature (ICUN) Red List is a global list of threatened species. It divides animals into categories such as: • Vulnerable • Endangered • Critically Endangered • Extinct in the wild • Extinct
Although humans have been changing the Australianlandscape for 50,000 years or more, the changes in thelast 200 years have caused a terrible loss ofsoil, vegetation and biodiversity.This sounds bad! What on earth are we humans doingto cause all this?
Human Changes• Pollution: Pollution of our oceans, our air, our rivers and our land. Pollution from cars, industries, energy production, and manufacturing.• Over-fishing in our oceans has drastically reduced fish stocks, to the point of extinction in some cases.
• Feral plants and animals continue to cause devastation to native plant and animal communities, including those in our oceans.• Over-consumption: We’re simply buying and eating and consuming too much stuff!• Climate change will potentially cause further problems and threats to biodiversity.
Habitat loss: We’ve been clearing or damaging the naturalenvironment to make way for all the stuff that we need (likebuilding houses, grazing sheep and cows, and growing food) thatthere aren’t many healthy habitats left for our native plants andanimals. THEN NOW
It’s not all badThere are things that you can do to help stopthe damage to biodiversity.And there are lots of people who are alreadyworking hard to help protect and restore ourbiodiversity. But they do need your help. Infact, they need the help of everybody!• So what can you do?
Tips for helping biodiversity• Use less stuff!• Plant native plants in your garden - good for the birds, butterflies and bees, and good for the soil!• Pollute less by driving less, buying less and wasting less and thinking about what you’re flushing down the drain!• Buy organic fruit and veggies if you can - these haven’t been sprayed with chemicals that can harm biodiversity!• Lock up your pets at night - the night belongs to native animals!• Donate some time to vegetating or cleaning up a local wildlife park!• Choose sustainably harvested fish to have with your chips!• Spread the word!• For more tips and more information on biodiversity visit the Cool Australia site (www.cool.australia.org).
Biodiversity Review Questions:Q1. What are the three levels of biodiversity?Q2. Why is genetic diversity important?Q3. What are the two components of speciesdiversity?Q4. List 3 reasons why we should conservebiodiversity.Q5. What are conservation categories?Q6. How can we help conserve biodiversity?