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Sustainable tourism and biodiversity conservation


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Sustainable tourism and biodiversity conservation: are they both possible? Public understanding of biodiversity, biogeographic predictors of biodiversity threat, climate change and greenhouse gas emissions, temporal trends in green space visits and time spent travelling, sustainability

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Sustainable tourism and biodiversity conservation

  1. 1. Biodiversity Conservation – week 7 London Metropolitan Univ. - 2010 Marco Pautasso (marpauta at
  2. 2. Biodiversity Conservation main topics – week 7 1. Sustainable tourism and biodiversity conservation 2. A recap of some questions/answers in biodiversity conservation
  3. 3. Ever heard of biodiversity?from Lindemann-Matthies & Bose (2008) Human Ecology
  4. 4. Age and source of knowledge on biodiversityfrom Lindemann-Matthies & Bose (2008) Human Ecology
  5. 5. What is biodiversity?from Lindemann-Matthies & Bose (2008) Human Ecology
  6. 6. How much (plant) biodiversity is there?from Lindemann-Matthies & Bose (2008) Human Ecology
  7. 7. Which factor can predict biodiversity threat?from Holland et al. (2009) Conservation Biology
  8. 8. Which factor can predict biodiversity threat?from Holland et al. (2009) Conservation Biology
  9. 9. Human inequality and biodiversity threatfrom Holland et al. (2009) Conservation Biology
  10. 10. Coral condition and diving in the Red Seafrom Hasler & Ott (2008) Marine Pollution Bulletin
  11. 11. Green space use in Denmarkfrom Schipperijn et al. (2010) Landscape & Urban Planning
  12. 12. Temporal trend in green space visitsfrom Pergams & Zaradic (2008) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA
  13. 13. Temporal trends in UK tradefrom Schuls (2004) Population & Environment
  14. 14. Temporal trends in transport of people (UK)from Schuls (2004) Population & Environment
  15. 15. Temporal trends in time spent travelling (UK)from Schuls (2004) Population & Environment
  16. 16. from Proches et al. (2008) BioScience
  17. 17. 1a. Will the Earth after us resemble the Earth before us?
  18. 18. [CO2]from MacKay (2008) Sustainable Energy
  19. 19. Human impacts on biodiversityHabitat fragmentation, degradation and loss Water, air and soil pollution Species introductions Climate change Trade, travel, transportation and tourism
  20. 20. 1b. When have protected areas been established? from: The Atlas of Canada (2007)
  21. 21. 1b. When have protected areas been established?
  22. 22. 1c. Where do protected areas tend to be located? from: World Database on Protected Areas
  23. 23. 1d. Is there a correlation between the species richness of a region and its human population? 4 log10 vascular plant spp richness (n) 2 n = 2877, r = 0.18, y = 1.75+ 0.22x, p < 0.0001 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 log10 human population size (n)Data from the Synthesis of the North American Flora (Ohio and Virginia not included)
  24. 24. 1e. What is the key factor behind spp-people correlations? birds in Florence from: Chiari et al. (2010) J Animal Ecology
  25. 25. 2a. Which strategies to preserve biodiversity exist apart from protected areas? • preserve landscape connectivity • reduce energy consumption• facilitate biodiversity research/education• plant and protect trees/shrubs in towns• organize competitions among gardeners? • encourage people to eat local food? • walk/cycle/use public transport?
  26. 26. from MacKay (2008) Sustainable Energy
  27. 27. 2b. What is the difference between in situ and ex situ conservation?
  28. 28. 2c. How can genetic diversity be preserved?
  29. 29. 2d. Who is responsible for the conservation of biodiversity?from MacKay (2008) Sustainable Energy
  30. 30. 2f. Is biodiversity conservation worthwhile from an economic point of view?
  31. 31. 2g. How can the individual make a difference in biodiversity conservation?
  32. 32. CO2 emissions (2000) per continentfrom MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  33. 33. CO2 emissions (2000) per countryfrom MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  34. 34. CO2 emissions (cumulative: 1880-2004) per countryfrom MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  35. 35. CO2 emissions since 2000: scenarios vs. datafrom MacKay (2009) Sustainable Energy
  36. 36. ReferencesBarbosa AM, Fontaneto D, Marini L & Pautasso M (2010) Positive regional species–people correlations: a sampling artefact or a key issue for sustainabledevelopment? Animal Conservation 13: 446-447Chiari C, Dinetti M, Licciardello C, Licitra G & Pautasso M (2010) Urbanization and the more-individuals hypothesis. Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 366-371Golding J, Güsewell S, Kreft H, Kuzevanov VY, Lehvävirta S, Parmentier I & Pautasso M (2010) Species-richness patterns of the living collections of the worldsbotanic gardens: a matter of socio-economics? Annals of Botany 105: 689-696Jeger MJ & Pautasso M (2008) Comparative epidemiology of zoosporic plant pathogens. European Journal of Plant Pathology 122: 111-126MacLeod A, Pautasso M, Jeger MJ & Haines-Young R (2010) Evolution of the international regulation of plant pests and challenges for future plant health. FoodSecurity 2: 49-70Moslonka-Lefebvre M, Pautasso M & Jeger MJ (2009) Disease spread in small-size directed networks: epidemic threshold, correlation between links to andfrom nodes, and clustering. Journal of Theoretical Biology 260: 402-411Pautasso M (2009) Geographical genetics and the conservation of forest trees. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Systematics & Evolution 11: 157-189Pautasso M & Chiarucci A (2008) A test of the scale-dependence of the species abundance-people correlation for veteran trees in Italy. Annals of Botany 101:709-715Pautasso M & Dinetti M (2009) Avian species richness, human population and protected areas across Italy’s regions. Environmental Conservation 36: 22-31Pautasso M & Fontaneto D (2008) A test of the species-people correlation for stream macro-invertebrates in European countries. Ecological Applications 18:1842-1849Pautasso M & Gaston KJ (2006) A test of the mechanisms behind avian generalized individuals-area relationships. Global Ecology & Biogeography 15: 303-317Pautasso M & Jeger MJ (2008) Epidemic threshold and network structure: the interplay of probability of transmission and of persistence in directed networks.Ecological Complexity 5: 1-8Pautasso M & Powell G (2009) Aphid biodiversity is correlated with human population in European countries. Oecologia 160: 839-846Pautasso M & Weisberg PJ (2008) Density-area relationships: the importance of the zeros. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17: 203-210Pautasso M & Zotti M (2009) Macrofungal taxa and human population in Italys regions. Biodiversity & Conservation 18: 473-485Pautasso M et al (2010) Plant health and global change – some implications for landscape management. Biological Reviews 85: 729-755Pautasso M et al (2011) Global macroecology of bird assemblages in urbanized and semi-natural ecosystems. Global Ecology & Biogeography 20: 426-436Pecher C, Fritz S, Marini L, Fontaneto D & Pautasso M (2010) Scale-dependence of the correlation between human population and the species richness ofstream macroinvertebrates. Basic Applied Ecology 11: 272-280Schlick-Steiner B, Steiner F & Pautasso M (2008) Ants and people: a test of two mechanisms behind the large-scale human-biodiversity correlation forFormicidae in Europe. Journal of Biogeography 35: 2195-2206Steck CE & Pautasso M (2008) Human population, grasshopper and plant species richness in European countries. Acta Oecologica 34: 303-310