Biodiversity and its Conservation


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Biodiversity and its Conservation

  1. 1.  INTRODUCTION:  Biodiversity is the variety of life on earth  It includes all life forms-from the unicellular fungi, protozoa and bacteria to complex multicellular organisms such as plants, birds, fishes and animals.  Biodiversity is the variety of flora and fauna on this planet earth.
  2. 2. Organisms Animals Plants Prokaryotes Protists Fungi Jellyfish, worms, arthropods, molluscs, echinoderms, amphibians, fish, reptiles, birds and mammals. Seed bearing plants and non-seed bearing plants Bacteria and primitive algae Single-celled organisms Moulds, mushrooms and toadstools
  3. 3. Animals Vertebrates Mammals Fish Reptiles Amphibians Birds Invertebrates Flatworms True worms Molluscs Echinoderms Cnidarians Arthropods
  4. 4. yeast bacteria Protozoans fungi Plants birds
  5. 5.  DEFINITION:  According to the World Resources Institute-  "Biodiversity is the variety of the world's organisms, including their genetic diversity and the assemblage they form.”
  6. 6.  The concept reflects the inter-relatedness of genes, species and ecosystems.  Because genes are the components of species, and species are the components of ecosystems. Therefore, altering the make-up of any level of this hierarchy can change the others-species and are central to the concept of biodiversity.  From the driest deserts to the dense tropical rainforests and from the high snow-clad mountain peaks to the deepest of ocean trenches, life occurs in a marvellous spectrum of forms, size, colour and shape, each with unique ecological inter- relationships.
  7. 7.  GENETIC DIVERSITY  It refers to the total genetic information contained in the genes of individuals of plants , animals and microorganisms.  The genes found in organisms can form enormous number of combinations each of which gives rise to some variability.  Genes are the basic units of hereditary information transmitted from one generation to other.  When the genes within the same species show different versions due to new combinations, it is called genetic variability.  For example, all rice varieties belong to the species Oryza sativa, but there are thousands of wild and cultivated varieties of rice which show variations at the genetic level and differ in their color, size, shape, aroma and nutrient content of the grain. This is the genetic diversity of rice.
  8. 8.  New genetic variation arises:  by gene and chromosome mutation; and  by the recombination of genetic material during cell division preceding reproduction.
  9. 9.  Value of Genes  Rice grown in Asia is protected from the four main rice diseases by genes brought in from a wild species from India.  The sugarcane industry in the US was saved from collapse by disease – resistance genes brought in from wild Asiatic species.  A tomato discovered in Andes has been used to increase the sugar content of cultivated varieties, increasing their commercial value.
  10. 10.  Species Diversity:  A species generally consists of all the individual organisms of a natural population which are able to interbreed, generally sharing similar appearance, characteristics and genetics due to having relatively recent common ancestors.  A species is a reproductively isolated population that shares a common gene pool and a common niche.  a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity.
  11. 11.  Measurement of species: Species richness is the simplest measure of biodiversity and is simply a count of the number of different species in a given area. Species evenness is a diversity index, a measure of biodiversity which quantifies how equal the populations are numerically.  So if there are 40 foxes, and 1000 dogs, the population is not very even.  But if there are 40 foxes and 42 dogs, the population is quite even.
  12. 12.  ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY  This is the diversity of ecological variations in ecological niches, trophic structure, food-webs, nutrient cycling etc.  The ecosystems also show variations with respect to physical parameters like moisture, temperature, altitude, precipitation etc.  Thus, there occurs tremendous diversity within the ecosystems, along these gradients.  The ecosystem diversity is of great value that must be kept intact.
  13. 13.  This diversity has developed over millions of years of evolution.  If we destroy this diversity, it would disrupt the ecological balance.  We cannot even replace the diversity of one ecosystem by that of another.  Coniferous trees of boreal forests cannot take up the function of the trees of tropical deciduous forest lands and vice versa, because ecosystem diversity has evolved with respect to the prevailing environmental conditions with well-regulated ecological balance.
  14. 14. Ecological Niche  The description of a niche may include descriptions of the organism's life history, habitat, and place in the food chain.  A niche is the sum total of an organism's use of biotic and abiotic resources in its environment, how it "fits into" an ecosystem.  A niche may apply to species, populations or even individuals.  The concept of the ecological niche is an important one; it helps us to understand how organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other.
  15. 15.  A fundamental niche is the resources of an organism or population is theoretically capable of using under ideal circumstances.  The ecological niche of an organism depends not only on where it lives but also on what it does.  By analogy, it may be said that the habitat is the organism's "address", and the niche is its "profession", biologically speaking.
  16. 16.  What do oak trees do?  Know the oak trees "profession" or its ecological niche.  absorb sunlight by photosynthesis;  absorb water and mineral salts from the soil;  provide shelter for many animals and other plants;  act as a support for creeping plants;  serve as a source of food for animals;  cover the ground with their dead leaves in the autumn.
  17. 17.  These six things are the "profession" or ecological niche of the oak tree;  If the oak trees were cut down or destroyed by fire or storms they would no longer be doing their job and this would have a disastrous effect on all the other organisms living in the same habitat.
  18. 18. Rain forest are among the most diverse ecosystems on earth
  19. 19. Measurement of biodiversity  There are three other indices which are used by ecologists:  Alpha diversity refers to diversity within a particular area, community or ecosystem, and is measured by counting the number of taxa (distinct groups of animals) within the ecosystem (eg. families, genera, species).  Beta diversity is species diversity between ecosystems; this involves comparing the number of taxa that are unique to each of the ecosystems.  It is the rate of change in species composition across habitats or among communities. It gives a quantitative measure of diversity of communities that experience changing environments.
  20. 20.  Gamma diversity is a measure of the overall diversity for different ecosystems within a region.  It refers to the total biodiversity over a large area or region.
  21. 21. BIOGEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION OF INDIA  Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns.  The patterns of species distribution at this level can usually be explained through a combination of historical factors such as speciation, extinction, continental drift, glaciation (and associated variations in sea level, river routes, and so on), and river capture, in combination with the area and isolation of landmasses (geographic constraints) and available energy supplies.
  22. 22.  Some fundamentals in biogeography are  Evolution (change in genetic composition of a population)  Extinction (disappearance of a species)  Dispersal (movement of populations away from their point of origin, related to migration)  Range and distribution  Endemic areas
  23. 23.  India has different types of climate and topography in different parts of the country and these variations have induced enormous variability in flora and fauna.  India has a rich heritage of biological diversity  It is very important to study the distribution, evolution, dispersal and environmental relationship of plants and animals in time and space  Biogeography comprising of phytogeography and zoogeography deals with these aspects of plants and animals.
  24. 24.  In order to gain insight about the distribution and environmental interactions of flora and fauna of our country, it has been classified into ten biogeographic zones.  Each of these zones has its own characteristic climate, soil, topography and biodiversity.
  25. 25.  Biogeographic zones:  Major zones representing distinctive units of similar ecology, biome representation, community and species. e.g. Himalaya, Gangetic plain.  Biotic provinces: Next level of detail within the zones. e.g. Northwestern Himalaya, Western Himalaya.  Biomes: Major ecosystem groupings found within each province and region. e.g. Alpine, subalpine.
  26. 26.  Within India the classification recognizes 10 Zones, divided into 26 Provinces The zones are:  1.Trans-Himalaya with 2 provinces  2.The Himalaya with 4 provinces  3.The Indian Desert with 2 provinces  4.The Semi-Arid Zone with 2 provinces  5.The Western Ghats with 2 provinces  6.The Deccan Peninsula with 5 provinces  7.The Gangetic Plain with 2 provinces  8.The Coasts with 3 provinces  9.North East India with 2 provinces  10.The Islands with 2 provinces
  27. 27. SR. NO. BIOGEOGRAPHIC ZONE BIOTIC PROVINCE 1. Trans-Himalayan Upper Regions 2. Himalayan North-West Himalayas ,West Himalayas Central Himalayas ,East Himalayas 3. Desert Kutch ,Thar ,Ladakh 4. Semi-Arid Central India ,Gujarat-Rajwara 5. Western Ghats Malabar Coast , Western Ghat Mountains 6. Deccan Peninsula Deccan Plateau ,South Central Plateau Eastern Plateau, Chhota Nagpur Central Highlands 7. Gangetic Plain Upper Gangetic Plain, Lower Gangetic Plain 8. North-East India Brahmaputra Valley, North-Eastern Hills 9. Islands Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands Lakshadweep Islands 10. Coasts West Coast East Coast
  28. 28. Biogeographic Zones 1. Trans-Himalaya: Biotic Province: Ladakh (J&K) and Lahaul - Spiti (Himachal) (1). Biome: Tundra valley, lakes and marshes. Wildlife: Chiru, Black-necked Crane, Himalayan pit viper. 2. Himalaya: Biotic Province: Northwestern Himalaya (2a), Western Himalaya (2b), Central Himalaya (2c), Eastern Himalaya (2d). Biome: All alpine, temperate conifer, temperate broadleaf, subtropical Wildlife: Ibex, red panda, Monal Pheasant. 3. Indian Desert: Biotic Province: Kutchh (3a), Thar (3b). Biome: Saltflats,scrublands, desert grasslands. Wildlife: Wild ass, blackbuck, flamingo,desert monitor. 4. Semi-arid: Biotic Province: Punjab and Gujarat-Rajwara (4).Biome: Scrublands, Bhabar forests, wetlands, dry deciduous, hill and thorn forests. Wildlife: Tiger, Asiatic lion, Great Indian Bustard, gharial. 5. Western Ghats: Biotic Province: Western Ghats (5). Biome: Evergreen, moist deciduous, wetlands, Montane forests, grasslands. Wildlife: Lion-tailed macaque, Malabar civet, hornbill, draco.
  29. 29. Chiru Black necked crane Himalayan pit viper Trans - Himalaya Zone
  30. 30. Himalaya zone Ibex Red Panda Monal Pheasant
  31. 31. Indian Desert Zone Wild Ass Black Buck Flamingo
  32. 32. Semi - arid Zone
  33. 33. Semi-arid Zone
  34. 34. Semi - arid Zone Gharial Great Indian Bustard
  35. 35. Western- Ghats Lion Tailed Macaque Malabar-civet Horn bill
  36. 36. Draco
  37. 37. 6. Deccan Peninsula: Biotic Province: Southern Plateau (6a), Central Plateau (6b), Eastern Plateau (6c), Chhota-Nagpur (6d), Central Highlands (6e). Biome: Dry deciduous, thorn forests, wetlands, subtropical, moist deciduous. Wildlife: Swamp deer, Jerdon’s Courser, mugger. 7. Gangetic Plains: Biotic Province: Lower and upper Gangetic plains (7). Biome: Alluvial plain, wetlands, rivers. Wildlife: Rhino, otter, Gangetic dolphin, terrapin. 8. Northeast India: Biotic Province: Assam Plains (8a), Shillong Plateau (8b). Biome: All plain grasslands, woodlands, Bhabar terai, evergreen moist deciduous, wetlands and rivers, subtropical temperate. Wildlife: Pygmy hog ,serow, Yellow-backed Sunbird. 9. Islands: Biotic Province: Andaman and Nicobar (9a), Lakshadweep (9b). Biome: Evergreen, moist deciduous, subtropical temperate wetlands, coastal habitat. Wildlife: Dolphin, Narcondam Hornbill, olive ridley turtle. 10. Coasts: Biotic Province: West Coast (10a), East Coast (10b). Biome: Mangrove, brackish lakes and lagoons, mudflats, sandy or rocky littoral. Wildlife: dugong, Brahminy Kite, sand skink.
  38. 38. Deccan Peninsula Jerdon's Courser (Rhinoptilus bitorquatus ) Swamp deer mugger
  39. 39. Gangetic Plains Rhino Otter Terrapin
  41. 41. Islands Dolphin Narcondam Hornbill olive ridley turtle
  42. 42. Coasts-Brahminy kite
  43. 43. Coasts Dugong Sand Skink
  44. 44. VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY  Consumptive value: These are direct use values where the biodiversity product can be harvested and consumed directly e.g. fuel, food, drugs, fibre etc.  Drugs and medicines: About 75% of the world's population Depends upon plants or plant extracts for medicines.  The wonder drug Penicillin used as an antibiotic is derived from a fungus called “Penicillium” .  Recently vinblastin and vincristine, two anticancer drugs, have been obtained from Periwinkle (Catharanthus) plant, which possesses anticancer alkaloids.  A large number of marine animals are supposed to possess anti- cancer properties which are yet to be explored systematically.
  45. 45. Periwinkle (Catharanthus)
  46. 46. Table 1 . Natural medicinal products S. No. Product Source Use 1. Aspirin Willow bark Anti-inflammatory 2. Allantoin Blowfly larva Wound healer 3- Bacitracin Bacterium Antibiotic 4. Bee venom Bee Arthritis relief 5. Cytarabine Sponge Leukemia cure 6. Cortisone Mexican yam Anti-inflammatory 7. Digitalis Foxglove plant Heart stimulant 8. Diosgenin Mexican yam Birth-control drug 9. Erythromycin Bacterium Antibiotic 10. Morphine Poppy plant Analgesic 11. Penicillin Fungus Antibiotic 12. Quinine Cinchona bark Malaria treatment 13. Reserpine Rauwolfia Hypertension drug 14. Tetracycline Bacterium Antibiotic 15. Vinblastine Rosy periwinkle plant Anticancer drug 16. Vincristine Rosy periwinkle plant Anticancer drug
  47. 47. Poppy plant Poppy SeedsMorphine
  48. 48. Foxglove plant - Digitalis
  49. 49. Cinchona Rauwolfia
  50. 50.  Fuel: Our forests have been used since ages for fuel wood. The fossil fuels coal, petroleum and natural gas are also products of fossilized biodiversity.  Productive Values: These are the commercially usable values where the product is marketed and sold.  These may include the animal products like  tusks of elephants, musk from musk deer, silk from silk-worm, wool from sheep, fur of many animals, lac from lac insects etc, all of which are traded in the market.
  51. 51. tusks of elephantsmusk from musk deer silk from silk-worm
  52. 52. wool from sheeplac from lac insects
  53. 53.  Genetic Value: Biological diversity is a valuable genetic resource.  Most of the hybrid varieties of crops under cultivation have been developed by incorporating useful genes from different species of plants to produce better quality of the product with longer self- life or having better resistance to pests.  Though such breeding techniques are unlimited in scope; but, for getting better strains in future, it is essential to build-up a gene- pool because the quality, yield, and resistance to pests, disease and adverse climatic conditions mostly depend on genetic factors and combination of genes which may be different in different strains/varieties of species.  There are hundreds of examples which illustrate how genetic modification helped in improved quality of the product.
  54. 54.  A few of them are mentioned as under • The genes from a wild variety of melon grown in U.P. helped in imparting resistance to powdry mildew in musk-melons grown in California (USA). • The genes from the Kans grass (Saccharum spontaneum) grown in Indonesia helped in imparting resistance to red rot disease of sugarcane. • A wild variety of rice from UP. saved millions of hectares of paddy crop from Grossy-Stunt virus.
  55. 55. Musk-melon Kans grass
  56. 56.  Social Value: These are the values associated with the social life, customs, religion and aspects of the people.  Many of the plants are considered holy and sacred in our country like Tulsi (holy basil), Peepal, Mango, Lotus, Bael etc.  The leaves, fruits or flowers of these plants are used in worship or the plant itself is worshipped.  Many animals like Cow, snake, Bull, Peacock, Owl etc have significant place in psycho-spiritual arena and thus hold social importance.  The tribal people are very closely linked with the wild life in the forests.  The biodiversity has distinct social value, attached with different societies.
  57. 57. Tulsi (holy basil) LotusPeepal
  58. 58. Peepal Tree
  59. 59. Cow Bull Cobra
  60. 60. Peacock
  61. 61.  Ethical value: It is also sometimes known as existence value.It involves ethical issues like "all life must be preserved'. It is based on the concept of "Live and Let Live".  If we want our human race to survive then we must protect all biodiversity, because biodiversity is valuable.  Aesthetic value: Great aesthetic value is attached to biodiversity.  No one of us would like to visit vast stretches of barren lands with no signs of visible life.  People from far and wide spend a lot of time and money to visit wilderness areas where they can enjoy the aesthetic value of biodiversity and this type of tourism is now known as eco- tourism.
  62. 62.  Option values: These values include the potentials of biodiversity that are presently unknown and need to be explored.  There is a possibility that we may have some potential cure for AIDS or cancer existing within the depths of a marine ecosystem, or a tropical rainforest.  Thus option value is the value of knowing that there are biological resources existing on this biosphere that may one day prove to be an effective option for something important in the future.  Thus, the option value of biodiversity suggests that any species may prove to be a miracle species someday.  The biodiversity is like precious gifts of nature presented to us. We should not commit the folly of losing these gifts even before unwrapping them.  The option value also includes the values, in terms of the option to visit areas where a variety of flora and fauna, or specifically some endemic, rare or endangered species exist.
  63. 63.  Ecosystem service value: It refers to the services provided by ecosystems like prevention of soil erosion, prevention of floods, maintenance of soil fertility, cycling of nutrients, fixation of nitrogen, cycling of water, their role as carbon sinks, pollutant absorption and reduction of the threat of global warming etc.  Different categories of biodiversity value clearly indicate that ecosystem, species and genetic diversity all have enormous potential and a decline in biodiversity will lead to huge economic, ecological and socio-cultural losses.  Biodiversity value of some selected organisms in monetary terms  A male lion living upto an age of 7 years can generate upto $ 515,000 due to its aesthetic value as paid by tourists, whereas if killed for the lion skin a market price upto $ 1,000 can be fetched.
  64. 64.  Biodiversity at Global level:  Cellular life has existed on Earth for probably more than 3,500 million years, but for more than half this time consisted only of prokaryotes (i.e. unicellular organisms such as bacteria and blue-green algae).  Multicellular animals (metazoans) first appeared in the fossil record some 600 million years ago.  During the earlier part of the Cambrian period (500- 580 million years ago) a wide diversity of multicellular forms appeared with relative suddenness.
  65. 65.  The early metazoans inhabited the sea; the land was colonized during the Silurian and  Devonian periods (340-440 million years ago). In parallel with land animals, the terrestrial vascular plants too appeared.  But the major radiation occurred among the angiosperms (flowering plants), which diversified enormously during the Cenozoic era(65 million years ago to today).
  66. 66.  The present geological era is perhaps the richest in biological diversity.  About 2.1 million species have been identified till date, while many more species are believed to exist.  According to UNEP (1993-94) estimate, the total number of species that might exist on Earth range between 9.0 - 52 million Invertebrate animals and plants make-up most of the species.  About 70% of all known species are invertebrates (animals without backbones such as insects, sponges, worms, etc.); while, about 15% are plants.  Following the 1992 "Earth Summit" at Rio de Janeiro, it became evident that there is a growing need to know and scientifically name, the huge number of species which are still unknown on this earth.
  67. 67.  Globally, we have roughly 1,70,000 flowering plants, 30,000 vertebrates and about 2,50,000 other groups of species that have been described.  The present global patterns in biodiversity indicate that the species richness tends to vary geographically according to a series of fairly well defined rules. For example, in case of terrestrial environments: • Warmer areas hold more species than the colder areas; • Wetter areas hold more species than the drier ones; • Areas of varied climate and topography hold more species than the areas of uniform climate and topography; • Areas at lower altitude (elevation) hold more species than the high altitude areas; and • Less seasonal areas hold more species than the highly seasonal areas.  Similarly, in case of pelagic marine species, there tends to be more species in warmer and less seasonal waters, i.e. at lower latitudes.  More species, both per unit area and overall/in the tropics than in temperate regions and for more in the temperate regions than in polar regions.  The moist tropical forests, in general, are the most species rich areas or environments on earth.
  68. 68. Biodiversity at Global level:  It is estimated that there exists 5-30 million species of living forms on our earth .Of these only 1.5 million are identified. Green Plants and Fungi :300,000species Insects : 8,00,000species Vertebrates :40,000species Microorganisms :3,60,000 species
  69. 69.  BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL : (Indian Biodiversity):  Every country is characterized by its own biodiversity depending mainly on its climate.  India has a rich biological diversity of flora and fauna.  Overall six percent of the global species are found in India.  It is estimated that India ranks 10th among the plant rich countries of the world, 11th in terms of number of endemic species of higher vertebrates and 6th among the centers of diversity and origin of agricultural crops.  The total number of living species identified in our country is 150,000.  Indian is also one of the 12 mega-biodiversity countries in the world.  Out of a total of 25 biodiversity hot-spots in the world, India possesses two, one in the north-east region and one in the western ghats.
  70. 70.  Biodiversity at (Local level) Andhra Pradesh  Andhra Pradesh has a rich biological diversity which consist of 4 National parks, and 21 wild life sanctuaries.  Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park, 1994 ,area 1.42 km2  Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park ,1994 14.59 km2  Mrugavani National Park ,1994, area 3.60 km2  Sri Venkateswara National Park ,1989, area 353.62 km2
  71. 71.  Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park is a national park located in the Jubilee hills in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.  Named after the former chief minister of Andhra Pradesh. Described as 'a jungle amidst the concrete jungle'.  The park has over 600 species of plant life, 140 species of birds and 30 different varieties of butterflies and reptiles.  Animals making their home in the park include: pangolin, small Indian civet, peacock, jungle cat and porcupines.
  72. 72. Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park
  73. 73. PorcupinesPangolin
  74. 74.  Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park is an Indian national park located in Vanasthalipuram, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.  The park was named after Mahavir, a Jain saint, in commemoration of his 2500th birth anniversary in the year 1975.  The place where the park is located was once a private hunting ground for former rulers of Hyderabad - the Nizam.  A deer park was set up in order to preserve this precious heritage and rehabilitate it.  Animals living in this national park include a few hundred blackbucks (the state animal of Andhra Pradesh), porcupines, water monitors, short-toed eagles, Indian pond herons, egrets, kingfishers, cormorants and several other bird species.
  75. 75. Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park
  76. 76. Water Monitors Short toed eagles
  77. 77. Egrets Indian Pond Herons
  78. 78. king fisher
  79. 79. cormorants
  80. 80. Mrugavani National Park  It is situated 25 km from Hyderabad and covers an area of 3.5 square miles.  It is home to a 600 different types of plant life.  The animals include: the black naped hare, forest cat, civet, Indian rat snake, Russell's viper, cheetal and the flower pecker.
  81. 81. Mrugavani National Park
  82. 82. Black naped Hare Russel’s Viper
  83. 83. Indian Rat snake
  84. 84. Flower Pecker Cheetal
  85. 85. There are 21 wildlife sactuaries of Andhra Pradesh
  87. 87. Kawal Wild life Sanctuary LOCATION & AREA: Adilabad District. Area 893 Sq. Kms. UNIQUENESS: One of the richest Teak forests in the State, with dense pristine areas free of human disturbance. The River Kadiam flows through this area. FLORA: Dry Deciduous Teak Forests mixed with Bamboo, Terminalia, Pterocarpus, Anogeisus, Cassias FAUNA: Flagship species is Tiger. Also has Panther, Gaur, Cheetal, Sambar, Nilgai, Barking Deer, Chowsingha, Mouse Deer, Sloth Bear and a variety of Birds & Reptiles.
  88. 88. Pranahitha Wild Life Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: Adilabad District. Area 136.02 Sq. Kms. UNIQUENESS: Pranahita River, one of the tributaries of mighty Godavari, abuts this Sanctuary on its east. It is the home for the endangered Black Buck, Chinkara, Wolf. FLORA: Dry deciduous and riverine Forests along river Pranahita with Teak, Bamboo, Terminalias, Anogeisus etc. FAUNA: Tiger, Panther, Sloth Bear, Cheetal, Black Buck, Nilgai, Chinkara, a variety of aquatic Birds & Reptiles.
  89. 89. Pranahitha Wild Life Sanctuary
  90. 90. Sivaram Wild life Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA : Adilabad & Karimnagar Districts, Area 29.81 Sq. Kms. UNIQUENESS: A perennial basin in Godavari River, home for Marsh Crocodile or Mugger. FLORA: Riverine forest mixed with Teak, Terminalia, Bamboo, Anogeissus, Cassia. FAUNA: Flagship species is the Marsh Crocodile with Tiger, Langur, Rhesus Monkey, Sloth Bear, Cheetal, Sambar as other associates in the adjoining forests
  91. 91. Sivaram W S
  92. 92. Eturunagaram W S  LOCATION & AREA:  Warangal District. Area 803  Sq. Kms.  UNQUENESS:  Rolling  country  with  low  hills  on  banks of Godavari. The dense Forests are home for  the largest Gaur populations in the state.  FLORA:  Dry deciduous Teak Forest & Riverine  Forest with Bamboo, Pterocarpus, Anogeissus,  Buchanania  FAUNA:   Tiger,  Panther,  Gaur,  Sambar,  Cheetal,  Nilgai,  Black  Buck,  Chowsingha,  Barking  Deer,  Wild  Boar,  Wolf,  Jackal, Fox, Jungle Cat and a variety of Birds.
  93. 93. Eturunagaram W S
  94. 94. PAKHAL Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: Warangal District. Area  860.20 Sq. Kms. UNIQUENESS:  A large scenic lake in the middle of  the forests adds beauty to the area.  FLORA:  Dry deciduous Teak forest with Bamboo,  Mohua, Terminalia, Pterocarpus. FAUNA: Tiger, Panther, Gaur, Sambar, Cheetal,  Nilgai, Wild Boar, Sloth Bear, Wild Dog, Hyena,  Jackal, Fox and migratory Birds like Duck, Teal, Ibis,  Stork and Cormorant. 
  95. 95. PAKHAL Wildlife Sanctuary
  96. 96. KINNERASANI Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: Khammam District. Area  635.40 Sq. Kms. UNIQUENESS: The picturesque Kinnerasani Lake  with densely forested islands in the middle present a  breath taking sight.  FLORA:  Dry deciduous Teak forest with Bamboo,  Terminalias, Anogeissus, Cassia. FAUNA: Tiger, Panther, Gaur, Cheetal, Chinkara,  Chowsingha, Sambar, Wild Boar, Wild Dog, Hyena,  Jackal, Sloth Bear and a variety of ground nesting  and aquatic birds. The Kinnerasani lake and water  pools harbour Marsh Crocodile.
  97. 97. KINNERASANI Wildlife Sanctuary
  98. 98. PAPIKONDA Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA:  East Godavari, West Godavari &  Khammam Districts. Area 591 Sq. Kms.  UNIQUENESS:  The sight of mighty Godavari meandering  through densely Forested hills with deep gorges & valleys  provides an unforgettable experience. FLORA:  Dry deciduous Teak forest with Bamboo, Terminalia,  Pterocarpus, Cassias and other species conforming to the  Eastern Ghat vegetation. FAUNA: Tiger, Panther, Gaur, Cheetal, Chowsingha, Sambar,  Black Buck, Mouse Deer, Barking Deer, Sloth Bear, Wild Dog,  Hyena, Jackal, Wild Boar, Marsh Crocodile and a variety of birds  both resident and migratory. 
  99. 99. PAPIKONDA Wildlife Sanctuary
  100. 100. CORINGA WILDLIFE SANCTUARY  LOCATION & AREA: East Godavari District. Area 235.70 Sq.  Kms. UNIQUENESS: The largest surviving patch of Mangrove forests  in the State with more than 65 Mangrove tree species. Home for  the rare, endangered Smooth Indian Otter, Fishing Cat,  Estuarine Crocodile. FLORA: The Sanctuary in the estuary of river Godavari supports  rich mangrove vegetation with species like Rhizophora,  Avicennia, Sonneratia, Aegiceros. FAUNA: Otter, Fishing Cat, Jackal, Marine Turtle and Estuarine  Crocodile. Most common birds are Sea Gulls, Storks, Herons,  Snipes, Ducks and Flamingos. 
  102. 102. KOLLERU Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: West Godavari District. Area  308.55 Sq. Kms. UNIQUENESS: Largest fresh water lake in the  Country. It is one of the Ramsar convention wetland  sites. FLORA: A fresh water wetland habitat with Ipomea,  Eichornia, Reeds, Tall grasses.  FAUNA: Water birds like Garganys, Teals,  Pochards, Spot Bills, Brahminy Ducks, Open Bill  Storks, Herons, occasionally Flamingos & Grey  Pelicans.
  103. 103. KOLLERU Wildlife Sanctuary
  104. 104. KRISHNA Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: Krishna and Guntur District.  Area 194.81 Sq. Kms. UNIQUENESS: The last surviving mangrove forests  in the Krishna estuary with unique flora & fauna. FLORA: The Sanctuary supports rich mangrove  vegetation with plants like Rhizophora, Avicennia,  Sonneratia, Aegiceros. FAUNA: Fishing Cat, Otter, Jackal, Estuarine  Crocodile and a variety of local & migratory birds.
  105. 105. KRISHNA Wildlife Sanctuary
  106. 106. POCHARAM Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: Medak & Nizamabad  Districts. Area 129.84 Sq. Kms. UNIQUENESS: The vast Pocharam Lake adjoining  the Pocharam Sanctuary makes it a place worth  visiting. FLORA: Mixed dry deciduous forest with patches of  scrub and grassy plains. Terrain undulating with low  hills and small water pools. FAUNA: Panther, Sloth Bear, Wild Boar, Cheetal,  Sambar, Nilgai, Chowsingha, Chinkara, Hyena,  Jackal, Python, Ducks, Teals, Storks, Partridges  and Quails.
  107. 107. POCHARAM Wildlife Sanctuary
  108. 108. MANJIRA Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: Medak District. Area 20 Sq.  Kms. UNIQUENESS: A man made reservoir, which is a  haven for aquatic birds, Marsh Crocodiles. Lifeline  to Hyderabad City supplying drinking water. FLORA: Fresh water Eco-System with species like  Ipomea, Babool, Prosopis, Vallisnaria, Eichornia,  Reeds. FAUNA: Riverine habitat supporting Marsh  Crocodile, fresh water Turtles and a variety of  aquatic birds like Herons, Storks, Teals, Ducks,  Geese, King Fishers, Moon Hens, Jacanas, Kites,
  109. 109. MANJIRA Wildlife Sanctuary
  110. 110. NAGARJUNA SAGAR Srisailam Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA:       Guntur, Prakasham, Kurnool,  Mahaboobnagar  UNIQUENESS: Largest Tiger reserve in India spreading over 5  Districts with river Krishna flowing through the reserve presenting  some breathtaking sights with hills, valleys and deep gorges. FLORA: Dry deciduous mixed forests along river Krishna with  Teak, Bamboo, Terminilias, Hardwickias, Anogeissus and  hundreds of medicinal plants. FAUNA: Tiger, Panther, Sloth Bear, Wild Dog, Jackal, Wolf, Fox,  Ratel, Indian Giant Squirrel, Tree Shrew, Cheetal, Mouse Deer,  Black Buck, Sambar, Chowsingha, Nilgai, Wild Boar, Mugger  Crocodile, Rock Python and Peafowl.  
  111. 111. NAGARJUNA SAGAR Srisailam Wildlife Sanctuary
  112. 112. ROLLAPADU Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA : Kurnool District. Area 6.14  Sq. Kms. UNIQUENESS: The only habitat in the State for the  rare and highly endangered Great Indian Bustard. FLORA: Open dry grassland interspersed with  thorny bushes.  FAUNA: Great Indian Bustard, Black Buck, Wolf,  Jackal, Bonnet Monkey, Russell’s Viper and Cobra. 
  113. 113. ROLLAPADU Wildlife Sanctuary
  114. 114. GUNDLA BRAHMESWARAM Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: Kurnool & Prakasam Districts. Area 1194  Sq. Kms.  UNIQUENESS: The last surviving pristine forests of Nallamalai  tract, rich in plants of Ethno-Botanical values. Has some of the  most scenic forest areas. FLORA: Mixed deciduous forest of Teak, Pterocarpuss,  Terminalia, Albizzia, Anogeissius, Dalbergia, Boswellia,  Shisham, Andug & Bamboo. Gundlakamma a perennial river  criss-crosses through the sanctuary on its eastern parts.  FAUNA: Tiger, Panther, Sloth Bear, Wild Dog, Hyena, Jungle  Cat, Langur, Bonnet Monkey, Pangolin, Sambar, Nilgai,  Chowsingha, Chinkara, Mouse Deer, Monitor Lizard, Python and  Marsh Crocodile. 
  115. 115. GUNDLA BRAHMESWARAM Wildlife Sanctuary
  116. 116. SRI LANKAMALLESWARA Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: Cuddapah District. Area  464.42 Sq. Kms. UNIQUENESS: The only habitat in the world  harbouring the Jerdon’s Courser a highly  endangered bird. FLORA: Dry deciduous mixed thorn forests with  deep gorges and steep slopes. Red Sanders, an  endemic species is found here. FAUNA: Panther, Sloth Bear, Cheetal, Sambar,  Chowsingha, Chinkara, Nilgai, Wild Boar, Fox and  the Jerdon’s Courser 
  117. 117. SRI LANKAMALLESWARA Wildlife Sanctuary
  118. 118. NELAPATTU Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: Nellore District. Area 4.58 Sq.  Kms. UNIQUENESS: The largest breeding ground for the  Grey Pelicans. You can watch the Pelicans in their  nests from a few feet away. FLORA: A fresh water tank with Barringtonia trees  providing nesting ground for Pelicans, also has  Babul, Psosopis, Ipomea.  FAUNA: Grey Pelican, Open Bill Stork, Spoon Bill,  White Ibis, Night Heron, Cormorant, Teals, Ducks  etc. Villagers of Nelapattu offer full protection to  these birds.
  119. 119. NELAPATTU Wildlife Sanctuary
  120. 120. PULICAT Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: Nellore District. Area 500 Sq. Kms. UNIQUENESS: The second largest brackish water Eco-System  in the Country supporting the largest congregation of Flamingos  in the State. FLORA: A vast coastal shallow, brackish water lake along the  coast of Bay of Bengal into which several fresh water streams  drain. Species include Prosopis, Casuarina, Ipomea, Pongamia  etc. FAUNA: The back waters attract large congregation of Greater  and Lesser Flamingos, Grey Pelican, Painted Stork, Spoon Bills,  Grey Heron, Ducks, Teals, Terns, Herons, Gull and a number of  waders.
  121. 121. PULICAT Wildlife Sanctuary
  122. 122. KAUNDINYA Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: Chittoor District; 357.60 Sq.  Kms. UNIQUENESS: The area to which Elephants have  returned after 200 years. The only Elephant  Reserve in the State. FLORA: Southern tropical dry deciduous and thorn  forests consisting of Albizzias, Accacias,  Lagerstroemea, Ficus, Bamboo. FAUNA: Indian Elephant, Sloth Bear, Panther,  Cheetal, Chowsingha, Sambar, Porcupine, Wild  Boar, Jungle Cat, Jackal, Jungle Fowl, Starred  Tortoise, Slender Loris.
  123. 123. KAUNDINYA Wildlife Sanctuary
  124. 124. SRI PENINSULA NARASIMHASWAMY Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: Nellore District. Area 1030.85  Sq. Kms. UNIQUENESS: Comprises a unique and  endangered forest type viz. the dry evergreen  forests. Hilly slopes, rolling forested areas and low  valleys make this place worth visiting.  FLORA: Dry evergreen forest type with species like  Accacias, Cassias, Pongamia, Carissa etc. FAUNA: Panther, Cheetal, Nilgai, Chowsingha,  Sloth Bear, Jackal, Wild Boar, large number of  Reptile and Bird species.
  125. 125. SRI PENINSULA NARASIMHASWAMY Wildlife Sanctuary
  126. 126. KAMBALAKONDA Wildlife Sanctuary  LOCATION & AREA: Visakhapatnam. Area 70.70  Sq. Kms. UNIQUENESS: A large and sprawling greenery  around the Vizag City harbouring diverse flora &  fauna. FLORA: Dry evergreen forest mixed with scrub and  meadows. Terrain hilly with steep slopes.  FAUNA: Panthers, Spotted Deers, Sambar, Barking  Deer, Wild Boar, Jackal, Wild Dog etc.
  127. 127. KAMBALAKONDA Wildlife Sanctuary
  128. 128. Botanical gardens  4 Ethno-botanical gardens with about 400 species were  established  in  the  4  Regional  Research  Centers  in  the  state  located  at  Rajahmundry,  Tirupathi,  Mulugu  near  Hyderabad  and  Achuthapuram  in  Khammam  District  to  create  awareness  on  Medicinal  Plants  among  the  officials  and  staff  of  the  department  and  the  general  public.   Sample  plots  of  different  Medicinal  plants  are  raised  in  these  gardens.   The  Ethno-botanical  garden  at  Rajahmundry  has  an  Arboretum  too  with  various  tree  species  collected  and  planted  basing  on  Bentham  and  Hooker’s classification.   The  production  of  seed  and  seedlings  of  different  species  for  utilization  as  planting  material  is  also  achieved in these gardens on a limited scale.  There is  an enormous scope for increasing this activity. 
  129. 129. INDIA AS A MEGA-DIVERSITY NATION  The  country  has  a  rich  heritage  of  biodiversity,  encompassing  a  wide  spectrum  of  habitats  from  tropical  rainforests  to  alpine  vegetation,  and  from  temperate forests to coastal wetlands.   Almost all the biogeographical regions of the world  are represented here in India.   1.  With  a  mere  2.4%  of  the  total  land  area  of  the  world,  the  known  biodiversity  of  India  contributes  8.22% of  the known global biodiversity.   2. India is one of the twelve mega-diversity nations  of the world .
  130. 130.  3. India is in the tenth position in the world and fourth in the Asia in terms of plant diversity.  4. And in terms of number of mammalian species, the country ranks tenth in the world; and  5. In endemic species of higher vertebrates, it ranks eleventh.  6. In terms of number of species contributed to agriculture and animal husbandry, it ranks seventh in the world.  7. India has two major realms called the Palaearctic and the Indo- Malayan; and three biomes, namely the tropical humid forests, the tropical dry deciduous forests and the warm desert/semi-deserts.
  131. 131. Palaearctic Realm The  Palearctic  or  Palaearctic  is  one of the eight ecozones dividing  the Earth surface. Physically,  the  Palearctic  is  the  largest  ecozone.  It  includes  the  terrestrial  ecoregions  of  Europe,  Asia  north  of  the  Himalaya  foothills,  northern  Africa,  and  the  northern  and  central  parts  of  the  Arabian Peninsula.
  132. 132. Indomalayan Realm The  Indomalaya  Ecosystem  was  previously called the Oriental region.   The Indomalaya Ecozone It  extends  from  the  Makran  region  of  southern  Pakistan  through  the  Indian  subcontinent  and  Southeast  Asia  to  lowland  southern  China,  and  through  Indonesia  as  far  as  Java,  Bali,  and  Borneo,  east  of  which  lies  the  Wallace  line, the ecozone boundary named after  Alfred Russell Wallace which separates  Indomalaya  from  Australasia.  Indomalaya  also  includes  the  Philippines, lowland Taiwan and Japan's  Ryūkyū Islands
  133. 133.  8.India can be divided into ten biogeographic zones  and  26  biotic  provinces  which  represent  the  major  ecosystems of the world.  9.  India  figures  with  two  'hotspots'—the  Western  Ghats  and  the  Eastern  Himalayas—in  an      identification of 25 hotspots by Mayers et. at. 2000).    10. Endemism: Species which are restricted only to  a particular area are known as endemic.        India  shows  a  good  number  of  endemic  species.  About  62%  of  amphibians  and  50%  of  lizards  are  endemic to India.   Western ghats are the site of maximum endemism.   India has 26 recognised endemic centres. 
  134. 134.  11. Protected area : A protected area as defined by the World  Conservation  Union  (IUCN)  is    an    area  of  land  and/or  sea  especially  dedicated  to  the  protection  and  maintenance  of  biological    diversity,  and  of  natural  and  associated  cultural  resources, and managed through legal or other effective means.  Biosphere reserves : which  protect  larger  areas  of  natural  habitat  (than  a  National  Park  or  Animal    Sanctuary),  and  often  include  one  or  more  National  Parks  and/or  preserves,  along  buffer zones  that are open to some economic uses.   The World Network of Biosphere Reserves is the collection of all  482 biosphere reserves in 102 countries     (as of mid-2005).  India  has  5  world  heritage  sites,  12  biosphere  reserves,  and  6  Ramsar wetlands amongst the protected areas.
  135. 135. S.No. Site Location 1.  Kaziranga National Park  Assam  2.  Keoladeo Ghana National  Park  Rajasthan  3.  Manas Wildlife Sanctuary  Assam  4.  Nanda Devi National Park  Uttar Pradesh  5.  Sundarban National Park  West Bengal  India’s world heritage sites
  136. 136. Bio Reserves of India
  137. 137. S.No. Name of the site Location (State /U.T.) 1.  Nilgiri  Part of Wynad, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Madumalai,  Nilambur, Silent . Valley and Siruvani hills (Tamil  Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka)  2.  Nanda Devi  Part  of  Chamoli,  Pithoragarh,  Almora  Districts  (Uttaranchal)  3.  Nokrerk  Part of Gora Hills (Meghalaya)  4.  Manas  Part  of  Kokrajhar,  Bongaigaon,  Barpeta,  Nalbari,  Kamprup and Darang district (Assam)  5.  Sunderbans  Part of delta of Ganga and Brahamaputra river system  (West Bengal)  6.  Gulf of Mannar  Indian part of Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri  Lanka (Tamil Nadu)  7.  Great Nicobar  Southern most Islands of Andaman and Nicobar (A &  N Islands)  8.  Similpal  Part of Mayurbhanj district (Orissa)  9.  Dibru-Saikhowa  Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia district (Assam)  10.  Dehang Debang  Part of Siang and Debang velly (Arunachal Pradesh)  11.  Pachmarhi  Parts of Betul, Hoshangabad and Chindwara districts  (Madhya Pradesh)  12.  Kanchanjanga  Part of Kanchanjanga Hills (Sikkim) 
  138. 138.  12. Further, amongst the protected areas, there are 33 botanical  gardens, 89 national parks and 504 sanctuaries in India.   13. The Ministry of Forests and Environment (MOEF) reports that  India has at present 89,317 species of fauna and 45,364 species  of flora representing about 7.31% of the world fauna and 10.88%  the world flora described so far.   14. Center of origin: A large number of species are known to  have originated in India.  Nearly 5000 species of flowering plants had their origin in India.  India has been the center of origin of 166 species of crop plants  and 320 species of wild relatives of cultivated crops, thereby      providing a broad spectrum of diversity of traits for our crop  plants. 
  139. 139.  Further, India is considered to be the centre  of origin of 30,000 to 50,000 varieties of rice,  pigeon-pea,  mango,  turmeric,  ginger,  sugarcane,  gooseberries,  etc.  and  ranks  seventh  in  terms  of  contribution  to  world  agriculture.   India  is  one  of  the  12  centres  of  origin  of  cultivated plants.
  140. 140.  15. Marine diversity: India also boosts of rich marine biodiversity, along the costline of 7516.5 km with exclusive economic zone of 202 million sq. km, supporting the most productive ecosystems such as mangrooves, estivaries, lagoons and coral reefs.  The number of zooplankton (polychaeta , Crustacea and molluscs ) recorded is about 16,000 species. Over 30 species of marine algae and 14 species of seagrass have been reported.  There are over 45 species of mangroove plants. Over 342 species of corals belonging to 76 genera have been reported and about 50% of the world's reef building corals are found in India.  There are about 93 major wet lands, coral reefs and mangroves which need to be studied in detail. Indian forests cover 64.01 million hectares having a rich biodiversity of plants.  16. India is a signatory to the International conventions like Convention of International Trade on Endangered species (CITES) and Convention of Migratory Species (CMS) which aim at conserving biodiversity.
  141. 141. HOT SPOTS OF BIODIVERSITY  Hotspots are the main areas of focus for biodiversity conservation.  These are the areas that are extremely rich in biodiversity, have high level of endemism, and are under constant threat of species extinctions and habitat destruction.  Areas which exhibit high species richness as well as high species endemism are termed as hot spots of biodiversity.  These hotspots covering less than 2% of the world's land area are found to have about 50% of the terrestrial biodiversity.
  142. 142.  1. Tropical Andes  2. Mesoamerica  3. Caribbean  4. Brazil's Atlantic Forest  5. Choco/Darien/Western Ecuador  6. Brazil's Cerrado  7. Central Chile  8. California Floristic Province  9. Madagascar  10. Eastern Arc and Coastal Forests of Tanzania/Kenya  11. Western African Forests  12. Cape Floristic Province  13. Succulent Karoo
  143. 143.  14. Mediterranean Basin  15. Caucasus  16. Sundaland  17. Wallacea  18. Phillipines  19. Indo-Burma  20. South-Central China  21. Western Gnats/Sri Lanka  22. SW Australia  23. New Caledonia  24. New Zealand  25. Polynesia/Micronesia
  144. 144.  The term was introduced by Norman Myers (1988). Myers et al (2000) recognized 25 hot spots. These are on a global level out of which two are present in India, namely the Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats.  According to Myers et al. (2000) an area is designated as a hotspot when it contains at least 0.5% of the plant species as endemics.  The Indian hot spots are not only rich in floral wealth and endemic species of plants but also reptiles, amphibians, swallow tailed butterflies and some mammals. Nearly 70% of the bird species in this hotspot are endemic.  These are the areas of high diversity, endemism and are also threatened by human activities. About 40% of terrestrial plants and 25% of vertebrate species are endemic and found in these hotspots.
  145. 145.  The 25 hotspots contain 44% of all vascular plant species and 35% of terrestrial vertebrates and encompass only 1.4% of the earths surface.  However, collectively they have lost 88% of their original primary vegetation.  Species in these areas are at risk from extinction if further habitat loss occurs.
  146. 146.  It has been estimated that 50,000 endemic plants, which comprise 20% of global plant life, probably occur in only 18 ‘hotsopts’ in the world.  Countries which have a relatively large proportion of these biodiversity hotspots are referred to as ‘mega- diversity nations.’ Hotspots in India:  Eastern himalayas and western ghats.  These areas are particularly rich in floral wealth and endemism, not only in flowering plants but also in reptiles, amphibians , swallow tailed butterflies, and some mammals.
  147. 147. Eastern Himalayas  The area comprises Nepal, Bhutan, and neighboring states of northern India, along with a continuous sector of the Yunnan province in Southwest china.  All Himalayan forests lie north of the Tropic of Cancer, and some of them are at altitudes of 1780 -3500 m, they can be considered tropical forests .  Many deep and semi isolated valleys are exceptionally rich in endemic plant species, In Sikkim, in an area of 7298 km2 , of the 4250 plant species , 2550 (60%) are endemic..  In Nepal, there are around 7000 plant species, many of which overlap with those of India, Bhutan, and even Yunnan. Of these species, at least 500(8%) are believed to be endemic to Nepal.  Bhutan, possesses an estimated 5000 species, of which as many as 750 (15%) are considered to be endemic to the Eastern Himalayas
  148. 148. Western Ghats:  Out of India’s 49219 plant species , 1600 endemics(40% of the total number of endemics) are found in an 17000km2 along the sea side of the Western Ghats in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala.  Forest track up to 500 in elevation, comprising one – fifth of the entire forest expanse, are mostly evergreen, while those in 500- 1500 m range are semi- evergreen.  There are two main centers of diversity, the Agasthyamalai Hills and the Silent Valley/New Amambalam Reserve Basin.  The forest cover in western Ghats has reduced 34 % from 1972- 1989
  149. 149.  Floral and faunal commonality of India's two hot spots  Although the two areas (the Eastern Himalayas and the Western Ghats) are today disjunct and have their own characteristic flora and fauna, there are a number of species common to both.  Common floral species include Ternstroemia japonica, Rhododendron arboreum, Hypericum hookerianum, Thalictrum javanicum, Cotoneaster buxifolia, Parnassia wightiana, Lonicera ligustrina, Gaultheria fragrantissima, and Symplocos lauriana.  Amongst fauna, the Himalayan and Nilgiri Tahr, the Nilgiri Pine Marten, the Laughing Thrush (associated with the plant genus Rubus), the Great Pied Hornbill (Bicornis homrai), the Frogmouth (Batrachostomus hodgsoni hodgsoni) the Fairy Blue Bird (Irena puella), Lizard Hawks (Accipter spp.), and the Rufous Bellied Hawk-Eagle (Lophotriorchis kienerii) are found in both regions (Khoshoo. 1996)
  150. 150. THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY  Extinction, the elimination of a species, is a normal process in nature.  The rate of extinction, in undisturbed ecosystems, is estimated to be about one species per decade.  In the last many decades, however, human impacts on populations and ecosystems have accelerated that rate, causing hundreds of species, subspecies and varieties to become extinct every year.  And, if the present trends continue, millions of kinds of plants, animals and microbes may be destroyed in the next few decades.
  151. 151.  The causes of extinction are broadly grouped into five risk categories 1.Population Risk: Random variations in population rates (i.e. birth rates and death rates) can cause a species in low abundance to become extinct. It is a risk especially to species that consist of only a single population in one habitat.  For example—blue whales. As they swim over the vast areas of ocean, and if in one year most whales were unsuccessful in finding a mate then births could be dangerously low.
  152. 152. 2. Environmental Risk: Environmental risk means variation in the physical or biological environment, including variations in predator, prey, symbiotic or competitor species. In case of species that are sufficiently rare and isolated, such normal environmental variations can lead to their extinction.  3.Natural Catastrophe: A natural catastrophe is a sudden change in the environment (not as a result of human action). It includes fires, storms, floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, changes in oceanic currents and upwellings, etc. Such a natural catastrophe may cause the local extinction of most forms of life there.  4.Genetic Risk: Deterimental change in genetic characteristics in a small population of a species, due to reduced genetic variation, genetic drift or mutation, makes the species more vulnurable to extinction because it lacks the variety once present or because a mutation that leads to poor health becomes fixed in population.
  153. 153. 5.Human Actions: Human actions cause extinction of species through:  A. Habitat Loss and Degradation: Habitat loss and degradation are the major proximate causes of species extinction, affecting 89% of all threatened birds, 83% of mammals and 91% of all threatened plants assessed globally .  The main causes of habitat loss are agricultural activities, harvesting or extraction (including mining, fishing, logging, etc.) and development of human settlements, industry and associated infrastructure.
  154. 154.  B. Habitat Fragmentation: It is a process where a large, continuous area of habitat is both, reduced in area and divided into two or more fragments.  Habitat fragmention may take place due to the development of roads, towers, canals, fields, industries, etc. in an original large habitat
  155. 155.  C. Diseases: Pathogens, or disease organisms, may also be considered Predators. The incidence of disease in wild species may increase due to human activities.  D. Genetic Assimilation : Some rare and endangered species are threatened by genetic assimilation because they crossbreed with closely related species that are more numerous or more vigorous
  156. 156.  E. Pollution: Environmental pollution is the most subtle form of habitat degradation.  The most common causes of which are pesticides, industrial effluents and emissions, and emission from automobiles.  F. Poaching: Poaching is another insidious threat that has emerged in recent decades as one of the primary reasons for the decline in number of species.
  157. 157.  G. Introduction of Exotic Species: Organisms introduced into habitats where they are not native are termed as exotics.  They can be thought of as biological pollutants and are considered to be among the most damaging agents of habitat alteration and degradation in the world
  158. 158. Man-Animal Conflict  A major problem associated with the conservation of wild animals especially the herbivores like elephants in India is that of crop depredation and man-slaughter.  Animals such as elephants, gaur, sambar, wild boar and birds like peacock, cause extensive damage to the crops.  This phenomenon has registered significant increase in recent years due to habitat fragmentation and degradation of natural forests and corridors.
  159. 159.  Instances of man animal conflicts keep on coming to lime light from several states in our country.  In Sambalpur, Orissa 195 humans were killed in the last 5 years by elephants.  In retaliation the villagers killed 98 elephants and badly injured 30 elephants.  Several instances of killing of elephants in the border regions of Kote - Chamarajanagar belt in Mysore have been reported recently.
  161. 161. ENDANGERED SPECIES OF INDIA  The International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) maintains what may be called a 'Red Database' at the World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCMC) in which information on endangered and vulnerable species of plants and animals is kept.  From time to time, this database is translated into popular form and published as 'Red Data Books'.  The red data symbolizes the warning signal for those species which are endangered and if not protected are likely to become extinct in near future.
  162. 162. Red Data Books
  163. 163.  In India, nearly 450 plant species have been identified in the categories of endangered, threatened or rare.  Existence of about 150 mammals and 150 species of birds is estimated to be threatened while an unknown number of species of insects are endangered.  It may not be of direct relevance here to give a complete list of endangered flora and fauna of our country.
  164. 164.  However, a few species of endangered reptiles, birds, mammals and plants are given below:  (a)Reptiles: Gharial, green sea turtle, tortoise, python  (b)Birds: Great Indian bustard, Peacock, Pelican, Great Indian Hornbill, Siberian White Crane  (c)Carnivorous:Indian wolf, red fox, Sloth bear, red panda, Mammals tiger, leopard, striped hyena, Indian lion, golden cat, desert cat, dugong  (d)Primates: Hoolock gibbon, lion-tailed macaque, Nilgiri langur, Capped monkey, golden monkey  (e) Plants: A large number of species of orchids, Rhododendrons, medicinal plants like Rauwolfia serpentina, the sandal wood tree Santalum, Cycas beddomei etc.
  165. 165. Reptiles- Gharial
  166. 166. peacock PelicanPelican PelicanPelican
  167. 167. Indian Tiger leopard
  168. 168. Indian Lion Red Fox
  169. 169. Great Indian Bustard
  170. 170. Siberian White Crane
  171. 171. Capped monkeyCapped monkey golden monkeygolden monkey
  172. 172. Rhododendrons
  173. 173. Rauwolfia serpentina, Cycas beddomei
  174. 174.  (i) Endangered Species : A species is said to be endangered when its number has been reduced to a critical level or whose habitats, have been drastically reduced and if such a species is not protected and conserved, it is in immediate danger of extinction.  (ii) Vulnerable Species : The species that are under threat such that they may have to be classified as endangered in the near future if causal factors continue to operate.  These include species whose populations have been seriously depleted and whose ultimate security is not assured, as well as those species whose populations are still abundant but are under threat throughout their range.
  175. 175.  (iii) Rare Species : These are species with small total population size in the world. In their distribution, they are usually localized within restricted habitats or geographical area or are thinly scattered over an extensive range.  It is necessary to mention here that a species that is rare is not necessarily in danger of becoming extinct ; some species, like the whooping crane, are naturally rare.  However, rarity does raise concerns about the possibility of extinction. Rare species, thus, are not at present endangered and , vulnerable but are at risks.  (iv) Threatened Species : The term 'threatened' is used in the context of conservation of the species which are in any one of the above three categories.  These are species that have declined significantly in total numbers and may be on the verge of extinction in certain localities.
  176. 176.  ENDEMIC SPECIES OF INDIA:  Endemics are species that are found in a single locality/area and nowhere else in the world.  They, thus, have a value in their uniqueness.  The endemism of Indian biodiversity is quite high.  About 33% of the country's flora are endemic to the country and are concentrated mainly in the North- East, Western Ghats, North-West Himalaya and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.  Out of about 47,000 species of plants in our country 7000 are endemic.
  177. 177. CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY  The enormous value of biodiversity due to their genetic, commercial, medical, aesthetic, ecological and optional importance emphasizes the need to conserve biodiversity.
  178. 178.  Definition : The act or process of conserving. The protection, preservation, management, or restoration of wildlife and of natural resources such as forests, soil, and water.  Conservation is defined as 'the management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generation while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations'.
  179. 179.  There are two approaches of biodiversity conservation:  In situ conservation (within habitat): This is achieved by protection of wild flora and fauna in nature itself, e.g. Biosphere Reserves, National Parks, Sanctuaries, Reserve Forests etc.  Ex situ conservation (outside habitats) This is done by establishment of gene banks, seed banks, zoos, botanical gardens, culture collections etc.
  180. 180. Ex-situ Conservation:  This type of conservation is mainly done for conservation of crop varieties, the wild relatives of crops and all the local varieties with the main objective of conserving the total genetic variability of the crop species for future crop improvement or afforestation programmes.  In India, we have the following important gene bank/seed bank facilities:  (i) National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) is located in New Delhi. Here agricultural and horticultural crops and their wild relatives are preserved by cryo-preservation of seeds, pollen etc. by using liquid nitrogen at a temperature as low as -196 °C.  Varieties of rice, pearl millet, Brassica, turnip, radish, tomato, onion, carrot, chilli, tobacco, poppy etc. have been preserved successfully in liquid nitrogen for several years without losing seed viability.
  181. 181.  (ii) National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR) located at Karnal, Haryana. It preserves the semen of domesticated bovine animals.  (iii) National Facility for Plant Tissue Culture Repository (NFPTCR) for the development of a facility of conservation of varieties of crop plants/trees by tissue culture. This facility has been created within the NBPGR.
  182. 182. Seed Bank
  183. 183.  Endangered animal species are preserved using similar techniques.  The genetic information needed in the future to reproduce endangered animal species can be preserved in genebanks, which consist of cryogenic facilities used to store living sperm, eggs, or embryos.  The Zoological Society of San Diego has established a "frozen zoo" to store such samples from more than 355 species, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
  184. 184. Frozen Zoo