An introduction to thespatial correlation between human   population and biodiversity           Marco Pautasso,         Di...
Random sample of 100 papers per year   on ‘species richness’ in WOS (1991-2004)from: Lonsdale et al. (2008) European Journ...
Global biodiversity patterns: vascular plantsfrom Barthlott et al. (2007) Erdkunde
Global human population density patternsfrom Small & Cohen (2004) Current Anthropology
Species-people correlation in Europe    plants                     birdsfrom Araujo (2003)    sppGlobal Ecology &Biogeogra...
A positive species-people correlation                            for vascular plants in US counties                       ...
Sampling bias?from: Pautasso & McKinney (2007) Conservation Biology
US counties with (•) or without (o)            Universities and/or Botanical Gardens                 • N = 692, r2 = 0.13,...
number of passengers per dayfrom: Hufnagel, Brockmann & Geisel (2004) PNAS
Active conservation?                                  Cupressus                              Quercus robur, Udine         ...
(b)              Monumental trees in Italy’s regions and provinces(a) 3                                                   ...
Species introductions?              Trace forward/back zipcode              Positive (Phytophthora ramorum) site          ...
Sudden Oak Death in Californiafrom Desprez-Loustau et al. (2007) Trends in Ecology & Evolution
Living collections of the world’s botanical gardens                                                                (c)(a) ...
Both species and people correlate with productivity?(a) vascular plant species richness                        (b) terrest...
Take-home message1) the scale-dependence of the species-people   correlation has implications for conservation,   2) a pos...
AcknowledgementsPeter Weisberg,Univ. of Nevada,      Joel                                        Ingrid                   ...
ReferencesBarbosa AM, Fontaneto D, Marini L & Pautasso M (2010) Positive regional species–people correlations: a sampling ...
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An introduction to the correlation between biodiversity and human population

  1. 1. An introduction to thespatial correlation between human population and biodiversity Marco Pautasso, Division of Biology, Imperial College London, Silwood Campus, UK 22 April 2008, Oxford (UK)
  2. 2. Random sample of 100 papers per year on ‘species richness’ in WOS (1991-2004)from: Lonsdale et al. (2008) European Journal of Forest Research
  3. 3. Global biodiversity patterns: vascular plantsfrom Barthlott et al. (2007) Erdkunde
  4. 4. Global human population density patternsfrom Small & Cohen (2004) Current Anthropology
  5. 5. Species-people correlation in Europe plants birdsfrom Araujo (2003) sppGlobal Ecology &Biogeography people
  6. 6. A positive species-people correlation for vascular plants in US counties 4 log10 vascular plant spp richness (n) 2 n = 2877, r = 0.18, y = 1.75+ 0.22x, p < 0.0001 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 log10 human population size (n)Data from the Synthesis of the North American Flora, Ohio and Virginia not included
  7. 7. Sampling bias?from: Pautasso & McKinney (2007) Conservation Biology
  8. 8. US counties with (•) or without (o) Universities and/or Botanical Gardens • N = 692, r2 = 0.13, y = 2.15 (SE = 0.08) + 0.15 (SE = 0.01) x, p < 0.0001 o N = 2187, r2 = 0.10, y = 2.18 (SE = 0.05) + 0.15 (SE = 0.01) x, p < 0.0001from: Pautasso & McKinney (2007) Conservation Biology
  9. 9. number of passengers per dayfrom: Hufnagel, Brockmann & Geisel (2004) PNAS
  10. 10. Active conservation? Cupressus Quercus robur, Udine sempervirens, ForliCeltis australis, San Gimignano Castanea sativa, St. Alfio, Sicily people / km2Quercus cerris,Amatrice, Latium Photos of veteran trees courtesy of G. Bortolotti; Map of human population density from Swiss Federal Statistical Office no information
  11. 11. (b) Monumental trees in Italy’s regions and provinces(a) 3 (c) 2 (c) log10 veteran tree individuals log10 veteran tree species 2 1 1 2 2 y = -1.99 + 0.58x, r = 0.56, p < 0.0001 y = -1.70 + 0.47x, r = 0.69, p < 0.0001 0 0 4 5 6 7 8 4 5 6 7 8 log10 region human population size log10 region human population size(b)(b) (d) 2 2 2 (c) y = -2.98 + 0.68x, r = 0.13, p < 0.0001 2 y = -2.03 + 0.49x, r = 0.15, p < 0.0001log10 veteran tree individuals log10 veteran tree species 1 1 0 0 4 5 6 7 4 5 6 7 log 10 province human population size log10 province human population size a & b: abundance, c & d: spp richness, a & c: regions; b & d: provinces; from: Pautasso & Chiarucci (2008) Annals of Botany
  12. 12. Species introductions? Trace forward/back zipcode Positive (Phytophthora ramorum) site Hold releasedSource: United States Department of Agriculture, 2004Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine
  13. 13. Sudden Oak Death in Californiafrom Desprez-Loustau et al. (2007) Trends in Ecology & Evolution
  14. 14. Living collections of the world’s botanical gardens (c)(a) (c) log10 spp richness (n) (d) (yr) (b) (d)from: Pautasso & Parmentier (2007) Botanica Helvetica
  15. 15. Both species and people correlate with productivity?(a) vascular plant species richness (b) terrestrial net primary productivity NPP (g C yr-1 m-2)(c) spp-people correlation human-appropriated net primary productivity (d) (plants on islands)(a) from: Kreft et al. (2008) Ecology Letters, (b) from Cramer et al. (1999) Global Change Biology(c) from: Kreft & Pautasso (in preparation), (d) from Imhoff et al. (2004) Nature
  16. 16. Take-home message1) the scale-dependence of the species-people correlation has implications for conservation, 2) a positive spp-people correlation could be due to i) sampling bias, (ii) active conservation, and (iii) species introductions, 3) but its most plausible/frequent explanation is a correlation of both people and spp richness with environmental productivity
  17. 17. AcknowledgementsPeter Weisberg,Univ. of Nevada, Joel Ingrid Cohen, Kevin Parmentier, Reno, US Gaston, Rockefeller Univ. of Univ., US Univ. of Mike Jeger, Bruxelles, Sheffield Imperial College, Belgium Silwood Park Mike McKinney, Univ. ofHolger Kreft, Tennessee, US Ottmar Alessandro ChiarucciUniv. of California, Holdenrieder, Univ. of Siena, ItalySan Diego, US ETHZ, CH
  18. 18. ReferencesBarbosa AM, Fontaneto D, Marini L & Pautasso M (2010) Positive regional species–people correlations: a sampling artefact ora key issue for sustainable development? Animal Conservation 13: 446-447Cantarello E, Steck CE, Fontana P, Fontaneto D, Marini L & Pautasso M (2010) A multi-scale study of Orthoptera speciesrichness and human population size controlling for sampling effort. Naturwissenschaften 97: 265-271Chiari C, Dinetti M, Licciardello C, Licitra G & Pautasso M (2010) Urbanization and the more-individuals hypothesis. Journal ofAnimal Ecology 79: 366-371Dehnen-Schmutz K, Holdenrieder O, Jeger MJ & Pautasso M (2010) Structural change in the international horticultural industry:some implications for plant health. Scientia Horticulturae 125: 1-15Golding J, Güsewell S, Kreft H, Kuzevanov VY, Lehvävirta S, Parmentier I & Pautasso M (2010) Species-richness patterns ofthe living collections of the worlds botanic gardens: a matter of socio-economics? Annals of Botany 105: 689-696Pautasso M (2009) Geographical genetics and the conservation of forest trees. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Systematics andEvolution 11: 157-189Pautasso M & Dinetti M (2009) Avian species richness, human population and protected areas across Italy’s regions.Environmental Conservation 36: 22-31Pautasso M & McKinney ML (2007) The botanist effect revisited: plant species richness, county area and human populationsize in the US. Conservation Biology 21, 5: 1333-1340Pautasso M & Parmentier I (2007) Are the living collections of the world’s botanical gardens following species-richness patternsobserved in natural ecosystems? Botanica Helvetica 117: 15-28Pautasso M & Powell G (2009) Aphid biodiversity is correlated with human population in European countries. Oecologia 160:839-846Pautasso M & Zotti M (2009) Macrofungal taxa and human population in Italys regions. Biodiversity & Conservation 18: 473-485Pecher C, Fritz S, Marini L, Fontaneto D & Pautasso M (2010) Scale-dependence of the correlation between human populationand the species richness of stream macroinvertebrates. Basic Applied Ecology 11: 272-280

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