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Biodiversity conservation


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Biodiversity conservation

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  2. 2. Didus ineptus
  3. 3. Oxford University Museum of Natural History
  4. 4. Biodiversity is Short for Biological Diversity The presence of air and water makes life possible on the earth.
  5. 5. How do we Define Biodiversity? Biodiversity includes all organisms, species, and populations; the genetic variation among these; and all their complex assemblages of communities and ecosystems. It also refers to the inter-relatedness of genes, species, & ecosystems and their interactions with the environment.
  6. 6. Biodiversity is studied in three different levels : Genetic Species Ecological
  7. 7. Genetic diversity It is the variation in Genes in a particular Species. This difference has given us beautiful Butterflies, Roses etc.
  8. 8. Species diversity It refers to the variety of living organisms that has evolved on the Earth
  9. 9. Hangul Deer
  10. 10. Black Buck
  11. 11. Ecosystem diversity This refers to the variety of habitats which includes climate, vegetation and geography of a region. Forests Deserts Wetlands Oceanic
  12. 12. Frozen Polar Ice caps
  13. 13. Genetic diversity is all the different genes contained in all individual plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms. Species diversity is all the differences within and between populations of species, as well as between different species. Ecosystem diversity is all the different habitats, biological communities, and ecological processes, as well as variation within individual ecosystems.
  14. 14. Just how many species do we really have?
  15. 15. Global Biodiversity [All figures in thousands] S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 TAXA Viruses Bacteria Fungi Protozoa & Algae Plants Nematodes Insects Mollusks Chordates Species described Estimate [High] Estimate [Low] Working Figure 4 4 72 80 1,000 3,000 2,700 1,200 50 50 200 210 400 1,000 1,500 600 270 15 950 70 45 500 1,000 100,000 200 55 300 100 2,000 100 50 320 400 8,000 200 500
  16. 16. Global Biodiversity
  17. 17. Evolution & Biodiversity? Natural Processes can put species at risk from Extinction Logically the species evolve, and are ultimately destined to die out to extinction. Species with small populations and with limited ranges are more vulnerable. Extinction of widespread species is caused following Environmental first strike and favored by stresses outside normal ranges. But the current rate of extinction of species is much higher than that existed in the past.
  18. 18. NATURAL CAUSES FOR LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY • • • • • • • Floods Earthquakes Landslides Natural competition between species Lack of pollination Diseases Meteorite strike
  19. 19. What are the Threats to Biodiversity? The loss of biodiversity is a significant issue for scientists and policy-makers and the topic is finding its way into living rooms and classrooms. Species are becoming extinct at the fastest rate known in geological history and most of these extinctions have been tied to human activity
  20. 20. MAN-MADE CAUSES FOR LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY • • • • • Destruction of Habitat Pollution Hunting Indiscriminate use of Toxic chemicals Genetic Erosion
  21. 21. Threats to Biodiversity 1 Habitat loss and destruction : Deforestation Usually as a direct result of human activity and population growth, is a major force in the loss of species, populations, and ecosystems.
  22. 22. Industrialisation
  23. 23. Urbanisation
  24. 24. Genetic Erosion
  25. 25. Biodiversity of Maize/Corn
  26. 26. NAFTA : Corn : Maize Conflict United States Mexico <200 332 Production in Mill. MT 20. 2 (80% GM) Varieties >50,000 Varieties contributing 80% of Net Crop 08 35 (10 with>5%) 110 $/MT Cost of Production 210 $/MT $262/ha Crop Subsidy $90/ha +80% Post NAFTA subsidy -28% Post NAFTA Maxican imports 323 % Post NAFTA Maxican Sale Price - 48% Loss of Jobs & Food security in Mexico
  27. 27. NAFTA : Corn - Maize Conflict United States : Mexico #1 Global Position #4 50% Live stock feed 15% 40 % Bio Ethanol 10 % 10% Exports 05% 03 % Human Consumption 68 % 09% Starch, Corn Oil, Sweetener 03% Transmigration of young people Rise on Crimes & Narcotics Collapse of Economy & Agriculture
  28. 28. Threats to Biodiversity Alterations in ecosystem composition such as the loss or decline of a species, can lead to a loss of biodiversity. Elimination of coyotes in the canyons of southern California are linked to decreases in song bird populations.
  29. 29. Threats to Biodiversity The introduction of exotic (non-native) species can disrupt entire ecosystems and impact populations of native plants or animals. These invaders can adversely affect native species by eating them, infecting them, competing with them, or mating with them.
  30. 30. Threats to Biodiversity The over-exploitation (over-hunting, over-fishing, or over-collecting) of a species or population can lead to its demise.
  31. 31. Threats to Biodiversity Trade in wild life Timber - 100,000 Billion $ Fisheries - 50,000 Billion $ Mammal Furs - 750 Million $ Ornamental Plants-250 Mil. $ Edible snails - 460 Million $ Illegal Trade 5 to 8,000 Billion $/Y
  32. 32. Threats to Biodiversity 7 Global Warming induced Climate change can alter environmental conditions. Species and populations may be lost if they are unable to adapt to new conditions or relocate.
  33. 33. Medicine Ecosystem Services Biotechnology Environmental Monitoring Food & Crop Security Recreation & Aesthetics Pets & Domestic animals Political & Social issues Ecosystem Security & Resilience
  34. 34. Biogeographic region that is both a significant reservoir of Biodiversity and is threatened with destruction
  35. 35. MEGADIVERSE NATIONS Biodiversity is not evenly distributed among the world’s countries. Only 12 countries lying partly or entirely in the tropics account for 60% to 70% of the world’s biodiversity. These include Australia, Brazil, China, Columbia, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, and Zaire.
  36. 36. MEGADIVERSE NATIONS Countries No of Mammals No of birds No of reptiles No of amphibians Australia 255 - 686 197 Brazil 428 622 467 516 China 394 1195 270 265 Columbia 359 1721 383 407 Ecuador 280 1447 345 358 India 350 1200 353 197 Indonesia 515 1519 600 270 - 250 269 144 Malaysia 293 1200 294 171 Mexico 449 1010 717 282 Peru 361 1703 297 251 Zaire 409 1 086 280 216 Madagascar
  37. 37. HOTSPOTS OF BIODIVERSITY Hotspots are regions that harbor a great diversity of endemic species (species limited to a specific geographical area) and at the same time have been significantly impacted and altered by human activities. To qualify as a Hotspot, a region must support 1500 endemic plant species or 0.5% of the global total and it must have lost more than 70% of it’s original habitat.
  38. 38. One of the 12 Mega biodiversity country Has 02 World’s Biodiversity Hot Spots 8% of World’s Biodiversity 81,000 Animal Species 45,000 Plant Species (6000 endemic) 50% of World’s Tigers 100% Asiatic Lions
  39. 39. Rate of Extinction of Species • 90 vertebrate species have become extinct in every century. • 1 species of higher plants has become extinct in every 27 years. • 75% of birds & mammals have become extinct in recent years were island dwelling species. • It is estimated that ¼ th world’s biodiversity is under risk of extinction in next 20-30 years. • In last 40 yrs, 120 species of mammals & 225 of birds have become extinct in the world.
  40. 40. Some Endangered Birds & Animals • • • • • • • Lesser florican Great Indian bustard Nilgiri tahr One horned rhino Lion-tailed macaque Asiatic lion Tiger
  41. 41. Lesser florican Saras crain
  42. 42. Great Indian bustard
  43. 43. Nilgiri tahr
  44. 44. One horned rhino
  45. 45. Lion-tailed macaque
  46. 46. Asiatic lion
  47. 47. Tiger
  48. 48. Environmental Ethos & Concerns are inherent to Indian Psyche Our religious scriptures , our customs & traditions, and code of conduct [Dharma] are richly entwined with love, concern & compassion to all the fellow living beings with whom we share this beautiful Planet
  49. 49. BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION After studying the need for biodiversity and the loss of biodiversity it becomes evident that ultimately the survival of the Human race itself is threatened. Therefore the conservation of biological diversity is of paramount importance to the survival of man and only he can initiate and sustain a strategy for the same.
  50. 50. CULTURE & BIODIVERSITY Traditional beliefs and practices have helped to preserve flora and fauna in certain areas- in their glory. Nature worship is a tribal belief based on the premise that all creations of nature have to be protected. The Mundas and the Santhals of Bihar worship Mahua ad Kadamba trees and the tribals of Orissa worship the Tamarind and Mango trees during weddings. Banyan tree is considered sacred in India.
  51. 51. Biodiversity conservation Treaties Ramsar Convention, 1971 [Wetlands] -146 countries World Heritage Convention (WHC), 1972 [Cultural & Natural Heritage] -180 countries Convention on international Trade in endangered species of Wild flora & Fauna (CITES), 1973 [endangered species ] -166 countries Convention on conservation of Migratory species of wild animals (CCMS), 1979 & 2005 [Migratory species ] -90 countries Convention on Law of the Seas (UNCLOS),1971 [Marine Life] -146 countries
  52. 52. BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION • Ex- situ conservation- conserving biodiversity outside the areas where they naturally occur is known as ex-situ conservation. Here animals and plants are reared or cultivated in areas like Zoological or Botanical parks. • In-situ conservation- conserving the animals and plants in their natural habitats is known as in-situ conservation. E.g. Sanctuaries, national parks, reserved forests, biosphere reserves etc.
  53. 53. Projects to save Threatened species • • • • • • • • Project Tiger- initiated in 1973 with 9 tiger reserves Crocodile Breeding Proj-started in 1975 with UNDP Lesser Cats Project – launched in 1976 with WWF Manipur Brow-antlered deer Proj- launched in 1981 Project Elephant- launched in 1991 Project Rhino- launched in 1987 in Kaziranga. Himalayan musk deer project- launched in 1981 Project Hangul - launched in 1970 in Kashmir valley
  54. 54. Conservation Protecting the environment is everyone’s responsibility. There is an increased awareness among the people towards conservation of ecology. Greenpeace movement has resulted in ban on whaling. Chipko movement by Sunderlal Bahuguna and later by Chandiprasad Bhatt stopped felling trees in parts of Himalayas. In our own small way each of us can contribute to conserving biodiversity in one form or other.
  55. 55. Conservation – Every body's Concern People’s movement Some of the activities in environment conservation include : • Holding rallies for mass awareness on deforestation, construction of Dams or factories in sensitive areas. • Spreading awareness through mass media like TV radio and publications. • Creating awareness through environmental training programme, folk art media like street plays etc. • Introducing Environmental legislation to tackle the sensitive environmental issues. • Mass movement like Chipko, Appiko,Beej Bachao Andolan etc.
  56. 56. Greenpeace movement
  57. 57. Chipko movement [Appiko]
  58. 58. Crop Bio diversity conservation
  59. 59. What can we do to save biodiversity ? • Reject products made of animal parts like skin, fur, ivory, bones, nails etc. • Adopt vegetarianism to reduce animal slaughtering and more plants to be grown for food. • Plant trees wherever possible as they are beneficial. • Avoid insecticides, pesticides & chemical fertilizers. • Recycle the waste like paper, glass and plastic. • Follow environment friendly agricultural practices. • Make use of sustainable technologies [improved chulhas, wind energy, solar power, ground water recharging etc. ]
  60. 60. When will We Realize? Till when last river is polluted Till when last lake is dried-up Till when last game is hunted down Till when last tree is chopped off We will not realize that The money can’t be eaten
  61. 61. What do we leave for our children?