Structure of organic compounds


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  • Identify the important facts regarding inorganic molecules.
  • Have students differentiate between organic and inorganic compounds.
  • The images at the bottom are examples of monomers. Explain to the students that fructose is a simple sugar. The string of beads are also an example of monomers. As the beads are all the same in the string.
  • Compare the structure of the monomers to the polymers. Use the InterWrite tablet to identify the bonds for students.
  • Use the interactive links to show the diagrams of each functional group.
  • Use InterWrite tablet to a place circle around the functional group.
  • Identify the double bonds, in the carboxyl group.
  • Circle the hydroxyl group in the sugar molecule. Use the InterWrite tablets.
  • Students are to list all of the reasons why macromolecules are essential to life on their Cornell note sheet. Please allow time for this.
  • Emphasize the importance of carbohydrates to living things.
  • Use image to discuss the structure of the two simple sugars and their molecular formula C 6 H 12 O 6. Use the InterWrite tablet to circle the functional group.
  • Differentiate between the simple sugars and the complex sugar. Again, emphasize the structure and molecular formula C 12 H 22 O 11. Use the InterWrite tablets to circle the functional group.
  • Identify the structure of the polysaccharide. Highlight for students how the long chains of monomers form this polymer. Also, use the InterWrite tablets to circle the functional group.
  • Emphasize the three types of lipids. Click link for glycerol and fatty acids to show a diagram of the two structures. Use InterWrite tablets to circle the functional group.
  • Discuss the differences between the glycerol and the fatty acids chain.
  • Identify the functions of the lipids. Make sure students have the same information on their Cornell note sheet.
  • Use this slide to discuss the hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends of the lipid molecule. The link will also take you to an image of the phospholipid bilayer.
  • Explain to the students how the phosholipid bilayer works.
  • Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fats.
  • Explain the structure.
  • Identify the functions of proteins.
  • Additional functions for review. Use the link to an example of three different types of amino acids and a peptide bond.
  • Identify the three amino acids. Explain how they come together to form the peptide bond.
  • This slide is optional. Use if you would like your students to have this additional information regarding proteins. It is also linked to examples of each type of protein.
  • Optional
  • Optional
  • Structure of organic compounds

    1. 1. Biochemistry• Study of chemical composition and reactions occurring in living matter• Inorganic Compounds • Do not contain carbon • Exceptions - CO2, CO, bicarbonates • Water is the most abundant and important inorganic material, making up 60% - 80% of all cells and 2/3 of body weight
    2. 2. Organic Compounds• Contain the element carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.• Carbon is found in things that are or once were living.• Carbon atoms share electrons to form covalent bonds.
    3. 3. Organic Compounds• Organic compounds are composed of hundreds to thousands of individual molecules. – The single molecules in a polymer are called monomers.
    4. 4. Organic Compounds• The long molecules formed by repeating patterns of monomers are called polymers.
    5. 5. Functional Groups• A functional group is a group of atoms that characterize the structure of a family of organic compounds.• Functional groups determine many of the properties of organic compounds.• 3 Types to Know: Amine (NH2), Carboxyl (COOH), Hydroxyl (OH).
    6. 6. Amine GroupN-H2 Functional Groups
    7. 7. Carboxyl GroupCOOH Functional Groups
    8. 8. Hydroxyl GroupOH Functional Groups
    9. 9. Macromolecules• 4 Types of Organic Compounds or macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. – Essential to maintaining life processes: cell function, storage, energy, homeostasis and genetic information.
    10. 10. Carbohydrates• Make up sugars and • The ratio of the atoms starches is 1 C : 2 H : 1 O• Contain a hydroxyl • Provide energy to the (OH) group cells.• Contain atoms of • Dissolve in water carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. (hydrophilic)
    11. 11. Types of Carbohydrates• Carbohydrates are classified according to size. • One sugar is a monosaccharide (monomer). • Two sugars make a disaccharide. • Many sugar molecules linked together form a polysaccharide (polymer).
    12. 12. MonosaccharideMilk Sugar Fruit Sugar Types of Carbs
    13. 13. DisaccharideMaltose is two glucose molecules; forms in digestive tract of humans during starch digestion. Types of Carbs
    14. 14. PolysaccharideStarch is straight chain of glucose molecules with few side branches. Types of Carbs
    15. 15. Lipids• The three types of • Glycerol contains the lipids are fats, oils, hydroxyl (OH) group. and waxes. • Fatty acids contain• Contain carbon, the carboxyl (COOH) hydrogen, and group. oxygen• Typically contain two monomers – glycerol and fatty acids
    16. 16. Monomers in Lipids Lipids
    17. 17. Functions of Lipids• Lipids store energy • Lipids do not for later use by the dissolve in water body. (hydrophobic), but• Lipids also serve may contain parts as padding and that can dissolve in protection for the water. body. • The H : O ratio is higher in lipids than it is in carbohydrates.
    18. 18. Structure of a Lipid• Dissolves in water ( hydrophilic)• Does not dissolve in water (hydrophobic)
    19. 19. Phospholipid• Found in cell membranes – Head is the phosphate group. • Hydrophilic – Tails are the fatty acids. • Hydrophobic
    20. 20. Fatty Acids• Long chains of carbon atoms with attached hydrogen atoms (hydrocarbons)• Saturated fats contain only single bonds between the carbon atoms.• Unsaturated fats contain one or more double or triple bonds between the carbon atoms.
    21. 21. Saturated & Unsaturated Fats
    22. 22. Proteins• Proteins are the building materials for the body. – Hair, skin, muscles, and organs are made mostly of proteins.• Composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen• Contain amine (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) groups
    23. 23. Function of Proteins• The building blocks of • Amino acid chains are proteins are amino acids called polypeptides. (monomers). • A protein contains one or• Serve as enzymes which more polypeptide chains. control rate of reactions and regulate cell processes.• Amino acids are connected by a special type of bond called a peptide bond.
    24. 24. Amino Acids Function of Proteins
    25. 25. Types of Proteins• There are two types of proteins – fibrous and globular.• Fibrous protein (found in skin, tendons, bones, and muscles) does not dissolve in water (hydrophobic).• Globular protein (found in enzymes, some hormones, and hemoglobin) can dissolve in water (hydrophilic).
    26. 26. Fibrous Proteins• Keratins are a family of fibrous structural proteins ; tough and insoluble, they form the hard but nonmineralized structures found in reptiles, birds, amphibians and mammals. Types of Proteins
    27. 27. Globular Proteins• Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e. accelerate) chemical reactions.• Almost all processes in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at significant rates. Types of Proteins