G & D Ch. 11

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Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood

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G & D Ch. 11

  1. 1. CHAPTER 11 Physical & Cognitive, Development in Early Adulthood
  2. 2. Physical Development & Stress <ul><li>Senescence </li></ul><ul><li>The natural physical decline brought about by aging </li></ul><ul><li>Certain parts of the body don’t fully mature until early adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Brain wave patterns change in early adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>The senses are as sharp as they’ll ever be </li></ul>
  3. 3. Going to College <ul><li>Common marker of adulthood is completing one’s education </li></ul><ul><li>65% of high school graduates go to college </li></ul><ul><li>Returning adult students: students who are over age 25 in college </li></ul>
  4. 4. Going to College <ul><li>Primarily white & middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Minorities increasing in population </li></ul><ul><li>More women than men enrolled </li></ul><ul><li>Degree is important to get a good job </li></ul><ul><li>First-year adjustment reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Loneliness, anxiety, withdrawal, & depression </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice & discrimination of women </li></ul><ul><li>Academic disidentification </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of personal identification with academic domain reason women & minorities perform less well </li></ul><ul><li>Only 63% graduate </li></ul><ul><li>Expense, personal problems, academic difficulties, lack of maturity </li></ul>
  5. 5. Physical Development & Health <ul><li>Growth, Strength, & Physical Functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Physical strength of both sexes peaks in late 20s & early 30s </li></ul><ul><li>Declines throughout life </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory acuity at peak in early 20s </li></ul><ul><li>Visual acuity high until middle age </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing declines somewhat in late 20s esp. high pitches </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Death in early 20s from disease rare </li></ul><ul><li>death from accidents leading cause </li></ul><ul><li>cancer, cardiovascular, suicide, AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Young adult men 25 – 34 are 2.5 times as likely to die as women of same age </li></ul><ul><li>Men most likely to die in auto accidents; women from cancer </li></ul><ul><li>African American & Latino young adult males 2 to 2.5 times as likely to die as European American male counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>Asian & Pacific Islander young adult males likely to die at only half the rate of European Americans </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nutrition <ul><li>Nutrition affects mental, emotional, & physical functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Diet linked to cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, anemia, digestive disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional requirements change throughout life </li></ul><ul><li>Change due mainly to differences in metabolism : how much energy the body needs </li></ul><ul><li>Body mass index (BMI): </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio of body weight & height related to body fat </li></ul><ul><li>Related to serious medical conditions & mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Higher the BMI, higher risk of disease </li></ul>
  7. 7. Advantages to Exercise <ul><li>Largely upper- & middle classes </li></ul><ul><li>1. Increases cardiovascular fitness </li></ul><ul><li>2. Increases lung capacity </li></ul><ul><li>3. Strengthens muscles </li></ul><ul><li>4. More flexible body </li></ul><ul><li>5. Reduces osteoporosis in later life </li></ul><ul><li>6. Optimizes the immune system </li></ul><ul><li>7. Decreases stress, anxiety, & depression </li></ul><ul><li>8. Increases sense of control & feelings of accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>9. Increases longevity </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lifestyle Factors <ul><li>Alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking no more than 2 glasses of wine per day lowers risk of stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Binge drinking: consuming 5 or more drinks in arrow for men & 4 or more for women </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 13 adults in U.S. abuse or are alcoholic </li></ul><ul><li>More men than women with alcohol-related problems </li></ul><ul><li>Addiction </li></ul><ul><li>Physical dependence on alcohol & experience withdrawal symptoms when not drinking </li></ul><ul><li>When body’s cells find substance necessary, dependence occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol alters balance of some bio-chemicals in the brain increasing desire </li></ul><ul><li>Included are GABA, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, opioid peptides, & glutamate </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lifestyle Factors <ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><li>430,000 people die each year from smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Medical treatment of smoking-related ailments cost over $100 billion annually </li></ul><ul><li>Risks of smoking: cancer of lungs, kidney, pancreas, & cervix; emphysema; cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking during pregnancy causes stillbirth, low birth weight, or perinatal death </li></ul><ul><li>2nd-hand smoke </li></ul><ul><li>3000 die from lung cancer, 62,000 from cardiovascular disease, lung problems for children </li></ul><ul><li>Quitting smoking has many health benefits </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sexual Orientation & Behavior <ul><li>Heterosexuality </li></ul><ul><li>Most people are rather conservative in their sexual attitudes and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage & monogamy is the rule form most Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Gays & Lesbians </li></ul><ul><li>Many gays & lesbians are developing a “bicultural identity” in their definitions of themselves: They adapt in the best ways they can </li></ul><ul><li>Lesbians are less casual about sex than gays </li></ul>
  11. 11. STIs & STDs
  12. 12. STIs & STDs <ul><li>Sexually transmitted infections are primarily transmited through sexual contact </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 6 affected in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 5 adolescents are infected </li></ul><ul><li>1. Know your & your partner’s risk status </li></ul><ul><li>2. Get medical examinations </li></ul><ul><li>3. Have PROTECTED sex </li></ul><ul><li>4. Don’t have sex with multiple partners </li></ul>
  13. 13. Forcible Sex & Sexual Harassment <ul><li>Rape </li></ul><ul><li>Forcible sexual intercourse with a non-consenting person </li></ul><ul><li>8 of every 10,000 women over 12 years are raped every year </li></ul><ul><li>200,000 rapes are reported every year </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Harassment </li></ul><ul><li>The manifestation of power of one person over another </li></ul><ul><li>From unwanted physical contact or comments to actual propositions or sexual assaults </li></ul>
  14. 14. Coping with Physical Challenges <ul><li>50 Million + in US are physically challenged </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings still don’t have wheelchair accesses </li></ul><ul><li>Have to deal with prejudice & discrimination </li></ul>
  15. 15. Coping with <ul><li>Response to events that threaten or challenge a person </li></ul><ul><li>Can be pleasant or unpleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term stress reduces the body’s ability to deal with stress </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoneuroimmun-ology </li></ul><ul><li>Study of relationship between the brain, the immune system, & psychological factors </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing an event to see if it’s positive, negative, or neutral </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing if one’s coping skills are adequate for the stressor </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosomatic Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Medical problems caused by the interaction of psychological, emotional, & physical difficulties </li></ul>
  16. 16. Styles of Coping <ul><li>Problem-focused coping </li></ul><ul><li>Directly changing the situation to make it less stressful </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion-focused coping </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious regulation of emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Defense coping </li></ul><ul><li>Unconsciously distorting or denying the nature of the situation </li></ul>
  17. 17. Adult Thinking <ul><li>Beyond Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Postformal thought : </li></ul><ul><li>characterized by recognition that truth may vary from situation to situation, that solutions must be reasonable, that ambiguity & contradiction are the rule, & emotion & subjective factors play a role in thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective judgment : a way in which adults reason through dilemmas involving current affairs, religion, science, personal relationships, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal Level of Development </li></ul><ul><li>Highest level of information-processing capacity a person is capable of doing </li></ul><ul><li>Skill acquisition is a gradual somewhat haphazardous process by which people learn new abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Highest stage a person has achieved in cognitive development </li></ul>
  18. 18. Theories of Adult Thinking <ul><li>Dualistic thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Something is right or wrong, good or bad </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Holding multiple perspectives of an issue </li></ul><ul><li>Relativistic thinking </li></ul><ul><li>There are no absolute standards & different cultures hold values that are equally valid </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisitive stage </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood & adolescence; the acquisition of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving stage </li></ul><ul><li>By young adulthood intelligence is applied to long-term goals </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible stage </li></ul><ul><li>By middle adulthood main concerns relate to personal situations </li></ul><ul><li>Executive stage </li></ul><ul><li>In middle adulthood taking a broader perspective of life </li></ul><ul><li>Reintegrative stage </li></ul><ul><li>By late adulthood focusing on things that have personal meaning </li></ul>
  19. 19. Creativity <ul><li>Combining responses or ideas in original & productive ways </li></ul><ul><li>Peaks for many in early adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Willing to take risks </li></ul><ul><li>Develop or endorse unfashionable ideas </li></ul>

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