Growth, development and health promotion of young PCU MAN


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Growth, development and health promotion of young PCU MAN

  2. 2. Age alone is not a good criterion for determining when young adulthood begins. Maturity has been identified as the major criterion of young adulthood.
  3. 3. Behaviors that reflect maturity are: 1. A sense of responsibility: The person can be relied upon to carry out a defined role. 2. Adequate impulse control: Impulse can be channeled into constructive behavior. 3. Tolerance of frustration: Confident of ability to deal with stress & can sacrifice immediate pleasure for long term gain.
  4. 4. 4. Ability to plan: Able to look to the future & set goal & implement plans. 5. Ability to accept differences in others: Has respect for individuality. 6. Capacity for intimacy: Has the ability to trust another human being & share life with others. 7. Movement toward development of own potential: Has confidence in self & can reach out & take risks.
  5. 5. Developmental Tasks of Early Adulthood: 1. Becoming independent from parent. 2. Family formation. 3. Choosing & beginning a career. 4. Developing a personal style in living. 5. Establishing friendship & social network.
  6. 6. 6. Developing parenting behaviors. 7. Accepting civic responsibilities & becoming citizen & choosing activities in social & community organizations. 8. Implementing personal values on home, work & community settings.
  7. 7. The Young Adult: Twenty to Forty Years • Physical Development • • • Growth has generally stopped, but calcium and regular weight-bearing exercise are still required. Visual acuity begins to decline, especially depth perception. Hearing loss may be noted, although it can begin as early as age 14.
  8. 8. Physiological Growth and Development • Few maturational changes • Experience severe illness less • Physical changes occur as middle age approaches • Personal life-style assessment
  9. 9. Physical Growth in Young Adult: • Young adulthood is the time when the physical capacity of every system of the body peaks. Most physiologic function reach maximum levels during the middle twenties, there after, decline is so gradual as to be difficult to detect until middle age. • The skeletal differences between men & women are more pronounced during this range of years than at any other time during the life span.
  10. 10. • Both muscle tone & muscle strength appear o peak between 20-30 years, after this age there is a gradual decrease in the power & speed of muscular contractions. • The women's menstrual cycle is regular & sexual organs are mature to cope with child bearing.
  11. 11. • The man's sexual maturity reached on adolescence remains at a peak & sexual urge remain high throughout this period. • Nutritional needs are for maintains & repair & not for growth. Therefore, weight control becomes a problem for many young adults especially for those who continue to consume food as they did during adolescent.
  12. 12. The Young Adult: Twenty to Forty Years (cont.) • Intellectual-Cognitive Development • • Knowledge acquired through both formal training and on-the-job training. Critical thinking and reasoning skills are refined.
  13. 13. Cognitive Development of Young Adults • Critical thinking abilities increase with experiences • Develop problem solving skills • Identify occupation
  14. 14. Cognitive Development: • The young adult years are time of optimal cognitive functioning. The individual is engaged in the establishment of new skills & knowledge. • Cognitive functioning at the level of formal operations & the capacity for abstract thinking continue. • There is an excellent ability to acquire & use knowledge & engage in problem solving. • For many, education continues during the early years of young adulthood (college) graduate, school, on the job training & (or continue education).
  15. 15. The Young Adult: Twenty to Forty Years (cont.) • Psycho-Emotional Development • Long-lasting relationships are established. • Careers can lead to stress and anxiety.
  16. 16. The Young Adult: Twenty to Forty Years (cont.) • Social Development • Young adults establish careers, marriages, families, and homes. • Friendships and relationships may be based more on interests than age. • Contributing to the community becomes important.
  17. 17. Psychosocial Development: Young adulthood is a time when many difficult decisions need to made. These decisions will affect the person for the rest of his life they make decision for themselves, which influence their life-style in their future. They must make choices about: Education, occupation, to marry or remain single, starting a home, children rearing, forming new friendships, & assuming certain community activities. These developmental tasks are also includes:
  18. 18. 1. Breaking away from the family: This doesn't mean separation, but a changing in the relationship with the family. These changes are: A. External changes: Becoming financially independent & evolving new roles & living arrangements. B. Internal changes: Increasing Psychological independence.
  19. 19. 2. Establishing a sense of intimacy: Intimacy VS Isolation: Intimacy is defined as the ability to experience an open, supportive, tender relationship with another person without fear of losing one's own identity in the process. Establishing intimate relationship is the capacity to commit oneself to partnership & to develop the ethical strength by such commitments ever though they may call for significant sacrifices. Therefore, the young adult who attains intimacy is manifested through:
  20. 20. • The ability to share personal identity with another without losing one's own unique identity. The desired outcome is mutual satisfaction & support. • Heterosexual marriage relationship require a mutuality with a loved partner with whom one is welling & able to share the cycle of work, family life & recreation. • Inability to resolve conflicts in intimate relationships results in the "isolation" of the young adult, which characterized by competitiveness, distance, egocentricity & avoidance behaviors.
  21. 21. What help establishment of intimacy? • Marriage: In general, husbands are more likely than wives to be satisfied with the amount of empathy and companionship in their marriages.
  22. 22. • Work setting: is another common context for the establishment of intimacy, affiliation and close friendship are likely to develop among coworkers. Co-workers may express devotion to an older leader or teacher. Through conversations, conferences, or informal interaction coworkers can achieve an affectionate, playful, and enriching relationship. • Whether intimate relations are established in the context of marriage, friendship, or work, the atmosphere of romantic illusions such as, ''Together we can conquer the world'' often characterizes intimate relationships.
  23. 23. Isolation: The negative pole of the crisis of early adulthood is isolation. As social beings, people have a deep need for a sense of connection and belonging. Isolation and the accompanying feeling of being unable to experience intersubjectivity or shared meaning, is a major source of psychological distress.
  24. 24. The Obstacles to Attainment of an Intimate Relationship are: o Some arise from childhood experiences of, shame, guilt, inferiority, or alienation, which undermine the achievement of personal identity. o Others result from incompatibility between partners. o These obstacles may be embedded in the socialization process as children learn distinct gender roles that introduce antagonism between males and females and foster interpersonal styles that stand in the way of forming open, caring interpersonal relationships. o There are some themes that illustrate experiences of isolation:
  25. 25. Loneliness: Feeling of loneliness can be separated into three categories: transient, situational and chronic. A. Transient loneliness: lasts a short time and passes, as when you hear a song or an expression that reminds you of someone you love who is far away. B. Situational loneliness: accompanies a sudden loss or a move to a new city.
  26. 26. Chronic loneliness: C. lasts a long time and cannot be linked to a specific stressor. • Chronically lonely people may have an average number of social contacts, but they do not achieve the desired level of intimacy in these interactions. • Many chronically lonely people are highly anxious about all types of social activities. • People, who have higher levels of social skills, including friendliness, communication skills, appropriate nonverbal behavior, and appropriate responses to others, have more adequate social support systems and lower levels of loneliness.
  27. 27. Depression: Isolation may be a cause as well as a consequence of depression. For some women, clinical depression appears to be linked to an orientation toward intimacy in which the self is systematically inhibited and devalued.
  28. 28. 3. Making commitment to a career & job satisfaction One's occupation is the major determinant of one's level of prestige & amount of income. Work provides a sense of personal worth, a level of recognition by others, a feeling of individuality, growth & security, it depends upon:
  29. 29. • Personality factors abilities &interest influence vocational choice. • Parenteral encouragement is an important factor in the choice of career especially if the parent experiences job satisfaction & talks about job responsibilities. • The socio-economic status of the family also tends to influence the young adult choice of a career i.e. the family's ability to pay for schooling, the individual desire to maintain the same socio-economic level as his parent.
  30. 30. • Job satisfaction has been recognized to be a result of friendly co-workers, interesting work, a chance to use one's mind, work results that one's can see, a chance to develop skills & abilities, career promotion & good pay. • Satisfaction with job leads to a feeling of fulfillment, while frustration with work leads to depression.
  31. 31. 4. Establishing a set of values: • The young adult analyze & evaluate the set of values that has been internalized through childhood & adolescence under the direction of adults. • Most young adult are confused about values. They are idealistic but they find so many contradictory values in society. (e.g. they have been taught to respect law & be honest, yet they see cheating & stealing). • Many young adult are not in agreement with the policies & values of the society, they want to change them & reject the lifestyle imposed upon them by their elders.
  32. 32. 5. Family Formation: • Marriage & family formation will take time from the couple to learn to adjust to each other. • The couple's success in adjustment requires an openness of communication & a willingness to learn. • Each spouse must be able to let the other know what is satisfying & not satisfying. This process involves mutual respects for the other's likes & dislikes as well as a willingness to accommodate to the other's needs.
  33. 33. • Conflicts in marriage are inevitable. Resoling conflicts depends on the communication pattern & problem solving abilities developed by the couples to deal with the differences between them. • Parenting: the arrival of a child is usually a happy event in the life of a couple, but it requires a major re-adjustment to the family life & couples' role. • The role of the parents is very demanding & requires changes in relationships in time commitments within & outside the home.
  34. 34. 6. Establishing a social network: • Friends are important as they are sources of emotional support, stabilizers of selfimage & facilitators of integration with society. • During young adulthood many individuals begin to establish connections with various organization in the community e.g. volunteer work, exercise clubs, social work. According to their interests & belief system. • These group memberships are providing an outlet for self-expression. Maintaining a healthy balance within various group membership & time for self- orientation is important for young adults.
  35. 35. Moral Development: Young adult who have mastered the previous stages of moral development now enter the postconventional level. The person is able to separate self form the expectations and rules of others and to define morality in terms of personal principles. When an individual perceives a conflict with society's rules or laws, he judges according to his own principles. This type of reasoning is called principled reasoning. For example, an individual may intentionally break the law and join a protest group to stop hunters from killing wild animals, believing that the principle of conservation of wildlife justifies the protest action.
  36. 36. Health Promotion of Young Adult Health needs of young adult are varies according to the role played by each one, in general, the following:
  37. 37. 1. Family life education: A. B. C. To build an attitude in young adults as regard their sexual responsibilities & show clearly the ethical, moral & religious basis of sexuality. To enable families to understand the relation that exists between man & wife & that between patents & their children. To enable families & young adults to recognize the health needs (physical, mental, social & emotional) of human being at different phases of development.
  38. 38. 2. Premarital examination & genetic counseling: • Premarital examination provides a good chance for health education, case finding & provides useful health data about young adults.
  39. 39. Health Concerns/ Risk Factors for the Young Adult • Health Risks • • • • • Violence Substance Abuse Unwanted pregnancies STDs Occupational, environmental risk factors • Lifestyle Concerns • • • • • • Smoking Stress Exercise patterns Personal hygiene Familial history Infertility
  40. 40. Childbearing Family • Pregnant woman’s body undergoes physical changes (pg.225) • Cognitive changes • Temporary sensory changes • Educational needs • Psychosocial changes • • • • • Body Image Role changes Sexuality Coping mechanisms Stresses
  41. 41. The Young Adult: Twenty to Forty Years (cont.) • Aspects of Care • Weight-bearing and aerobic exercise should be continued to reduce and prevent bone loss. • A balanced nutritional plan should be in place. • The need for social contact continues, and may be fulfilled through church, school, and community activities.
  42. 42. The Young Adult: Twenty to Forty Years (cont.) • • • Stress management techniques are essential. Regular health checkups are important for preventive maintenance. Regular dental care is necessary, including cleaning and checkups twice a year.