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Young adulthood

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Young adulthood

  1. 1. Young Adulthood© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  2. 2. Physical and Cognitive Development in Young Adulthood © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  3. 3. Emerging AdulthoodThree criteria most people use for adulthood:Accepting responsibility for oneselfMaking independent decisionsBecoming financially independentEmerging adulthood—transitional time © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  4. 4. Health Status in Young AdulthoodMost young adults are healthy (95%)Accidents are the leading cause of deathHowever, too many: Overweight Exercise too little © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  5. 5. Genetic Influences on Health Many disorders have roots in genetics: Obesity Some cancers – lung, prostate, and breast High cholesterol © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  6. 6. Preventative Measuresfor HealthRegular screening testsPap smears, self-exams of breastsGood posture (carpal tunnel syndrome)Physical activitySleep © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  7. 7. Diet and NutritionProper Diet Limited saturated fats Limited red or processed meats 5 fruits and 5 vegetables each day © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  8. 8. Obesity Prevalence © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  9. 9. Risks to Healthin Young AdulthoodObesity/overweightInfrequent physical activitySmokingAlcohol use or abuse  Especially risky during college yearsUse or abuse of other substances © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  10. 10. Drug Use by Age © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  11. 11. Indirect Influences on HealthSES and race/ethnicityRelationships Social Integration Social Support © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  12. 12. Mental Health ProblemsAlcoholismAntisocial behaviorDepression © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  13. 13. Sexual and Reproductive IssuesBehavior and attitudes Almost all U.S. adults have had sexual relations before marriage, Variety in sexual activities is common. Casual sex is fairly common, especially on college campuses. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  14. 14. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)Physical and emotional discomfort two weeks prior to menstruationSymptoms: Fatigue and headaches Swelling and tenderness of breasts Bloating, nausea, cramps Anxiety, depression, irritability, mood swings © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  15. 15. STDsHalf of all adults have had an STD by age 24.Highest rates are among teens and young adults.Number of people living with HIV has risen worldwide. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  16. 16. InfertilityInability to conceive a baby after 12 months of tryingExperienced by 7% of U.S. couplesMost common cause – low sperm countIn women, common causes include: Failure to produce ova or abnormal ova Mucus in the cervix Endometriosis © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  17. 17. Box 13.1 AssistedReproduction TechnologyIn vitro fertilization (IVF)In vitro maturation (IVM)Artificial inseminationOvum transferSurrogate motherhoodLegal and ethical issues © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  18. 18. Cognition in Adulthood:Reflective ThinkingActive and persistent consideration of information or beliefsQuestioning supposed factsEmerges between 20 and 25 yearsCortical regions with enriched myelination © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  19. 19. Postformal ThoughtAbility to deal with: Uncertainty and inconsistency Contradiction Imperfection and compromiseDraws on: Intuition Emotion Logic © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  20. 20. Components of Postformal ThoughtShifting gearsProblem definitionProcess-product shiftPragmatismMultiple solutionsAwareness of paradoxSelf-referential thought © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  21. 21. Emotional Intelligence (EI)The ability to recognize and deal with one’s own feelings and the feelings of othersSelf-awarenessSelf-managementSocial awarenessRelationship management © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  22. 22. Culture and Moral ReasoningKohlberg’s moral dilemmasExamples of cultural bias: Buddhist monks score low because of their principles of nonviolence and cooperation. The premise of the dilemma is unbelievable to Chinese villagers. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  23. 23. Gender and Moral ReasoningGilligan found Kohlberg’s dilemmas gender- biased. Favor masculine justice views over feminine compassionOther research has not found gender bias. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  24. 24. Box 13.2 Faith across the LifespanFowler’s model 1. Intuitive-projective faith 2. Mythic-literal faith 3. Synthetic conventional faith 4. Individuative-reflective faith 5. Conjunctive faith 6. Universalizing faith © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  25. 25. The College TransitionU.S. college enrollment at record high38% of all 18- to 24-year-oldsMostly due to increasing numbers of females 56% of undergraduates © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  26. 26. Adjusting to CollegeKey Factors to Adjustment:Financial supportEmotional supportAdaptabilityHigh aptitude and problem solving skillsEngaged in studies and social environment © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  27. 27. Cognitive Growth in CollegeThinking progresses from: Rigidity  Flexibility  Freely chosen commitmentsUltimately, commitment within relativism © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  28. 28. Community College & OccupationalEducation37% of undergraduates are enrolled in 2-year community colleges.Students tend to be older, female, from minority or low income families, and independent of their parents.A significant proportion are enrolled to enhance job skills. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  29. 29. Completing CollegeOnly 1 out of 4 who start college has a degree within 5 yearsCompleting college depends upon: Motivation and aptitude Ability to work independently Social integration and support Fit between school and student © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  30. 30. Cognitive Growth at WorkSubstantive Complexity of Work The degree of thought and independent judgment required A person’s flexibility in coping with cognitive demandsSpillover Hypothesis Cognitive gains from work carry over to nonworking hours © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  31. 31. Combining Work and School Working part-time can help students organize their time and learn work habits. But, more than 15-20 hours per week can have a negative impact. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  32. 32. Combining Work and School © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  33. 33. Some Measures to Ease School-to-Work TransitionImprove dialogues between schools and employers.Make school and work schedules compatible.Increase availability of part-time work.Let employers design work-study programs.Improve training of vocational counselors. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  34. 34. Psychosocial Development in Young Adulthood© 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  35. 35. Influences on Paths to AdulthoodGenderAcademic abilityEarly attitudes toward educationExpectations in late adolescenceSocial classEgo development © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  36. 36. RecenteringStage 1 — Still embedded in family of originStage 2 — Connected to family, but moving toward serious commitments and gaining resources to support themStage 3 — Independence from family of origin, with increased commitment to career, partner and possibly children © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  37. 37. Identity DevelopmentContemporary moratorium “Youthhood,” a permanent alternative to adulthoodRacial/ethnic identity exploration © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  38. 38. Developing AdultRelationships with ParentsOne measure of how successfully emerging adults handle becoming autonomous is their ability to remain connected with parents.Parents and children seem to get along best when normative life course is followed.Failure to launch—adult children who continue to live with parents © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  39. 39. Personality Development:Four ViewsNormative stage modelsTiming of events modelTrait modelsTypological models © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  40. 40. Erikson’s Normative Stage ModelIntimacy versus isolationYoung adults must make commitments to others or face isolation and self-absorptionResolution of this stage results in virtue of ‘love’ © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  41. 41. Valiant’s Four Patterns of AdaptationAdaptive Mechanisms: Mature Immature Psychotic Neurotic © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  42. 42. Levinson’s Stage ModelLife Structure The underlying pattern of a person’s life at a given time Eras and phases © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  43. 43. Normative Studies of WomenWomen may face different psychological and environmental constraints in forming life structures than men do.Women’s transitions tend to take longer. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  44. 44. Criticisms of Normative-Stage ModelsGeneralizability Small and limited samplesEffects of societal events specific to cohorts Economic depression of the 1930s Economic expansion after WWIIDevelopmental tasks © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  45. 45. Timing-of-Events Model The course of development depends on when events occur in people’s lives Normative life events ‘On time’ or ‘Off time’ Social Clock © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  46. 46. Trait Models:Five Factors of Personality © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  47. 47. Evaluating Five-Factor ModelResearch has found gradual, systematic change in personality throughout adulthood, not continuity.Five-factor model is based on subjective ratings – may lack validity. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  48. 48. Typological ModelsPersonality affects and reflects: Attitudes Values Beliefs Social interactionsUse interviews, self-reports, clinical assessments and behavior ratings © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  49. 49. Typological Models: Three Personality TypesEgo-resilientOvercontrolledUndercontrolled3 Types differ in:  Ego-resiliency: Adaptability under stress  Ego-control: Self control © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  50. 50. Foundations ofIntimate RelationshipsSelf-disclosureSelf-awareness and empathyAbility to communicate emotionsConflict resolutionCommitmentSexual decision making © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  51. 51. Friendship in Young Adulthood Center on work and parenting activities Sharing of confidences and advice Young singles rely on friendship for social needs Women have social needs met by friends more than men © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  52. 52. Sternberg’sTriangular Subtheory of LoveThree Elements of Love:1. Intimacy Emotional element Involves self-disclosure2. Passion Motivational element Translates physiological arousal into sexual desire3. Commitment Cognitive element Decision to love and stay with the beloved © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  53. 53. Single LifeYoung adults 25-34 who have not yet married: 32% women 43% men © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  54. 54. Gay and LesbianRelationshipsAbout 40-60% of gay men and 45-80% of lesbians are in romantic relationshipsDifferences between gay/lesbian relationships and heterosexuals ones • More likely to negotiate household choice • Resolve conflicts in more positive atmosphere • Less stable, due to lack of institutional supports © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  55. 55. Legalizing Same-Sex Marriages World:  Netherlands first to legalize, 2001  Belgium, 2003  16 European countries have recognized same-sex unions. U.S.  Vermont first state to recognize civil unions  Massachusetts first to legalize same-sex marriage 2003  California Supreme Court strikes down gay marriage ban in 2008  Legislation pending in several other states © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  56. 56. CohabitationUnmarried couples who are involved in a sexual relationship and live togetherWide international variation More than 83% of French women before age 45 years Less than 5% of Polish women © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  57. 57. Women’s Expected Cohabitation © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  58. 58. Cohabitation in the USAAppears to be in transition4 percent of U.S. households Over half of U.S. couples who marry live together firstHigher divorce rates among previous cohabiters May reflect people’s traits, rather than the experience of cohabitation itself– Meaning of cohabitation is different for older couples © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  59. 59. Benefits of MarriageDivision of laborEconomic securityCommitment, friendshipOpportunity for emotional growthNew sources of identity and self-esteem © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  60. 60. Entering MatrimonyHistorically mates chosen by matchmakers Only in modern times do people choose mates based on loveTypical marrying age has increased in industrialized countries Men: 27 years Women: 25 years © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  61. 61. Living Arrangements © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  62. 62. Marital SatisfactionMarried people tend to be happier than unmarried people.Those in unhappy marriages are less happy than unmarried or divorced people.Factors affecting satisfaction: Expectations Economic resources Equal decision-making Non-traditional gender attitudes © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  63. 63. Marriage: FourTheoretical PerspectivesCompanionate modelInstitutional modelEquity modelGender model © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  64. 64. Factors in Marital Success or FailurePartners’ happiness with the relationshipSensitivity to each otherValidation of each other’s feelingsCommunicationConflict management skillsAge at marriageCollege graduates © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  65. 65. Having Children in Developing CountriesOverpopulation and hunger are problems. Important to recognize need to limit family sizeDivision of labor has changed. More mothers now work for payAge at first child varies by ethnicity and race. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  66. 66. Men & Women: Involvement in ParenthoodBoth have a mixture of feelings.  Excitement, anxiety, responsibilityMothers are more involved than fathers in children’s lives. Married women complain of more housework and marital conflictInvolved fathers tend to be more satisfied with their lives. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  67. 67. Marital Satisfaction & ParenthoodMarital satisfaction declines during childrearing years, especially infanthoodMothers who saw themselves as unable to cope with demands of motherhood were dissatisfiedFathers most involved with children were more satisfied with their lives © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  68. 68. Benefits ofDual-Earner FamiliesBeneficial to mental and physical healthWomen have a greater share of economic powerReduces the economic pressure on men © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  69. 69. Drawbacks of Dual-Earner FamiliesPossible rivalry between spousesExtra demands on time and energyAnxiety and guilt about meeting children’s needs © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  70. 70. Domestic Work: Effects on MarriageDual-income families take diverse formsWives’ earnings accounted for an average of 35% of family incomePerception of inequality of roles contributes to marital instability © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  71. 71. DivorceAverage marriage that ends in divorce does so after 7-8 years.1 in 5 U.S. adults has been divorced.Rates twice as high as 1960Peak in early 1980s © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  72. 72. Possible Reasons for DivorceIncompatibility and lack of emotional supportYounger women said, lack of career supportSpousal abuse © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  73. 73. Box 14.1 Intimate Partner ViolenceVictims are predominantly young, poor, less educated, divorced or cohabitingThree types of violence Situational couple violence Emotional abuse Intimate terrorismShelters and law enforcement support © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  74. 74. Adjusting to DivorceDivorce tends to reduce long-term well-being Men: Negative effects on healthDisruption of parent-child relationshipsLoss of emotional supportDiscord with former spouseEconomic hardship Women more likely to live in poverty post-divorce © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
  75. 75. Remarriage and StepparenthoodOne-third of U.S. marriages are remarriages for both bride and groom.One-fourth of stepfamilies are formed by cohabitation.Many families adjust and create a nurturing atmosphere. © 2009 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc

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