Chapter 13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood
The Criteria for  Becoming an Adult <ul><li>Permanent, full-time job. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic independence  </li></ul><...
The Peak and Slowdown in  Physical Performance <ul><li>Physical peak/healthiest between ages 19-26 </li></ul><ul><li>Chron...
Aging <ul><li>Primary aging: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inevitable maturation/age related changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex...
Pervasiveness and Costs  of Obesity <ul><li>Prevalence rose 8% in the 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of Americans have increa...
Obesity:  Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity:  Estimates range from 25- 70%. </li></ul></ul>...
The Diet Scene <ul><li>Many divergent interests are involved in the topic of dieting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the public  – ...
Restrained Eating <ul><li>Chronic restriction of food intake to control weight </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></u...
The Transition from High School to College <ul><li>Larger, more impersonal  school structure </li></ul><ul><li>Peers are m...
Today’s College Kids <ul><li>More stress  </li></ul><ul><li>More depression </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure:  succeed, get good...
Patterns of Thought <ul><li>Quantitatively advance in thinking (Piaget) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more knowledge than adolesce...
Developmental Changes <ul><li>Career decision making  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children:  idealistic fantasies  </li></ul></u...
Intimacy Versus Isolation <ul><li>Erikson believes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of a successful and stable identit...
Functions of Friendships <ul><li>Companionship </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Affection </li></ul><ul><li>Su...
Female, Male, and Female-Male Friendship <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More close friends  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Attraction: Familiarity and Similarity <ul><li>We like to associate with people similar to us </li></ul><ul><li>We tend to...
Attraction:  Consensual Validation <ul><li>Explains attraction due to similarity  </li></ul><ul><li>Match of attitudes and...
Physical Attraction: Gender Differences <ul><li>Women tend to rate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>considerateness, honesty, depend...
The Triangular Theory  of Love <ul><li>Robert J. Sternberg  </li></ul><ul><li>Consummate love: the strongest, fullest type...
Secure  Attachment and Romantic Relationships   <ul><li>50-60% are securely attached as children </li></ul><ul><li>Past ex...
Marital Trends <ul><li>Remain single longer </li></ul><ul><li>Average duration of marriage 9 years (US) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Marital Expectations <ul><li>Divorce rate is due to high expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Unhappily married, usually express...
Myths about Marriage <ul><li>Avoiding conflict will ruin your marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Affairs are the main cause of di...
The Benefits of a Good Marriage <ul><li>Unhappy marriages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase risk of illness by 1/3 </li></ul...
Parental Roles <ul><li>Parenting requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interpersonal skills and emotional demands </li></ul></ul...
Trends in Child Rearing <ul><li>Parents are having fewer children </li></ul><ul><li>Postponement of child bearing </li></u...
Personality Types <ul><li>John Holland: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to select a career that matches up well with their...
Holland’s Six Types <ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Investigative </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic </li></ul><ul><li>Social ...
Monitoring the Occupational Handbook <ul><li>Revised every 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Contains info such as: </li></ul><ul>...
The Skills Employers Want <ul><li>Oral and written communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal skills </li></ul><...
Finding the Right Career <ul><li>Have several careers in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Develop general skills that valuable in a ...
Work <ul><li>Work defines individuals  </li></ul><ul><li>Most spend 1/3 of adult lives at work </li></ul><ul><li>Involunta...
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Chap13 14 Feldman

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Chap13 14 Feldman

  1. 1. Chapter 13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood
  2. 2. The Criteria for Becoming an Adult <ul><li>Permanent, full-time job. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic independence </li></ul><ul><li>Over 70% of college students said being an adult means: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>accepting responsibility for own actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowing beliefs and values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relationship with parents as an equal adult. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Peak and Slowdown in Physical Performance <ul><li>Physical peak/healthiest between ages 19-26 </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic health problems are rare </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of pushing bodies too far </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle tone and strength usually begin to show signs of decline around the age of 30. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Aging <ul><li>Primary aging: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inevitable maturation/age related changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) graying or thinning of hair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary aging: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accelerated aging due poor health choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) deterioration of senses due to smoking </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Pervasiveness and Costs of Obesity <ul><li>Prevalence rose 8% in the 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of Americans have increased health risks </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with increased risk of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hypertension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increases with age, especially among women </li></ul>
  6. 6. Obesity: Nature vs. Nurture <ul><li>Nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity: Estimates range from 25- 70%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Twin Studies: MZ twins similar regardless of environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set Point: weight maintained without effort to gain or loose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basal Metabolism Rate (BMR): Resting metabolic rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nurture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>greater availability of food (particularly food high in fat) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>energy saving devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>declining physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More prevalent in low income individuals </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Diet Scene <ul><li>Many divergent interests are involved in the topic of dieting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the public – the media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>health professionals – the diet industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>policy makers – the food industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Societal norms  lean aesthetic body </li></ul><ul><li>Diet related products: $30 million annual sales </li></ul>
  8. 8. Restrained Eating <ul><li>Chronic restriction of food intake to control weight </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are often on diets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very conscious of what they eat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to feel guilty after splurging on sweets. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When they stop dieting, they tend to binge </li></ul><ul><li>When stressed or not thinking about what they eat, they also binge </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Transition from High School to College <ul><li>Larger, more impersonal school structure </li></ul><ul><li>Peers are more diverse </li></ul><ul><li>Increased focus on achievement and assessment </li></ul><ul><li>More freedom (subject choice) </li></ul><ul><li>More peer interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for exploration </li></ul>
  10. 10. Today’s College Kids <ul><li>More stress </li></ul><ul><li>More depression </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure: succeed, get good job, make money </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic increase in community college attendance </li></ul><ul><li>More “returning students” than ever before </li></ul>
  11. 11. Patterns of Thought <ul><li>Quantitatively advance in thinking (Piaget) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more knowledge than adolescents, usually in specific area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescents hypothesize about intellectual problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But, adults are more systematic and sophisticated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Theorists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift from acquiring to applying knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shift from polarities: right/wrong, good/bad, we/they. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute, dualistic thinking gives way to reflective, relativistic thinking of adulthood </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Developmental Changes <ul><li>Career decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children: idealistic fantasies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High school: somewhat less idealistic basis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late teens, early twenties: more serious. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mid twenties and early adulthood: establish their emerging career. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Intimacy Versus Isolation <ul><li>Erikson believes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of a successful and stable identity should proceed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Erikson describes intimacy as finding oneself yet losing oneself in another person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of meaningful intimate relationships: friends, significant others, family </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If intimacy is not developed in early adulthood, isolation may be the result </li></ul>
  14. 14. Functions of Friendships <ul><li>Companionship </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Affection </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Source of Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Buffer from Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Source of Emotional Support </li></ul>
  15. 15. Female, Male, and Female-Male Friendship <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More close friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendships are more intimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female friends tend to spend time talking. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendships are more competitive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk is more distant, less intimate </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Attraction: Familiarity and Similarity <ul><li>We like to associate with people similar to us </li></ul><ul><li>We tend to have similar: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attitudes – behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>clothes – characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intelligence – personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>values – lifestyles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This phenomenon can be explained by consensual validation. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Attraction: Consensual Validation <ul><li>Explains attraction due to similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Match of attitudes and behaviors is reinforcing </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity implies that we will enjoy doing the same things with the other person. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Physical Attraction: Gender Differences <ul><li>Women tend to rate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>considerateness, honesty, dependability, kindness, and understanding as most important. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Men tend to prefer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>good looks, cooking skills, and frugality. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matching Hypothesis: Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>In abstract, prefer a more attractive person, but in the real world we end up choosing someone similar to us </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Triangular Theory of Love <ul><li>Robert J. Sternberg </li></ul><ul><li>Consummate love: the strongest, fullest type of love </li></ul><ul><li>Love includes passion, intimacy & commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Couples must experience all three to have consummate love. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Secure Attachment and Romantic Relationships <ul><li>50-60% are securely attached as children </li></ul><ul><li>Past experiences affect them as adults </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment shifts to romantic partners </li></ul><ul><li>Secure base: obtain comfort and security in stressful times </li></ul><ul><li>Link between quality of relationship as child and adult </li></ul>
  21. 21. Marital Trends <ul><li>Remain single longer </li></ul><ul><li>Average duration of marriage 9 years (US) </li></ul><ul><li>Most still get married </li></ul><ul><li>Divorce rate is high, but has slowed down </li></ul>
  22. 22. Marital Expectations <ul><li>Divorce rate is due to high expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Unhappily married, usually express unrealistic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Romanticized ideals of marriage often lead to disappointment </li></ul><ul><li>Often due to numerous myths about marriage </li></ul>
  23. 23. Myths about Marriage <ul><li>Avoiding conflict will ruin your marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Affairs are the main cause of divorce. </li></ul><ul><li>Men are not biologically made for marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women are from different planets. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Benefits of a Good Marriage <ul><li>Unhappy marriages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase risk of illness by 1/3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorten life by an average of 4 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Happy marriages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>feel less physically and emotionally stressed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevent numerous physical and psychological ailments. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Parental Roles <ul><li>Parenting requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interpersonal skills and emotional demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but, no real formal education for this task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most parents learn from their own parents </li></ul><ul><li>This passing down of parenting skills can result in positive and negative </li></ul>
  26. 26. Trends in Child Rearing <ul><li>Parents are having fewer children </li></ul><ul><li>Postponement of child bearing </li></ul><ul><li>Less maternal investment in child development </li></ul><ul><li>Men are investing more time in fathering </li></ul><ul><li>Parental care is supplemented by institutional care </li></ul>
  27. 27. Personality Types <ul><li>John Holland: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to select a career that matches up well with their personality type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enjoyment in job leads to longevity </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely pure types, most are a combination of two or three </li></ul><ul><li>When choosing, also match values </li></ul><ul><li>Identify values and refine their career choice </li></ul>
  28. 28. Holland’s Six Types <ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Investigative </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprising </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional </li></ul>
  29. 29. Monitoring the Occupational Handbook <ul><li>Revised every 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Contains info such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Top four occupations with fastest projected growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth rate based on various levels of education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industries with the most new jobs </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Skills Employers Want <ul><li>Oral and written communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical skills </li></ul><ul><li>Computer skills </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership skills and experience </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement in campus organizations and extracurricular activities </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant experiences in internships, part-time work, or co-ops </li></ul><ul><li>Good grades </li></ul>
  31. 31. Finding the Right Career <ul><li>Have several careers in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Develop general skills that valuable in a variety of jobs </li></ul><ul><li>See a career counselor </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in personal networking </li></ul><ul><li>Scope out Internet networks and resources. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Work <ul><li>Work defines individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Most spend 1/3 of adult lives at work </li></ul><ul><li>Involuntary joblessness often causes emotional distress and low self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Some aspects of work create stress </li></ul>

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