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Human Developments Chap13

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Human Developments Chap13

  1. 1. PHYSICAL AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY ADULTHOOD Chapter 13 (pages415-441) Inciong, Kathrina Veronica Hidalgo, Patricia Rose Angelu S. Leoroza, Kennedy
  2. 2. THE TRANSITION FROM ADOLESCENCE TO ADULTHOOD
  3. 3. Becoming an Adult • Emerging Adulthood – The transition from adolescence to to adulthood • 18 to 25 years of age • Key Features (that characterize emerging adulthood by Jefferey Arnett) • Identity exploration, especially in love and work • Instability • Self-focused • Feeling in-between • The age of possibilities
  4. 4. Markers of Becoming an Adult • Job • (after finishing school) • Taking responsibility for oneself • Marriage (in some developing countries
  5. 5. The Transition from Highschool to College • An important aspect of transition to adulthood • Top-dog phenomenon • Moving to a new environment • Positive features would include feeling of grown up • Stress and Depression
  6. 6. • Statistics in asia
  7. 7. PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
  8. 8. Physical Performance & Development • Most of us reach our peak of physical performance before the age of 30, often between 19-26. • We also start do decline in Physical performance • Muscle tone & Strength begin to shhow signs of decline at the age of 30 • Common Complaint: lessening og Physical Activity
  9. 9. Health • Emerging adults (EA) have more than twice the mortality rate of adolescents • Though EAhave higher death rate than adolescents, EA have fewer chronic problems • Bad health habits engaged in during adolescents, increased in EA. • Pattern Development in eating • Lifestyles asssociated with poor health
  10. 10. Eating and Weight - Obesity Statistics in the ph
  11. 11. Factors Involved in Obesity •Heredity •Leptin •Set Poin •Environmental Factors •Dieting
  12. 12. Regular Exercise • Helps Prevent diseases • Aerobic Exercise: sustained exercise • Also benefits mental health • Effective in reducing depression • Strategies • Reduce TV Time • Chart your progress • Get rid of excuses • Imagine the alternative
  13. 13. Substance Abuse Alcohol in the Philippines Nicotine in the Philippines
  14. 14. Alcohol • Binge Drinking problems include: missing classes, physical injuries, troubles with police and unprotected sex. • Pregaming – drinking alcohol before going out • Drinking games – are also popular in college students • Binge Drinking peaks at about 20-22 years of age and then declines through the remainder of the twenties • Alcoholism- disorder in an individual because of excessive alcohol consumption
  15. 15. Alcohol • Environmental factors play a role in alcoholism • About one-third of aloholics recover with or without treatment • A positive outcome and recovery from alcoholism are predicted by certain factors; • Strong negative experience related to drinking • Substitute dependency to compete with alcohol • Having new social supports • Joining an inspirational group
  16. 16. Cigarette Smoking and Nicotine • Most adult smokers would like to quit, but their nicotine addiction makes quitting a challenge. • Nicotine - stimulant that increases the smoker’s energy and alertness, a pleasurable and reinforcing experience. It also stimulates neurotransmitters tthat have a calming or pain reducing effect.
  17. 17. SEXUALITY
  18. 18. Sexual Activity in Emerging Adulthood • Emerging Adulthood (EA; ages 18-25) is a time frame during which individuals are both sexually active and unmarried. • Patterns of heterosexual behavior; • Males have more casual sex partners; females are more selective • Approximately 60% have had sex with one individual in the past year • EA have sex less frequently • Casual sex is more common in EA than in young adulthood.
  19. 19. Sexual Orientation and Behavior • Heterosexual Attitudes and Behaviors – finding from 19994 Sex in America Survey • Men have more slightly more sexual experience and more permissive attitudes than women for most aspects of sexuality • Men indicated that they engaged in more ; • Masturbation • Pornography use • Casual sex • Permissive attitudes about casual sex
  20. 20. Sources of Sexual Orientation • Why are some individuals lesbian, gay, or bisexual and others heterosexual? • Today, it is more accepted to view Sexual Orientation as a continuum from exclusive male-female relations to exclusive same sex relations. • Regardless of sexual orientation; people have similar physicological responses during sexual arousal and are aroused by the same type of stimulation. • One’s sexual orientation is determined by a combination of; • Genetic | Hormonal | Cognitive | Environmental Factors
  21. 21. Attitudes & Behaviors of Lesbians & Gays • Many gender differences that appear in heterosexual relationships occur in same-sex relationships. • For lesbians and gays; developing a bicultural identity creates new ways of deining themselves • Balancing the demands of two cultures, can often lead to more effective coping for lesbians and gays (Brown). • 20% of sexual minority individuals experience person or property crime related to their orientation.
  22. 22. Sexually Transmitted Infections • Diseases that are pimarily contracted through sex. • The greatest impact on sexual behavior and public awareness and fear was the discovery of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). • HIV is a sexually transmitted infection that destroy’s the body’s immune system. • this can lead to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) | Other diseases; • Gonorrhea • Syphilis • Chlamydia • Genital Herpes • Genital Warts
  23. 23. Protecting against HIVs and STIs 1. Knowing your and your partner’s risk status 2. Obtaining Medical Examinition 3. Having protected sex 4. Not having multiple sex partners
  24. 24. Forcible Sexual Behavior • Rape – is a forcible sexual intercourse with a person who does not give consent. • Most victims of rape are women but rape of men occure as well. • It is a traumatic experience for the victims and those close to them • Date or acquintance rape coercive sexual activity directed at someone with whom the victim is at least casually acquinted. • Red Zone
  25. 25. Sexual Harassment • A manifestation of power of one person over the other. • Inappropriate sexual remarks • Physical contact • Blatant proposition • Sexual assault • Happens more to women
  26. 26. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  27. 27. Cognitive Stages • Piaget’s View • An adolescent and an adult think qualitatively in th same way. • Young adults are mre quantitavely advancced in their thinking because they are more knowedgeable than adolescents. • Some theorists • Believe that individuals consolidate their formal conditional thinking not until adulthood • Realistic and Pragmatic Thinking • As an individual moves into work. He’s ways of thinking changes
  28. 28. • Reflective and Relativistic Thinking • William Perry (1999) describe that in early adulthood; changes in cognition take place. • From absolutist & dualistic thinking and individual becomes more reflective and relativistic. • Gisela Labouvie-Vief expanded this idea • Complexity in Culture generated more reflective & complex thinking • There 3 key aspects of cognitive development in Emerging Adults
  29. 29. Postformal Thought • Understanding that the correct answer to a problem requires reflective thinking and can vary from one situation to another. • Belief that the solutions to problems need to be realistic and that emotion and subjective factors can influence thinking. Creativity • Creativity peaks in adulthood, often in the the forties, and then declines. • However there is extensive individuals variation in lifetime creative output. • Csikszentmihalyi proposed that the first step ntoward living a creative a creative life is to cultivate curiousity and interest.
  30. 30. CAREERS AND WORK
  31. 31. Developmental Changes • Children – idealistic fantasies career • Late teens – more serious career • Early to mid-twenties - completed education and started in their career. • Remainder of early adulthood – moving up the career ladder • Career Mystique
  32. 32. Finding a Path to Purpose • William Damon (2008) • Purpose – the missing ingredient in adolescence emerging adults’ achievement and career development. • Too many youth drift through school engaging in behavior that risks their potential of fulfillment. • Most teachers and parents communicate the importance in goals, but rarely discuss where goals might lead to. • Have you reflected on your purpose?
  33. 33. The Impact of Work • Work defines people in fundamental ways. • it influences; financial, standing, housing, spending of time, where they live, friendship and health. • Some define identity through work. • Stress in work • Sources of stress in work
  34. 34. • Work During College – • Working can help offset some costs of schooling • But working can restrict oppurtunities to learn • Jobs can also contribuute to your education • Internship, Part-time jobs, “On-the-job Training” • Unemployment • Stress • It is related to; Physical & Mental problems, Marital diffficulties, Homicide • Self esteem • Dual Earner Couples • Problems with balance between work and the rest of life • Many jobs have been designed for single earners • Gender equalities persist in work areas
  35. 35. Diversity in the Work • There is great diversity now in workplaces • Ethnic diversity also is increasing

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