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Lifespan Chapter 13 Online Stud

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Lifespan Chapter 13 Online Stud

  1. 1. Chapter 13Physical and CognitiveDevelopment in Middle Adulthood 1 © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing
  2. 2. I. Physical Development in Middle Adulthood A. The Double Standard Middle adulthood > begin to be aware of gradual changes in body that marks the aging process. Characterized by variations Better educated, more productive than a generation ago. (Starts later, lasts longer.) Most educated, most affluent cohort. Double standard in terms of appearance? 15-2
  3. 3. B. Biological changes (senescence) Bio functions decline Sarcopenia – age-related loss of muscle mass and strength  exercise reduces the decline Cartilage and connective tissue becomes less efficient  joint stiffness and difficulty in movement Visible signs  skin begins to wrinkle and sag  areas of pigmentation in skin produce age spots  gray hair 15-3
  4. 4. B. Biological changes (cont’d) Women 2X the rate of bone loss  Bones break more easily and heal more slowly Ht reaches a max during mid/ late teens to early 20’s; remains stable until ~ 55. After ~ 55, bones become less dense; women lose ~2 inches; men lose ~1 inch in ht. Up to 4  Women more prone to declining height due to Osteoporosis  lack of calcium  lack of exercise. 15-4
  5. 5. Osteoporosis Sloping shoulders Curve in the back Height loss Back pain Hunched posture Protruding abdomen 15-5
  6. 6. C. The Senses 1. Hearing Presbycusis – Conductive hearing loss  ~10% at 50  ~50% at 75  There will be large increases! More men than women Men lose sensitivity earlier 15-7
  7. 7. D. Reaction time Reaction time increases due to slight loss of muscle; slower NS processing Can compensate 15-8
  8. 8. II. Health A. Chronic health complaints Arthritis Diabetes Hypertension Death rate between 40 and 60 is less than half of what it was in 1940 15-9
  9. 9. B. Ethnic and Gender Variations in Health Differences in health among blacks and whites disappear when holding SES constant. Gender also makes a difference in health.  E.g., Arthritis more common in men < 45; in women > 45 15-10
  10. 10. Disability & Income LevelWhy are workers living in poverty more likely to become disabled than those with higher income levels? 15-11
  11. 11. C. Stress in Middle Adulthood Stress continues to significantly impact health during middle adulthood. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) 15-12
  12. 12. Heart Disease: A woman’s issue too
  13. 13. E. Heart Disease in Middle Adulthood A) Modifiable Factors B) Non Modifiable Factors Stress • Increasing age High Cholesterol • Male • Family History High Triglycerides Low HDL Cholesterol Lack of Exercise Diabetes High Blood Pressure Overweight or obesity Smoking / Chewing Tobacco Type A personality/ Behavior 15-15
  14. 14. Death From Heart Disease Worldwide 15-16
  15. 15. E. Lung Capacity 15-17
  16. 16. F. Sleep ProblemsWhy are there more sleep problems inmiddle adulthood? 15-18
  17. 17. H. Cancer in Middle Adulthood Cancer is associated with several risk factors.  Genetics (family history)  Poor nutrition, smoking, alcohol, sunlight, exposure to radiation, occupational hazards (e.g., certain chemicals) With early detection (and sometimes without), survival rate is VERY high for most forms of cancer  E.g., breast cancer: 81% for < 45 years old; 45-64: 85%; > 65: 86% Incidence of breast cancer increases with age:  By 30 > 1 out of 2,212  By 50 > 1 out of 54  By 70 > 1 out of 14  Ever > 1 out of 7 (13%) 15-19
  18. 18. Cancer in Middle Adulthood 15-20
  19. 19. Psychological Factors Related to Cancer Close family ties Group therapy reduces anxiety and pain; increases survival rates. A + psychological outlook > tendency to adhere to a strict treatment regimen. A + psychological outlook may boost the bodys immune system.[next] 15-21
  20. 20. Psychological Factors Related to Cancer 15-22
  21. 21. Sexual Activity 15-23
  22. 22. Female Climacteric & Menopause Female Climacteric –transition from being able to bear children to being unable to do so. ~ 45. The transition lasts ~15-20 years.  Perimenopause – changes in hormones beginning about 10 years prior to menopause  Menopause = cessation of menstruation for 1 year  Irregular periods for a couple of years  Drop in Estrogen and Progesterone production  Side effects vary  Racial and ethnic differences.  ~Half of women have few, if any, symptoms  Men too 15-24
  23. 23. III. Cognitive Development  Results are complicated because many IQ tests include a physical performance portion.  Results may be due to physical changes not cognitive changes 15-26
  24. 24. Cognitive Development Cross-sectional studies - older people scored worse than younger people on traditional IQ tests.  “Intelligence peaks at 18, stays steady until mid-20s, and declines till end of life.”  Crystallized or fluid? [next] 15-27
  25. 25. (fluid intelligence)
  26. 26. Memory Most people show only minimal losses, and many exhibit no memory loss in middle adulthood. Sensory memory and ST memory > no decline in middle age. Long-term memory  Some decline in middle age.  Storage is less efficient.  A reduction in efficiency of retrieval.  Effective strategies stave off some inefficiencies 15-29

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