Motivation in Everyday Life  What are the Biological,      Cognitive, andEnvironmental Influences on      Your Behavior?
W is Motivation?  hat A pre s ume d internal state causing you to m  ove  tow a goal     ard The factors that initiate, ...
Biological Influences on          Motivation Genetic     Factors Instinct    An inherited behavior pattern expressed in a...
Ne e ds and Drive s  Needs are internal biological states that help to initiate, guide, and                              m...
The Physiological Needs: Thirst You become thirsty either through a direct loss of fluids or by consuming too much salt T...
The Physiological Needs: Hunger Your body seeks a balance between your food intake and your energy requirements The regul...
The Physiological Needs: SexSexual responses satisfy both biological and psychological needs Your motivation for sexual a...
Aro u s a lThe body’s general level of alertness and activity as  reflected in muscle tension, heart and respiration rates...
Manag Uncom ortable          ing       f        Levels of Arousal   Your optimum level of arousal is the    appropriate l...
Cognitive I nfluences on       Motivation Unconscious Motives  Conscious and unconscious needs and drives affect your  be...
Expe ctationsBeliefs that anticipate or estim how you                                ateand others will or should behaveEx...
More on e xpe ctationsPerceptions of self-efficacy predict grades in school, the development ofsocial skills, stopping smo...
Lo c us o f Co ntro l Be lie fs   Positive and negative outcomes result from the    perception of where your personal con...
Promoting an Internal Locus of               Controle Assume more responsibility for tasks at work  and at school  Volunte...
Values   Stable beliefs that underlie and are observed in your    behaviors across a wide variety of situations in your l...
Environmental Influences on            MotivationZ   Ince ntive s    A physical object that can be used to motivate    you...
Goal ConflictsIdentifying and resolving                           Ways of resolving the conflictscommon goal conflicts    ...
Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic              Motivation Be fitsa s c te w inc ntive    ne    s o ia d ith e     s Both tangible r...
Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation in the             Workplace Five principles  1. Variety should be present in the tasks th...
Combined Effects of Needs,Expectations, & the Incentive Values Achievement The need to achieve is the desire to compete s...
More on Achievement Those with a High Need to Achieve are realistic    about what they can accomplish    They derive sati...
More on the Fear of Failure Strategies used by those with a Fear of Failure 1. Easy tasks or goals are attempted insuring ...
The Fear of        SuccessSome people actually fear becomingsuccessfulPeople with a fear of success worry about socialreje...
Re actions of Hig h & LownACH to the ir Succe s s e s and           Failure sHigh achievement motivation people believe t...
Modifying Your Need for              Achievement   Six Steps   Engage in self-study    Become sensitive to the presence ...
The Po we r Mo tive   The desire to have an impact on others, arouse strong    emotions in them, or maintain your reputat...
Affiliation: The Need for Human                  Contact It is better to seek moderate levels of Affiliation  Moderate le...
Maslow’ s Hierarchy of            Needs Not all needs are created equal Our needs are arranged along a hierarchy of impor...
The Hierarchy of                Needs    First Priority Needs    The Physiological Needs          The most important to f...
More on the Hierarchy of               Needs   Third Order Needs    Love and Belongingness        Includes the desire for...
More on the Hierarchy of                 Needs   Highest Order Need    Self-Actualization           The need for complete...
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Critical Thinking 6

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Looking at the biological, cognitive and environmental influences on your behavior.

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Critical Thinking 6

  1. 1. Motivation in Everyday Life What are the Biological, Cognitive, andEnvironmental Influences on Your Behavior?
  2. 2. W is Motivation? hat A pre s ume d internal state causing you to m ove tow a goal ard The factors that initiate, guide, and direct your behaviors tow certain goals and that m ard aintain those actions w hile the goals are being pursued Motivation may involve ways of thinking and relating to portions of your environment Motivation has an emotional component attached to it
  3. 3. Biological Influences on Motivation Genetic Factors Instinct An inherited behavior pattern expressed in a uniform and consistent manner, and which occurs in every member of a species that aids in its survival within an environment Human Behavior Flexible and diverse behavior patterns that are guided and shaped by genetics and influenced by cognition and the environment Types of Biological Motives Physical characteristics (desirability as sex partners or strength to protect and provide) Cultural influences (recognition, status, and expression of emotions)
  4. 4. Ne e ds and Drive s Needs are internal biological states that help to initiate, guide, and maintain behaviorDrives are internal states of tension or arousal that initiates actions that will try to satisfy the underlying need Homeostasis is an automatic physiological process that responds to drives in order to reduce the internal tension and maintain a physiological balanceThe Basal Metabolism is the amount of energy the body expends in a resting stateThe Set Point is the internal standard around which the body weight is regulated
  5. 5. The Physiological Needs: Thirst You become thirsty either through a direct loss of fluids or by consuming too much salt The body’s normal balance of water and minerals (i.e. sodium) is upset When fluids are lost, neurons or receptors in the hypothalamus emit a hormone that reduces the amount of water secreted from the kidneys Accompanying this is a change in heart rate and blood pressure The kidneys release a hormone (renin) that acts on the neurons in the hypothalamus creating the sensation of thirst and initiating drinking Managing your need for liquids Alcohol is NOT a thirst quencher due to its dehydration effects Most people attempt to satisfy their thirst with what’s popularly advertised not what they need
  6. 6. The Physiological Needs: Hunger Your body seeks a balance between your food intake and your energy requirements The regulatory system for hunger includes several areas in the brain including the hypothalamus, sensors that monitor nutrients in the blood stream, the liver, and the stomach The body tries to maintain a set point weight and to correct deviations when it gets too low or too high a weight Coping with your need to eat How much and what you eat is under biological control Family, culture, social pressures, physical and psychological problems, and personal preferences influence this Dieting When the body receives an insufficient calorie intake, it goes into a starvation mode and stores every calorie it gets = more weight When the diet is finished, the body brings itself up to set point again The best thing is to go for less than two pounds per week weight loss, get regular exercise, and eat well-balanced meals
  7. 7. The Physiological Needs: SexSexual responses satisfy both biological and psychological needs Your motivation for sexual activity is affected by cognitive and environmental as well as physiological factors Sex hormones influence sexual arousal through their effects on the hypothalamus Sex hormones’ influence in humans are not as strong as the influence they have on the lower animals When sexually aroused, the levels of sex hormones increase with the human imagination playing a major role in sexual arousal Cultural practices, and religious and moral codes affect the expression of sexual desire
  8. 8. Aro u s a lThe body’s general level of alertness and activity as reflected in muscle tension, heart and respiration rates, and patterns of the brain’s electrical activity The Ye rke s -Do ds o n Law When the level of arousal is too high or too low, performance falls off 1. This is due to the fact that under high levels of arousal, the most recently learned behaviors are often dropped in favor of old habits 2. High arousal interferes with your ability to solve problems and make decisions People vary in what they consider high or low arousal levels Some people are sensation seeking actively seeking ways to maintain high levels of arousal and excitement in their lives Some sensation seekers become artists, competitive sports enthusiasts, scientists, or entertainers; others become criminals, schemers, con artists, or drug addicts
  9. 9. Manag Uncom ortable ing f Levels of Arousal Your optimum level of arousal is the appropriate level of sensation for a given activity To ob tain this le ve l, you may ne e d to rais e or low e r your le ve l of s timulation Develop a small-win mentality Breaking problems into smaller parts, pursuing each part, and developing some successes in tackling each aspect of the problem is how to develop this state of mind Large, unmanageable problems become a series of smaller, manageable situations With a series of smaller wins it becomes much easier to resolve the larger issue --- and you’ll be more motivated to do it
  10. 10. Cognitive I nfluences on Motivation Unconscious Motives Conscious and unconscious needs and drives affect your behavior You’re not overtly aware of the influences, but they do exert a control over you Getting in touch with Unconscious Motives First, be willing to examine your actions: “What made me do this?” Try not to discount or disregard completely the reactions other people have to what you say and do: “What is valid about their point of view?” Try to identify the motivations in your fantasies and dreams: “What is this telling me about my personal desires?” Your dreams and fantasies may indicate you need someone to discuss your deeper feelings and desires with Discuss your concerns and behaviors with friends, parents, or a counselor
  11. 11. Expe ctationsBeliefs that anticipate or estim how you ateand others will or should behaveExpectations are present in: statements about your hopesfor the future, rules of social behavior, and whether you’llachieve success or not They compel you to respond in certain waysThe role of personal expectations in your successes andfailures Expectations are a good predictor of achievement in school, the job, and in relationships Anticipation that what you’ll do will or will not lead to something productive is part of the story Self-efficacy (the expectancy that your efforts will lead to success) must be examined Self-efficacy has two components: the perception that you possess the skills and abilities to achieve the goals; and your estimate that if those skills are used, there will be a positive outcome
  12. 12. More on e xpe ctationsPerceptions of self-efficacy predict grades in school, the development ofsocial skills, stopping smoking, career choices, coping with feared events,and performance of sales people Self-efficacy is necessary to make changes in your life The higher the sense of self-efficacy, the better the performance As the performance increases, the self-efficacy is enhancedFour factors produce an effective level of self-efficacy 1. The number of success experiences on a task --- particularly if they are early in learning 2. Observing admired and respected models obtaining productive outcomes from their efforts 3. Listening to others when they try to boost your morale 4. Correctly interpreting information from your psychological states
  13. 13. Lo c us o f Co ntro l Be lie fs Positive and negative outcomes result from the perception of where your personal control is located Beliefs in locus of control are learned through past experience and are not fixed Internal locus of control – the belief that your efforts are under your control and that they will lead to positive outcomes Tend to be assertive, extroverted, self-directed, prosocial, and interested in developing social relationships External locus of control – the belief that externals (e.g. fate, luck, the stars, or powerful others) control most aspects of your life
  14. 14. Promoting an Internal Locus of Controle Assume more responsibility for tasks at work and at school Volunteer to do things other people normally take on Begin with easy things, then select more and more difficult taskst Try new activities rather than the usual safe, secure ways of doing things Try a new sport, a new food, a new way to get home from school or work; just break old habit patterns People with strong external locus of control beliefs do things which reinforce those beliefsn Consider changing aspects of your current environment “How does everyone in my life contribute to my locus of control beliefs?” “What types of people do I need around me to change that?” “What about my current job or school contributes to my believing I’m not in control of things?”
  15. 15. Values Stable beliefs that underlie and are observed in your behaviors across a wide variety of situations in your life Value s affe c t yo ur willing ne s s to initiate ac tio ns de s ig ne d to o btain c e rtain g o als Value s affe c t the de g re e o f e ffo rt yo u put into an ac tivity and ho w we ll yo u pe rs is t in purs uing c e rtain g o als Value s affe c t the c ho ic e s yo u make in life Examining your values What do I c urre ntly value , and am I s atis fie d with what I value ? What dis c re panc ie s e xis t be twe e n what I value and my be havio rs ? Cognitive dissonance What dis c re panc ie s e xis t amo ng the thing s I value ? Inconsistent beliefs alone can create cognitive dissonance
  16. 16. Environmental Influences on MotivationZ Ince ntive s A physical object that can be used to motivate you to act; Any external stimulus or goal in an environment that motivates your actions Incentives are goals you’ll pursue in attempting to reduce certain drives or obtain something you consider important and personally valuable Some incentives are more valuable than others, hence, they have incentive value Problems pursuing incentives Two or more goals may have similar positive features, negative features, or a combination of both When there are combinations of features there is goal conflict
  17. 17. Goal ConflictsIdentifying and resolving Ways of resolving the conflictscommon goal conflicts produced by goals with bothApproach-Approach conflict positive and negative qualities When two goals are equally attractive or 1. Find more reasons for making desirable one goal more attractive thanAvoidance-Avoidance conflict the other When two goals are equally undesirable 2. Find a new goal that has the Must weigh the negative qualities of both positive characteristics of both and choose the “lesser of two evils” goals Another solution is to find a differentoption that has more positive qualities 3. Just go ahead and pick oneApproach-Avoidance conflict One goal is attractive and one isn’tDouble Approach-Avoidance conflict Two or more goals have both attractive and unattractive qualities
  18. 18. Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Motivation Be fitsa s c te w inc ntive ne s o ia d ith e s Both tangible rewards and subjective thoughts and feelings accompany the goal-seeking Extrinsic motivation The desire to perform a behavior to get an external reward or avoid punishment Intrinsic motivation The desire to perform a behavior where pleasure is derived from performing the behavior Sometimes external rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation External rewards are important in many activities. If they are expected, it is unlikely that the activity would continue without them.
  19. 19. Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation in the Workplace Five principles 1. Variety should be present in the tasks that employees perform 2. People need a certain amount of autonomy to do their jobs Managers need to avoid over-supervising every detail of the job 3. People work better when they can identify how their efforts contribute to the final product or outcome of the task Employees need to feel ownership for a product or outcome so they can feel they’ve made a difference 4. Regular feedback on how well an employee is performing needs to be provided This allows corrections to be made and positive feedback makes people feel good about their efforts 5. Opportunities to work on tasks and/or to discuss job-related issues with other employees need to be part of the work environment This allows for ideas to be shared and for people to recognize each other’s contributions as well as having some of their social needs met
  20. 20. Combined Effects of Needs,Expectations, & the Incentive Values Achievement The need to achieve is the desire to compete successfully with standards of excellence Satisfying the need to achieve over time produces a number of desirable consequences: Persistence on tasks, initiative, assuming personal responsibility for doing things, and setting realistic goals Three factors influence your level of achievement motive 1. It is a learned drive which developed from childhood when excellence and competition are stressed and successes rewarded with praise and affection 2. It is an expectation about whether or not your attempts to satisfy this need are likely to be successful. This develops from having success experiences in the past. 3. It has the incentive value of goals which are the positive and negative qualities associated with the goals For you to achieve and get ahead in life, you need to have an appropriate amount of internal need or drive to achieve, expect success that will help you meet this need, and value obtaining goals that represent an accomplishment
  21. 21. More on Achievement Those with a High Need to Achieve are realistic about what they can accomplish They derive satisfaction from accomplishing challenging tasks or goals A challenge is defined as a goal or task of intermediate difficultye The Fear of Failure is associated with the need to achieve It is the anxiety that occurs when a challenge is faced and you are concerned about your ability to handle it People vary in terms of how much the fear of failure affects their lives
  22. 22. More on the Fear of Failure Strategies used by those with a Fear of Failure 1. Easy tasks or goals are attempted insuring success 2. Difficult tasks or goals are attempted insuring failure 3. Tasks are attempted with a lack of investment of time or effort 4. Procrastination increases so things never get done on time or at the last minute thus insuring that the work isn’t done appropriately 5. Superstriving occurs so that they make a supreme effort and work beyond their capabilities ending up exhausted and “burned out” 6. Lying and cheating are sometimes used to get ahead only giving temporary relief from the anxiety over failing
  23. 23. The Fear of SuccessSome people actually fear becomingsuccessfulPeople with a fear of success worry about socialrejection or disapproval from their lesssuccessful peers. They also may fear losing control over theirindependence and autonomy if they became toosuccessful Often, if they do become successful, they feel that they somehow fooled the world and fear someone uncovering their great “deception”
  24. 24. Re actions of Hig h & LownACH to the ir Succe s s e s and Failure sHigh achievement motivation people believe that ability and effort pay off Will dig in and work harder when things aren’t working out Take their time by considering all possibilities before making a decision Low achievement people believe outside factors control their successes Tend to stop trying and don’ t believe that their skills and abilities make much of a difference They’ ll generally wait for easier tasks Gamblers and high risk takers
  25. 25. Modifying Your Need for Achievement Six Steps Engage in self-study Become sensitive to the presence of achievement motivation in your thoughts and actions and assess the skills you have that will help you get ahead Think creatively and imaginatively Find unique ways to become more successful in your career and set goals for future activities Establish moderate goals Select goals you have a realistic chance of obtaining Take initiative and responsibility Don’t depend on others, get things done yourself Attribute your successes more to your skills, ability, and effort Don’t choose easy tasks or attribute your success to luck Think positively Imagine yourself becoming successful due to the actions you took
  26. 26. The Po we r Mo tive The desire to have an impact on others, arouse strong emotions in them, or maintain your reputation and prestige Three factors affect the attempt to gain or use power: 1. An internal need or drive to feel powerful 2. Personal expectations or estimates of whether the efforts to obtain influence will be successful 3. The incentive value of the goals being pursued Power is a complex force Both men and women have similar interests in obtaining “socially appropriate” power indicators (e.g. prestige, the ability to exert leadership) Men have a stronger tendency to abuse power High needs for power are associated with alcoholism, reckless driving, gambling, verbal and physical aggression and abuse, and overcontrolling in a relationship Early family history plays a role in socially unacceptable displays of power The misuse of power affects other areas of your life Those with a high need for power have a difficult time establishing close relationships
  27. 27. Affiliation: The Need for Human Contact It is better to seek moderate levels of Affiliation Moderate levels of affiliation produces more satisfaction in social interactions Women with high needs for affiliation have more negative moods Often, your expectations of how others should act leaves you disappointed If you’re relatively unconcerned about affiliation you’ll have a difficult time with intimate relationships and be suspicious of others, eventually withdrawing from social contact and the chance for personal growthAnxiety increases the need for Affiliation Having others around when you’re anxious helps you to feel better Having people who take a more active role in helping you to cope is much more effective
  28. 28. Maslow’ s Hierarchy of Needs Not all needs are created equal Our needs are arranged along a hierarchy of importance Motivation is more than physio- logical drives You have some degree of independent control over your behavior You are capable of evaluating possibilities and incentives and choosing among them Higher order needs are motivators Self-actualization is a major need, but lower order needs must be met first
  29. 29. The Hierarchy of Needs First Priority Needs The Physiological Needs The most important to fulfill Air, water, food, sleep, protection from the elements, etc. Second Order Needs Safety and Security The need to be cared for and protected, and to care for and protect others The need for structure, order, and predictability in the environment We live with two conflicting needs: safety and security and the need to express our talents and energies in self-fulfilling ways Most people don’t get beyond Safety and Security Will stay in a situation even when it’s destructive often through fear of disapproval from others
  30. 30. More on the Hierarchy of Needs Third Order Needs Love and Belongingness Includes the desire for community and to feel a part of a place called “home” Shows up as the need for close, meaningful relationships with family and friends The widespread loneliness in our society reflects the difficulty in fulfilling this need Fourth Order Needs Self-Esteem The need for a healthy sense of self respect and to be respected by others Included are the needs for feelings of competence, mastery, and achievement
  31. 31. More on the Hierarchy of Needs Highest Order Need Self-Actualization The need for completeness, using your talents and capabilities, to know and understand yourself and others more fully, and to contribute to the world in a positive way Less than 10% of the people in the world achieve self- actualization All the lower needs must be met before self-actualization can be attempted

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