Chapter 11 12 Feldman


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Chapter 11 12 Feldman

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence Development Across the Life Span, 4/E Robert S. Feldman © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing
  2. 2. Adolescence <ul><li>Developmental stage between childhood and adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning and ending ages are imprecise </li></ul>
  3. 3. Physical Maturation <ul><li>Growth Spurt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme changes in height and weight are common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost matches the growth rate of infancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average/year: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boys grow 4.1 inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Girls 3.5 inches. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Differences: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Girls begin about 2 years earlier. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>By age 13, boys catch up—are taller </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Puberty: The Start of Sexual Maturation <ul><li>PUBERTY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the period when sexual organs mature, beginning earlier for girls than for boys. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pituitary gland (master gland) kicks it off </li></ul><ul><li>Girls begin puberty about 11 or 12; boys begin at 13 or 14. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What triggers puberty? <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural factors </li></ul><ul><li>MENARCHE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st menstruation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>varies in age beginning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SES, nutrition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body fat to muscle ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Stress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secular trend </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involves organs and structures of the body related to reproduction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involve visible signs of sexual maturity not involved with the sex organs directly. </li></ul></ul>Process of Puberty
  7. 7. Body Image: Reactions to Physical Changes in Adolescence <ul><li>Involves adolescent's reactions to the physical changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Most tend to be happy with their development </li></ul><ul><li>Timing of puberty is key in adolescent reaction </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Timing of Puberty <ul><li>Girls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early maturation is often difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to be more popular (maybe too popular) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactions depend on cultural norms (country and community). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late maturing girls the picture is complicated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be overlooked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low social status at first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, when they catch up their self-esteem is high. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Timing of Puberty (continued) <ul><li>Boys: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early maturation is generally positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to be better at athletics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More popular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow up to be more cooperative and responsible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But also are more likely to have school difficulties and become more involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late maturation is difficult for boys. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller boys  less attractive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disadvantage in sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can lead to declines in self-concept which can extend into adulthood. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Nutrition, Food & Eating Disorders During Adolescence <ul><li>Growth spurt requires an increase in food (especially key nutrients such as calcium and iron). </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity is a common concern during adolescence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 in 3 adolescents are overweight; 1 in 20 are obese (body weight 20 % above average) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychological consequences of body image </li></ul><ul><li>Potential health consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High blood pressure; diabetes; likely to be obese adults. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia <ul><li>ANOREXIA NERVOSA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>severe eating disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individuals refuse to eat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of behavior and appearance  “normal” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily affects white women: Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BULIMIA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by binge and purge behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vomiting or the use of laxatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to a chemical imbalance with serious effects, including heart failure. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Brain Development <ul><li>Prefrontal cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involved in impulse control, thinking, planning, evaluating, making decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completely developed in early 20s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May explain adolescent’s inability to control impulses and reckless behavior </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Cognitive Development and Schooling <ul><li>FORMAL OPERATIONS PERIOD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>develop the ability to think abstractly and hypothetically. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter at about 12 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Full capabilities unfold gradually throughout early adolescence (approximately ages 12 to 15) </li></ul><ul><li>Not everyone achieves formal operational skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some studies estimate that 25 to 50 % of college students do not </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Consequences of Using Formal Operations (continued) <ul><li>Changes in everyday behavior (use thinking skills): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>question parents and other authority figures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Become more argumentative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poke holes in others explanations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use critical thinking to challenge and see other perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be challenging for parents </li></ul>
  15. 15. Egocentrism in Adolescent Thinking <ul><li>ADOLESCENT EGOCENTRISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stage of self-absorption where the world is seen only from one's own perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly critical of authority figures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unwilling to accept criticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quick to find fault with others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps explain why teens often think they’re the focus of everyone’s attention. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>IMAGINARY AUDIENCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>where adolescents think they are the focus of everyone else's attention. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PERSONAL FABLES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the belief that the adolescent is unique and exceptional and shared by no one else . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No one understands me </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk taking behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>Distortions due to Adolescent Egocentrism
  17. 17. Threats to Adolescents’ Well-Being <ul><li>Illegal drug use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very prevalent and rising </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1990's drug use rose, after decline in the 1980's. </li></ul><ul><li>Marijuana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 % of 8 th graders; 40 % of seniors said smoked at least once in the last year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>50%+ seniors have used an illegal drug at least once </li></ul>
  18. 18. Illegal Drugs <ul><li>Why do teens use illegal drugs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived pleasurable experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escape from daily pressures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The thrill of doing something illegal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A number of role-models use drugs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer pressure. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>declined, but still substantial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasons why: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages from society—advertisements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological and psychological dependency (10  habit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasant emotional state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling: Parents’ and peer smoking increases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Will prematurely kill 200 million children & teens (worldwide) </li></ul>Tobacco: The Dangers of Smoking
  20. 20. Sexually Transmitted Diseases <ul><li>AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexually transmitted disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by the HIV virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No cure; ultimately causes death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission: exchange of bodily fluids (usually sexual contact) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AIDS is one of the leading causes of death among young people. </li></ul>
  21. 21. AIDS and Adolescent Behavior <ul><li>Difficult to motivate adolescents to practice safe sex and change their sexual behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings of invulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embarrassment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forgetfulness </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. STD Statistics <ul><li>How many will get an STD in one year? </li></ul><ul><li>Of those sexually active: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 million teens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 1 person in 8 aged 13-19 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 1 in 4 </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 3 million teens, about 1 person in 8 aged 13-19 & about 1 in 4 of those who have had sexual intercourse acquire an STD every year. Among the most common: Chlamydia: More common among teens than older adults. 10-29% of sexually active teens & 10% of all teen boys. Genital Herpes: A viral disease that is incurable, indicated by small blisters /sores around the genitals. Trichomoniasis: An infection of the vagina or penis, caused by a parasite. Gonorrhea: Teens aged 15-19 have higher rates than older adults. Syphilis: Infection rates more than doubled between 1986 & 1990 among women aged 15-19.
  24. 24. <ul><li>Abstinence is the only certain way to avoid STDs </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents need to be encouraged to practice safer sex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use condoms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid high risk behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know your partner’s sexual history. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider abstinence. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Chapter 12 Social and Personality Development in Adolescence Development Across the Life Span, 4/E Robert S. Feldman © 2006 Pearson Education/Prentice-Hall Publishing
  26. 27. Identity: Asking &quot;Who Am I?&quot; <ul><li>Self consciousness takes center stage </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on “Who am I?” and “Where do I belong in the world?” </li></ul><ul><li>WHY? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teens become more like adults intellectually and physically </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Self Concept: What Am I Like? <ul><li>Broadens to include both self assessment and others' views. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>View becomes more organized and coherent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to see multiple aspects of themselves (which can be confusing at first). </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Identity Formation: Crisis or Change? <ul><li>Erik Erikson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible psychological difficulties in their search for identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ the adolescent identity crisis” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IDENTITY-VERSUS-IDENTITY-CONFUSION STAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescents seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Erikson's IDENTITY-VERSUS-IDENTITY-CONFUSION STAGE <ul><li>If no identity is found: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of self is &quot;diffuse&quot;. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social pressure to achieve a secure identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents, teachers, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think of the questions high school seniors get asked: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Which job track to follow? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attend college? Which one? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Marcia’s Approach to Identity Development <ul><li>James Marcia suggests four categories within which either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a process of consciously choosing between various alternatives and makes decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a psychological investment in a course of action or an ideology takes place. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Marcia’s categories of adolescent identity <ul><li>IDENTITY ACHIEVEMENT – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adolescents consider and explore various alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment to one </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IDENTITY FORECLOSURE – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate or no exploration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment made (usually following others' directives). </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Marcia’s categories of adolescent identity (continued) <ul><li>IDENTITY DIFFUSION – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adolescents explore various options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>never commit to one </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MORATORIUM – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adolescents explore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no commitment made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creates anxiety and conflict </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. Marcia’s Categories (continued) <ul><li>Although adolescents are not stuck in one category, research indicates that identity gels by the age of 18. </li></ul><ul><li>For some, identity formation takes place beyond the adolescent period. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Teen Depression <ul><li>Depression has several causes, including biological, environmental, and social factors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic predisposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of loved one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depressed parent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpopular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few close friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiencing rejection </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Girls have higher incidences of depression than boys but the cause is not clear. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More stresses on the female gender role? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reactions to stress? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible that hormones are a factor. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Adolescent Suicide <ul><li>Rates have tripled in the last 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>3rd most common cause of death </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, 1 teenage suicide every 90 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Differences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More girls attempt suicide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More boys succeed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estimated: 200 attempts for every successful suicide. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Adolescent Suicide <ul><li>Other factors in adolescent suicide: </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Family conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>History of abuse and/or neglect </li></ul><ul><li>Drug and alcohol abuse </li></ul>
  38. 39. Warning Signs <ul><li>Direct or indirect talk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I wish I were dead.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Don’t worry, I’ll be out of your hair soon.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>School difficulties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missed classes, drop in grades </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing a will </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in eating habits </li></ul><ul><li>General depression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep habits, lack of energy, uncommunicative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dramatic behavior changes </li></ul><ul><li>Preoccupation with death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art, music, conversation </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Relationships: Family and Friends <ul><li>Family relationships change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>adolescents begin to question, and sometimes rebel, against their parents' views. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role shift: quest for adulthood and autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents feel obligated to family duties and support. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Conflicts with Parents <ul><ul><li>Conflicts likely in early adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents try to discern appropriate conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adolescence become argumentative and assertive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With trust more, combativeness declines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most family relationships are stable, but about 20% have a rough time </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. Relationships with Peers: The Importance of Belonging <ul><li>More critical to adolescents than any other time of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunity for social comparison </li></ul><ul><li>REFERENCE GROUP, a group of people with whom one compares oneself. </li></ul><ul><li>Present a set of norms or standards, against which adolescents judge their social success. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Cliques and Crowds <ul><li>CLIQUES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 to 12 people who have frequent interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CROWDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>larger groups where people share some characteristic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>often don't interact with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Membership determined by degree of similarity with members in a group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stereotypes: jocks, brains, druggies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations that people behave in specific ways. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 44. Conformity: Peer Pressure in Adolescence <ul><li>Some highly susceptible to peer pressure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not rise in adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity decreases as adolescents increase their own autonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grow in confidence and more able to make decisions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Failure to resist conformation can mean trouble </li></ul>
  44. 45. Dating, Sexual Behavior, and Teen Pregnancy <ul><ul><ul><li>“Hooking Up” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Varied meaning: kissing to sexual intercourse </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dating serves developmental functions: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning how to establish intimacy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning how to engage in entertainment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to an identity in progress </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural influences effect dating patterns </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 46. Sexual Relationships <ul><li>Puberty creates a new world of relationship issues and possibilities for teens </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that teens think about sex a substantial amount of time each day </li></ul>
  46. 47. Sexual Relationships <ul><li>For most, initiation into sexuality begins with masturbation (self stimulation). </li></ul><ul><li>Masturbation often produces feelings of shame and guilt in the American culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Experts view masturbation as normal and harmless. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Sexual Intercourse <ul><li>Ages for sexual intercourse have been declining </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 5 teens have had sex before the age of 15 </li></ul><ul><li>80 percent have had sex before the age of 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Premarital intercourse is viewed as acceptable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Males and females, no more “double standard.” </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Adolescents & Sexual Activity
  49. 50. Teen Pregnancy <ul><li>Teen pregnancy rate is declining </li></ul><ul><li>Still higher rates in U.S. than in other industrialized countries </li></ul><ul><li>Teenage mothers do not fare well: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor school performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their children more likely to be teen parents themselves. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. Teen Pregnancy <ul><ul><li>As the U.S. is relatively intolerant of premarital sex, there are not enough education programs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key factors in preventing/breaking the poverty-pregnancy cycle are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completing high school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postponing future births </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require education, supportive family, and increase in social programs. </li></ul></ul>