Adulthood

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this presentation describes different views, theories and concepts on adulthood.

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Adulthood

  1. 1. ADULTHOOD Adekunle/ Anne/ Henna/ Monicah/ Sudip
  2. 2. DEFINITION <ul><li>Group of people between age group 18 – 60. </li></ul><ul><li>Young Adulthood: 18 – 39 </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Adulthood: 40 – 60 </li></ul><ul><li>Physical development and Psychological development </li></ul><ul><li>Objectivity, Maturity, Responsibility, Individuality. </li></ul>
  3. 3. DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES <ul><li>Africa & Asia: </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility that also includes family. </li></ul><ul><li>Europe: </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom & Independence </li></ul>
  4. 4. Developmental Crisis in Adulthood Erikson’s Theory <ul><li>Sigmund Freud behind the theory (1949) </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson’s (1902-1994) eight stages of development </li></ul><ul><li>1. first year 2. second & third years </li></ul><ul><li>3. fourth & fifth years 4. six to 11 </li></ul><ul><li>5. adolescence 6. young adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>7. middle adulthood 8. late adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Adulthood: </li></ul><ul><li>Physical growth is complete </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological development: emotional, personality & identity development </li></ul><ul><li>Dreams, challenges, achievements & failures </li></ul>
  5. 5. Developmental Crisis in Adulthood Erikson’s Theory <ul><li>Young Adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Intimacy vS Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishment vS Failures </li></ul>
  6. 6. Levinson’s Transitional Phases in Adulthood (1978) <ul><li>(Late adulthood) </li></ul><ul><li>LATE ADULT TRANSITION </li></ul><ul><li>Culmination of middle adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>AGE 50 TRANSITION </li></ul><ul><li>Entering middle adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>MID-LIFE TRANSITION </li></ul><ul><li>Settling down </li></ul><ul><li>AGE 30 TRANSITION </li></ul><ul><li>Entering the adult world </li></ul><ul><li>EARLY ADULT TRANSITION </li></ul><ul><li>(Childhood and adolescence) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Levinson’s Transitional Phases in Adulthood(1978) <ul><li>Process of passing from one stage to another with transition phases </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation & Planning for change in transition phases </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation of past life to present & present to future </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing firm foundations for the next phase </li></ul>
  8. 8. Developmental Tasks during Adulthood Havighurst’s Theory (1972) <ul><li>Robert Havighurst divided the whole life course into stages with the additional concept of development (developmental tasks) </li></ul><ul><li>These are the tasks that occur during life and need to be successfully achieved to move on to succeed in completing further tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Failure in the tasks will lead to unhappiness, disapproval by society and problems with later tasks. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Developmental Tasks during Adulthood Havighurst’s Theory (1972) <ul><li>Early Adulthood: </li></ul><ul><li># Intimate relationship & family </li></ul><ul><li># Managing a home (responsibility) </li></ul><ul><li># Occupation & employment </li></ul><ul><li># Civic responsibility </li></ul><ul><li># Socializing </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Adulthood: </li></ul><ul><li># More civic & social responsibility </li></ul><ul><li># Assisting teenage children become responsible & happy adults </li></ul><ul><li># Being satisfied with occupation or employment </li></ul><ul><li># Developing adult leisure time activities </li></ul><ul><li># Accepting & adjusting to the physiological changes of middle age </li></ul><ul><li># Adjusting to ageing parents . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Criticism of Theories <ul><li>Don’t incorporate difference & diversity. It’s culturally specific and has western influences. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender biased; it is made from male perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed & deterministic. They’re not so practical. The research were done in mid 19 th centuries. Things have dramatically changed in today’s societies. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcing socially constructed expectations. </li></ul>
  11. 11. THANK YOU!!!!

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