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Child development, chapter 14, Caprice Paduano


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Child development, chapter 14, Caprice Paduano

  1. 1. Chapter 14 Physical Development in Adolescents Caprice Paduano Child Development
  2. 2. Chapter 14 Key Questions <ul><li>What physical changes do adolescents experience? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the consequences of early and late maturation? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the nutritional needs and concerns of adolescents? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the effects of stress, and what can be done about it? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter 14 Key Questions <ul><li>What are some threats to the well-being of adolescents? </li></ul><ul><li>What dangers do adolescent sexual practices present, and how can these dangers be avoided? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Growth During Adolescence: The Rapid Pace of Physical and Sexual Maturation <ul><li>Adolescence The developmental stage between childhood and adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent growth spurt A period of very rapid growth in height and weight during adolescence </li></ul>
  5. 5. Puberty: The Start of Sexual Maturation <ul><li>Puberty, the period during which the sexual organs mature, begins when the pituitary gland in the brain signals other glands in children’s bodies to begin producing the sex hormones, androgens (male hormones) or estrogens (female hormones), at adult levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls start puberty at around 11 or 12 years of age, and boys begin at around 13 or 14 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>However, there are wide variations among individuals. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Puberty in Girls <ul><li>Menarche The onset of menstruation </li></ul><ul><li>It appears that girls who are better nourished and healthier are more apt to start menstruation at an earlier age than those who suffer from malnutrition or chronic disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental stress due to such factors as parental divorce or high levels of family conflict can bring about an early onset. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Puberty in Girls <ul><li>Secular trend A statistical tendency observed over several generations </li></ul><ul><li>Primary sex characteristics Characteristics that are associated with the development of the organs and structures of the body that directly relate to reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary sex characteristics The visible signs of sexual maturity that do not involve the sex organs directly </li></ul>
  8. 8. Puberty in Boys <ul><li>Boys’ sexual maturation follows a somewhat different course than girls’. </li></ul><ul><li>The surge in production of hormones that triggers the start of adolescence also may lead to rapid swings in mood. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Body Image: Reactions to Physical Changes in Adolescence <ul><li>Adolescents are well aware of what is happening to their bodies, and they may react with horror or joy, spending long periods in front of mirrors. </li></ul><ul><li>How children react to the onset of puberty depends in part on when it happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls and boys who mature either much earlier or much later than most of their peers are especially affected by the timing of puberty. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Early Maturation <ul><li>For boys, early maturation is largely a plus. The story is a bit different for early maturing girls. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural norms and standards regarding how women should look play a big role in how girls experience early maturation. </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences of early maturation vary even within the U.S., depending on the views of girls’ peer groups and on prevailing community standards regarding sex. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Late Maturation <ul><li>As with early maturation, the situation with late maturation is mixed, although in this case boys fare worse than girls. </li></ul><ul><li>In sum, the reactions to early and late maturation present a complex picture. </li></ul><ul><li>Some developmentalists suggest that other factors may be more pertinent in determining an adolescent’s behavior than the presence of early and later maturation, or the effects of puberty in general. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Nutrition and Food: Fueling the Growth of Adolescence <ul><li>For most adolescents, the major nutritional issue is ensuring the consumption of a sufficient balance of appropriate foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Two extremes of nutrition can be a major concern for a substantial minority and can create a real threat to health. </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity and eating disorders are among the most prevalent problems. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Obesity <ul><li>The most common nutritional concern during adolescence is obesity . </li></ul><ul><li>The psychological consequences may be particularly severe during a time of life when body image is of special concern. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of exercise is one of the main culprits, but there are additional reasons for the high rate of obesity during adolescence. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia <ul><li>Anorexia nervosa A severe and potentially life-threatening eating disorder in which individuals refuse to eat, while denying that their behavior or skeletal appearance is out of the ordinary </li></ul><ul><li>Bulimia An eating disorder that primarily afflicts adolescent girls and young women, characterized by binges on large quantities of food followed by purges of the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives </li></ul>
  15. 15. Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia <ul><li>The exact reasons for the occurrence of eating disorders are not clear, although several factors appear to be implicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Both psychological therapy and dietary modifications are likely to be needed for successful treatment. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Brain Development and Thought: Paving the Way for Cognitive Growth <ul><li>As the number of neurons continues to grow, and their interconnections become richer and more complex, adolescent thinking becomes more sophisticated. </li></ul><ul><li>One specific area of the brain that undergoes considerable development throughout adolescence is the prefrontal cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescent brain development also produces changes in regions involving dopamine sensitivity and production. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sleep Deprivation <ul><li>With increasing academic and social demands placed upon them, adolescents go to bed later and get up earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, they often lead their lives in something of a sleep-deprived daze. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleepy teens have lower grades, are more depressed, and have greater difficulty controlling their moods. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, they are a great risk for auto accidents. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stress and Coping <ul><li>Stress The physical response to events that threaten or challenge us </li></ul><ul><li>Most people’s lives are crowded with events and circumstances, known as stressors , that produce threats to our well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress produces several outcomes, both negative and positive. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term, continuous exposure to stressors may result in a reduction of the body’s ability to deal with stress. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Origins of Stress: Reacting to Life’s Challenges <ul><li>Although stress is experienced long before adolescence, it becomes particularly wearing during the teenage years, and it can produce formidable costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychosomatic disorders Medical problems caused by the interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Stress may even cause more serious, even life-threatening illnesses. </li></ul>
  20. 20. How Stressed Are You?
  21. 21. Meeting the Challenge of Stress <ul><li>Coping Efforts to control, reduce, or tolerate the threats and challenges that lead to stress </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-focused coping </li></ul><ul><li>Emotion-focused coping </li></ul><ul><li>Social support </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive coping </li></ul>
  22. 22. Relaxation Response
  23. 23. Threats to Adolescents’ Well-Being <ul><li>The use of drugs, as well as other kinds of substance use and abuse, is one of several kinds of threats to health during adolescence, usually one of the healthiest periods of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the extent of risky behavior is difficult to gauge, preventable problems such as drug, alcohol, and tobacco use, as well as sexually transmitted diseases, represent serious threats to adolescents’ health and well-being. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Illegal Drugs <ul><li>Adolescents have a variety of reasons for using drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Addictive drugs Drugs that produce a biological or psychological dependence in users, leading to increasingly powerful cravings for them </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to physical addiction, drugs also can produce psychological addiction. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Alcohol: Use and Abuse <ul><li>Three-fourths of college students consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the last 30 days. </li></ul><ul><li>Binge drinking is a particular problem on college campuses, and affects even those who don’t drink or drink very little. </li></ul><ul><li>False consensus effect </li></ul><ul><li>Alcoholics People who have learned to depend on alcohol and are unable to control their drinking </li></ul>
  26. 26. Tobacco: The Dangers of Smoking <ul><li>Most adolescents are well aware of the dangers of smoking, but many still indulge in it. </li></ul><ul><li>A smaller proportion of adolescents smoke than in prior decades, but the numbers remain substantial; and within certain groups the numbers are increasing. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking is becoming a habit that is harder and harder to maintain. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Sexually Transmitted Infections: One Risk of Sex <ul><li>Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is one of the leading causes of death among young people across the globe. </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS has no cure, and although it can be treatable with a “cocktail” of powerful drugs, the worldwide death toll from the disease is significant. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexually transmitted infection (STI) An infection that is spread through sexual contact </li></ul>
  28. 28. AIDS and Adolescent Behavior <ul><li>AIDS awareness has resulted in an increase in the use of condoms during sexual intercourse, and people are less likely to engage in casual sex with new acquaintances. </li></ul><ul><li>Teens are prone to feel invulnerable and are therefore more likely to engage in risky behavior, believing their chance of contracting AIDS is minimal. </li></ul><ul><li>Short of abstinence, there is no certain way to avoid AIDS. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Safer Sex Practices
  30. 30. Other Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Chlamydia </li></ul><ul><li>Genital herpes </li></ul><ul><li>Trichomoniasis </li></ul><ul><li>Gonorrhea </li></ul><ul><li>Syphilis </li></ul>
  31. 31. Other Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Contracting an STI not only is an immediate problem during adolescence but also could become a problem later in life. </li></ul><ul><li>Some diseases increase the chances of future infertility and cancer. </li></ul>