Preschool (Pt 1)


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Physiological growth in preschool years.

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Preschool (Pt 1)

  1. 1. Preschool (Part 1)
  2. 2. Physical Growth <ul><li>Individual Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Average differences in height & weight between boys & girls begins to increase </li></ul><ul><li>Boys start becoming taller </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in economically deprived countries v. developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>Better nutrition & health care </li></ul><ul><li>Difference in U.S. between advantaged & disadvantaged children </li></ul>
  3. 3. Growth of the Brain <ul><li>Fastest Growing Part of the Body </li></ul><ul><li>By age 5, the brain is 90% of adult size </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in growth due to increase in the number of interconnections </li></ul><ul><li>It allows for more complex communications between neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the amount of myelin </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in the size of the corpus callosum </li></ul>
  4. 4. Brain Lateralization <ul><li>Each Hemisphere has Certain Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Each hemisphere processes information slightly differently </li></ul><ul><li>The left processes sequentially </li></ul><ul><li>The right processes holistically </li></ul>
  5. 5. Boy Brain / Girl Brain <ul><li>Male & Female Brains are Predisposed to Function Slightly Differently </li></ul><ul><li>Girls & Boys Show Some Hemispheric Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Gender & Cultural Relations to Brain Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Some Cultures Process Information Related to Vocal Sounds Differently </li></ul><ul><li>Increases in Myelin May Be Related to Growing Cognitive Capacities as well as Memory Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Boys & Girls have Differences in Lower Body Reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Boys & Girls Process Auditory Information Differently </li></ul><ul><li>Boys show greater Specialization of Left Hemisphere Language </li></ul><ul><li>Girls Language Capabilities is More Evenly Distributed Between Hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Girls Language Development is Faster than Boys </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sensory Development <ul><li>Brain Development Brings Changes </li></ul><ul><li>By preschool, a gradual shift in the way objects are viewed </li></ul><ul><li>Can see parts instead of the whole </li></ul><ul><li>Until 3 or 4 years, preschoolers focus on the insides of 2-D objects instead of the internal details </li></ul><ul><li>By 4 or 5 they’re looking at the surrounding boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory acuity improves </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sleep <ul><li>Problems in Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>20% - 30% have difficulty getting to sleep </li></ul><ul><li>May wake up & call parents for comfort </li></ul><ul><li>10% - 50% have nightmares </li></ul><ul><li>Repeated nightmares can cause anxiety even in the waking hours </li></ul><ul><li>1% - 5% have night terrors </li></ul><ul><li>Waking in a state of panic with no nightmare </li></ul><ul><li>Not easily comforted </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t recall in the morning </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nutrition <ul><li>Eating the Right Foods </li></ul><ul><li>Growth rate is slower than in infancy </li></ul><ul><li>Need less food to maintain growth </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging the child to eat more than they seem to want can lead to obesity (more than 20% above average weight for height) </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood obesity increased significantly since the mid-1980s </li></ul>
  9. 9. Minor Illnesses <ul><li>Preschooler’s Illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Average preschooler age 3 to 5 has 7 – 10 colds & other minor respiratory illnesses per year </li></ul><ul><li>Build up an immunity to more severe illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Learns to cope with illnesses later </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to understand others’ illnesses </li></ul>
  10. 10. Major Illnesses <ul><li>Cancer & AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer is most frequent major illness: Leukemia </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS causes social problems due to avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional Illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing number of children are being treated with drugs: antidepressants & stimulants </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly due to wanting a quick fix </li></ul>
  11. 11. Injuries <ul><li>Accidents are the Greatest Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Due to level of physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Boys are more active than girls & take more risks </li></ul><ul><li>More accidents in poorer areas </li></ul><ul><li>Lead Poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Tiny amounts of lead can be very harmful </li></ul><ul><li>Linked to lower IQ, verbal & auditory problems, hyperactivity & distractibility </li></ul>
  12. 12. Child Abuse <ul><li>Physical Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>1800+ killed every year </li></ul><ul><li>140,000+ injured </li></ul><ul><li>3 million + are victims </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Fussy, resistant to control, not readily adaptable to new situations </li></ul><ul><li>The children have more headaches & stomachaches, bedwetting, anxiety, & have developmental delays </li></ul>
  13. 13. Child Abuse <ul><li>Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Vague separation between permissible & impermissible forms of physical punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy of childcare in Western society </li></ul><ul><li>Unrealistic expectations of the child’s abilities & failing to meet them </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle of abuse hypothesis: Abused & neglected children become abusing adults </li></ul><ul><li>Not always true </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological maltreatment: When parents harm a child’s behavioral, cognitive, or physical functioning via overt behavior or neglect </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences are low self-esteem, lying, misbehavior, underachievement, & criminal behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Causes permanent changes in the brain: reduces the size of the amygdala & hippocampus; can lead to overexcitation of the limbic system leading to emotional regulation & memory problems </li></ul>
  14. 14. Overcoming the Odds <ul><li>Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to overcome circumstances that place a child at high risk for psychological or physical damage </li></ul><ul><li>Temperament: </li></ul><ul><li>Affectionate, easy-going, & good natured, he or she elicits nurturance from others </li></ul><ul><li>In older children they are socially pleasant, outgoing, independent, relatively intelligent, feel they shape their future, & have good communication skills </li></ul>
  15. 15. Motor Development <ul><li>Gross Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in gross motor skills related to brain development & myelination of neurons in areas related to balance & coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Boys overall motor activity level higher than girls: jump higher & throw a ball better </li></ul><ul><li>Girls better in coordination of arms & legs & balancing & coordinated exercises </li></ul><ul><li>Fine Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Develop with gross motor skills but require practice </li></ul>
  16. 16. Toilet Training <ul><li>Readiness </li></ul><ul><li>The flexible approach: </li></ul><ul><li>Wait until the child shows signs of readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Signs include: </li></ul><ul><li>Staying dry for at least 2 hours or waking up dry after a nap; saying he or she has to go; the ability to follow simple directions; the ability to get to the bathroom & undress alone; discomfort with soiled diapers; asking to use the toilet or potty chair; the desire to wear underwear </li></ul>
  17. 17. Handedness <ul><li>Preference by the End of Preschool </li></ul><ul><li>By age 5 there’s a clear tendency to use one hand over the other </li></ul><ul><li>Today children are not forced to use the right hand </li></ul>
  18. 18. Art <ul><li>Art is Important in Developing Fine Motor Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s art proceeds through 3 stages: </li></ul><ul><li>Scribbling </li></ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Pictoral </li></ul>